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Full text of "The teaching of "domestic science" in the United States of America"

BOARD OF EDUCATION. 



SPECIAL REPORTS 

ON 

EDUCATIONAL SUBJECTS. 

VOLUME 15. 



SCHOOL TRAINING FOR THE HOME DUTIES OF WOMEN. 

PART I. 

THE TEACHING OF "DOMESTIC SCIENCE" IN THE UNITED STATES 

OF ami:rica. 

IPrescntet) to botb Ibouscs of pavUanient Command of "^ns /iftajests. 




LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 
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I 



BOARD OF EDUCATION. 



SPECIAL REPORTS 



ON 



EDUCATIONAL SUBJECTS. 



VOLUME 15. 



SCHOOL TRAINING FOE THE HOME DUTIES OF WOMEN. 



PART I. 

THE TEACHING OF ''DOMESTIC SCIENCE" IN THE UNITED STATES 

OF AMERICA. 



IPresenteD to botb Ibouses of iparliament ConimanD of 1bl6 /Iftajc6tg. 



J > J J , , 




LONDON: ^ • 
PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 
BY WYMAN & SONS, LIMITED, FETTER LANE, E.C. 



And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from r i 
WYMAN AND SONS, Ltd., Fetter Lane, E.C. ; and 

32, Abingdon Street, Westminster, S.W. ; or ^ \ \ 

OLIVER AND BOYD, Edinburgh : or \ ^ ^ , 

E. PONSONBY, 116, Grafton Street, Dublin. ^ / ut 

1905. 



[Cd. 2498.] Price Is. 9d 



Ill 



Prefatory Note to Volume 15 

OF 

Special Reports on Educational Subjects. 



The following Report was prepared by Miss Ravenhill as the 
result of an investigation made by her at the joint request of the 
Board of Education, the West Riding County Council and the 
Royal Sanitary Institute. Reports upon certain aspects of her 
inquiries have already been presented to the West Riding County 
Council and the Royal Sanitary Institute, whilst the present 
volume contains the Report prepared by her for the Board of 
Education. Miss Ravenhill's paper was, with the exception of 
the Index, to all intents and purposes ready for publication in 
June, 1903, but in the autumn of that year, when the plans for 
the issue of a series of papers dealing with School Training for 
the Home Duties of Women, Avhich had been laid by Mr. Sadler, 
came to be considered in detail, it was found necessary for 
various reasons to delay the preparation and publication of reports 
dealing with the work being done in this country. The results of 
investigation showed that, until the new Local Education 
Authorities had found more opportunity to organise this 
part of their work by the introduction of more systematised 
methods than have hitherto been possible, it would be wise 
to postpone any review in published form. On the other 
hand the absence of any material relating to certain European 
countries which devote special attention to the teaching 
of Domestic Economy rendered delay in the publication of a 
volume dealing with foreign countries inevitable. The inten- 
tion was, therefore, to await the completion of reports from 
these countries before issuing any of the material which had 
been collected, but the increasing attention drawn to all matters 
affecting the health and Avell- being of the individual and the 
family, which has resulted from the Report of the Inter- depart- 
mental Committee on Physical Deterioration and the action of 
influential organisations which represented educational opinion 
of various kinds, have made it seem desirable to publish as 
much of the information as possible immediately, The lines of 
development in the United States of America have been national 
and little affected by the continental conditions of the Old 

6490. 3000-Wt. 1654. 4/05. Wy. & S. 642/-. a 



iv 

World, so that there was less reason here for grouping Miss 
Ravenhill's Report with the other foreign material. Hence its 
issue as Part I. of the Series. 

It must be understood that, as in the case of previous Special 
Reports issued by the Board of Education, the Board do not 
make themselves responsible for the terms employed nor for the 
opinions expressed in the Report — such responsibility resting 
entirely with the Author. 

The Board desire to take this opportunity of expressing their 
thanks to the many officials and teachers who, by their willing- 
courtesy, aided Miss Ravenhill in collecting the materials for 
this Report ; they also wish to place on re(3ord their indebtedness 
for the loan of the blocks from which the various plans inserted 
in this volume have been printed. 

Otlice of Special Inquiries and Reports. 
May, 1905. 



THE TEACHING OF " DOMESTIC SCIENCE 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES OF AMEEICA. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Inteoduction. 

Page 



A. — Scheme OF Public Education - 1 

B. — History and Development of Domestic Science Teaching. - 8 

Part I. — State Institutions. 

A. — Grade (Primary and Grammar) Schools 23 

1. — Cookery 23 

Length of Cours3 and Methods of Teaching ; Equipment ; etc. 24 
Typical Courses :—{a) New York City ; (h) Toledo ; (c) Phila- 
delphia ; (d) Washington, D.C. ' 31 

Cost of Classes 42 

2. — Needlework 43 

Methods of Teaching and Length of Course - ... 44 
Specimen Courses : — (a) Brookline, Mass. ; (h) Boston ; (r) 

Cleveland, Ohio ; (d) Philadelphia ; (e) Washington - 46 

3. — Housewifery - - - 50 

Method of Teaching Housewifery in Cookery Lessons - - 50 

4. — Hygiene 52 

An obligatory Subject ; Attitude of Teachers ; Methods of 

Teaching 52 

Typical Courses: — (a) Hyannis, Mass.; (6) Cleveland, Ohio; 
(c) Lynn, Mass. ; (d) Massachusetts ; (e) Washington, 

D.C. ; (/) Philadelphia 5G 

The Care of Young Children - - - - - -71 

B. — High Schools 72 

Scopeand Value of Domestic Sfciv^ncc Courses - - - 73 
Typical Domestic Science Courses : — (a) Brookline, Mass.; (/;) 
Providence, R.L ; (c) Hackley ; {d) Toledo ; (e) Ann 

Arbor 75 

Physiology and Hygiene Courses : — (a) Detroit ; (6) New 

YorkOity , . . 94 



vi 



Page 

C. — Colleges 100 

History and Dovclopment 100 

Province and History of Courses in Household Science - - 105 
Typical Courses in Household Science : — (a) State University 
of Illinois ; (&) Ohio State University ; (c) Michigan State 

Agricultural College 107 

Courses in Hygiene : — {a) Michigan State University ; (h) State 

University of Indiana 121 

D. — Normal Schools 125 

Framingham State Normal School Course in Household Arts - 125 

Sewing and Cooking Courses 134 

Physiology and Hygiene Courses - {^^) Salem, Mass. ; (6) 

' Hyannis, Mass. - - 135 

Part II. — Private Institutions. 

A. — Kindergartens, Primary and Grammar Schools - - - 142 

Domestic Science and Arts at the University of Chicago Ex- 
perimental Schools : — (a) Elementary School ; (h) School 
of Education 143 

B. - -High Schools - - - - 153 

Typical Domestic Science Courses : — (a) Pratt Institute, 
Brooklyn, N.Y. ; (6) Indianapolis ; (c) Detroit ; {d) 
Boston - - - - • 153 

Hygiene and Physiology Courses : — Horace Mann School, 

N.Y.C. 164 

C. — Institutions for Training Teachers in Domestic Science - 166 

Training of Teachers in Household Science and Art : — (a) The 
Oread Institute ; (&) Boston Cooking School ; (c) Lake 
Erie College for Women 166 

Training of Teachers in Physical Culture and Hygiene : — 
Boston Normal School of Gymnastics - - - - 175 

D. — Technical Institutes 180 

Typical Courses in Domestic Science and Hygiene : — (a) Brad- 
ley Institute Peoria, 111. ; (&) Eastman Mechanics' 
Institute, Rochester, N.Y.; (c) Lewis Institute, Chicago ; 
{d) Institute of Arts and Sciences, Brooklyn, N.Y. ; (e) 
Massachus3tts Institute of Technology, Boston - - 180 

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y. : — (a) Domestic Art Courses ; 

(6) Domestic Science Courses 189 

Drexel Institute, Philadelphia : — (a) Domestic Science 
Courses ; (b) Domestic Art Courses ; (c) Junior Course in 
Domestic Science and Art 207 

E. — Women's Colleges 216 

Courses in Hygiene and Household Economics : — (a) Vassar 
College ; (6) Wellesley College ; (c) Simmons Female 
College, Boston 216 

The School of Housekeeping, Boston 220 

F. — Universities - - - - 221 

University of Chicago : — Courses in Household Teohnology,eto. 221 
Teachers College, Columbia University, New York : — (a) 

Course in Domestic Art ; (/>) Course in Domestic Science- 225 



vii 



Part III. — Social Agencies for the Promotion of 
Domestic Science Teaching. 

Pa^e 

A. — Women's Clubs 230 

Specimen organisations for promoting Domestic Science 
Teaching : — (a) Illinois Association of Domestic Science ; 
(&) Sanitary Science Club of the Association of College 
Alumnae ; (c) National Household Economic Association ; 
(d) The Women's Institute, Yonkers, N. Y. ; (e) The Civic 
League ; {/) Women's Educational and Industrial 
Union 237 

B. — Philanthropic Agencies 241 

Examples of Household and Sanitary Science Courses : — (a) 
Indianapolis Kindergarten and Domestic Training 
Schools; (&) Y.W.C.A. School of Domestic Science, 
Boston ; (c' The Louisa M. Alcott Club, Boston ; (d) Free 
Lectures : (e) People's University Extension Society, 
N.Y.C. ; (/) University Settlements ; (g) Vacation Schools 241 

C— Summer Schools 247 

Typical Domestic Science Courses : — (a) Chautauqua School 
of Dome«itic Science ; (6) Chicago University ; (c) Chicago 
University School of Education .... - 247 

D. — University Extension 249 

Illustrations of System of Instruction in Domestic Science 
Subjects : — (a) New York State Travelling Library ; (b) 
Cornell University Reading Courses ... - 249 

E. — The Domestic Service Problem 250 

Summary of Enquiry. 

Scope of Enquiry ; Extent of Domestic Science and Hygiene 
Teaching ; Methods ; Trainuig of Teachers in Domestic 
Science; etc., etc. 262 

Appendices. 

A. — Equipment for Grade School Cookery Courses ... - 286 

B. — State Manual Training High School, Providence, R.I., Domestic 

Science Course 289 

C. — Equipment for High School Course in Dressmaking and Laundry 

Work '-293 

D. — Household Science Courses in Boston High Schools - - - 296 

E. — Course in Home Dressmaking, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y. • 298 

F. — Courses of Domestic Science and Art at Drext'l Institute - - 299 

G. — School of Housekeeping Boston. Synopsis of Course - - - 314 

H. — Teachers College Columbia University. Courses in Household Art 

and Chemistry 317 

J. — Chautauqua School of Domestic Science 319 

K. — Cornell University College of Agriculture. Farmers' Wives' Read- 
ing Club - - 321 

L. — University of the State of New York, Albany, Home Education 

Department. Home Economics Syllabus * - - - - 322 



Index 



337 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 

I. Hor.seslloe and Group arrangement of Cooking Tables - - 27 
II. Plan of Continuous Cooking Table 28 

III. Detail of Continuous Cooking Table 28 

IV. Plan of Model School Kitchen ... - To face 28 

V. Cake Diagram - - - - 158 

VI. Eastman's Buildings. Mechanics' Institute, Rochester, New 

York - To face 182 

VIL Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York, Plan of Domestic 

Science Department ----- - - 199 

VIII. Working Drawing of Cooking Table, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 

New York - . - _ 271 



THE TEACHING OF "DOMESTIC SCIENCE" IN THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



Introduction. 

A, — Scheme of Public Education. 

One essential to the acquirement of a i intelligent knowledge 
of the scope, methods and ultimate value of any special course 
of study carried on in the schools of a country is a clear compre- 
hension of its educational system. In the case of the United 
States this process is considerably facilitated by the general 
adoption of one broad, basic principle, viz., the provision through- 
out the country, from public funds, of a system of free education 
in all grades, from Kindergarten to University; merely nominal 
fees being exacted for text-books and laboratory equipment. 
President Draper, of the State University of Illinois, refers in 
one of his luminous and suggestive addresses to the public 
school system of the United States as the one institution more 
completely representative of the American plan, spirit and 
purpose than any other in existence." Limits of space permit 
only of a very brief resume of this comprehensive system, but 
some of its most salient features have been selected for presenta- 
tion. The whole may be grouped under six divisions : — 

1. Kindergartens, open to children from 8 to 7 years of age, 
where attendance is voluntary. 

2. and 3. Primary and Grammar Schools, the curricula of 
which cover the ages of compulsory school attendance (variable 
in the different States), usually from 7 or 8 to 12 or 14 years of 

4. High, or Secondary, Schools, offering a four-years' course, 
for pupils from 14 to 18. (Provision for evening classes is 
usually made in all city Grammar and High Schools.) 

5. Colleges (State, Agricultural, Normal, etc.), attended by 
students from 18 to 22. 

6. Universities, for post graduate courses. 

That part of the system usually described as Public consists Grade 
of three or four grades of schools, known as Primary, Grammar Schools, 
and High, or as Primary, Intermediate, Grammar and High. 
These grades of schools are distinguished from one another by 
the topics and methods introduced into their courses of study, 
and by the kind of mental activity required in pursuing them. 
In Primary, Intermediate, and Grammar Schools (which are 
very generally grouped under the denomination " Grade Schools "), 
the curriculum usually includes reading, writing, arithmetic, 
o-eography, history, physiology and hygiene, drawing, nature 
study and physical culture. In the more advanced educational ][igii 
institutions the " elective" system in force permits selection from Scliools. 
a wider range of subjects, while actually reducing the number 
included in the particular course selected by the individual 
student. The majority of High Schools provide six or seven 
alternative courses ; these include a good " all round " general 
0490. A 



2 



U.S.A. — Scheme of Public Education. 



course, a classical, a scientific, a commercial course, and so 
forth. High Schools especially for " manual training " (me- 
chanics, engineering, the domestic sciences, etc.) are provided 
in most cities, and take equal rank with those whose special aim 
is the preparation of pupils for college. The manual training 
courses include modern languages, literature, history and geo- 
graphy, in addition to the study of chemistry, physics, drawing, 
etc., with the direct object of developing breadth of view and 
well-balanced minds in their students. The High School move- 
ment is growing with enormous rapidity at the present time. 
Private In addition to this general provision for the education of the 

Schools. people, in which the nation believes enthusiastically, a certain 
number of private schools (kindergarten, grammar, high, com- 
mercial, art, industrial, professional, denominational) are to be 
found in large cities, such as INewYork, Boston, Chicago and 
Detroit. In these the courses are practically identical with 
those in the public schools, but the demands of social caste are 
considered and secured by the exaction of fees. 
State State Agricultural Colleges are the outcome of a general 

Agnciiltural intellectual and industrial advance which widely affected public 
«ses. sentiment in the United States about half a century ago, from 
which arose a demand for a new class of institution to be 
entirely devoted to scientific and technical education. Some 
efforts were made to supply this demand by private enterprise, 
but the people soon grasped the advantage which would result 
from the organisation and maintenance of these new institu- 
tions under State or national patronage ; consequently the Bill, 
introduced into the House of Representatives in*^ 1857 by 
Mr. Morrill, for the purpose of donating public lands to the 
several states and territories, received sufficient support to be 
passed in 1862. This Act secured "the endowment, support, 
and maintenance of at least one college in each State, where 
the leading objects shall be, without including other scientific 
and classical studies, to teach such branches of learning as are 
related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner 
as the legislature ot the States may respectively prescribe, in 
order to promote the liberal and practical education of the 
industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in 
life." This great work has given free tuition to thousands 
of students, who have by this means been enabled to bring 
trained minds to the development of industries, and to utilise 
scientific facts and principles for their advancement. Under 
the provisions^ of the Morrill Acts, 64 State Colleges are now 
in operation in the several states and territories. They may- 
be divided into three classes: — Colleges which have courses, 
in agriculture only ; Colleges which have courses in agriculture> 
together with others in a variety of subjects, including specially, 
mechanic arts; and, thirdly. Colleges, or Schools, or Depart- 
ments of Agriculture which form a part of universities. Their 
organisations are so wisely varied to meet the needs of local 
environment, that no one institution will serve as a type for 
all, but a representative university of this kind briefly describes 



Classification of Educational Institutions. 



3 



itself in its publications as "simply the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 
16th Grades of the State System of Public Free Education"; 
it considers itself to be related to the High schools just as 
they, in turn, are related to the Grades, and sets forth that 
it should be as natural for a pupil to look forward from the 
High school to the University as from the 8th Grade to the 
High school. The prevalent aim in these colleges is to give 
to the young people of both sexes the largest possible oppor- 
tunity for both general and special training to prepare them 
for life; and to touch, in a practical and helpful way, every 
interest in the State. Admission to them has been hitherto 
on very easy terras; candidates are required to be 16 years 
of age, and can frequently matriculate on the strength of a 
High school certilicate; but the whole standard of entrance 
requirements is likely to be considerably influenced in future, 
and undoubtedly will be raised, by the action of the recently 
formed College Entrance Examination Board. 

The first Kormal schools in the United States were founded Xornxal 
in 1839. They, too, were an outgrowth of the national interest Schools, 
in popular education, particularly after German influence began 
to be felt; at first they were the joint product of private 
and public liberalit}^ ; very soon, however, a considerable number 
became incorporated into the State system of public instruction. 
State or Municipal Governments now support upwards of 160, 
but this by no means represents the sources of supply for 
teachers in the States, as there are in addition, at least 178 
rivate Normal schools ; only about one-fourth as many students, 
owever, graduate annually from these as from the institutions 
supported by public funds. 

The generosity of wealthy citizens is the source from which Technical 
have sprung the magnificent, richly-endowed, Technical Insti- Instituta^. 
tutes, which exert a perceptible influence to-day upon the 
social and industrial life of the United States. The Pratt 
Institute at Brooklyn, N.Y., the Drexel Institute at Phila- 
delphia, the Eastman Institute at Rochester, the Lewis and 
Armour Institutes at Chicago, and many more, are afllbrding 
opportunities to the ambitiouS; stinuilating the laggard, and 
raising the tone and standard of student and professor through- 
out the country. The activity of these great independent 
educational centres "sets the pace" for institutions subject to 
state and municipal control ; mdeed, each derives benefit from 
the somewhat diverse methods adopted by its compeers to 
-attain a common end. 

To private munificence also is due, wholly or in part, the Universities, 
existence and endowment of some of the leading Universities, 
such as Columbia University, New York City, the University 
of Chicago, the Leland Stanford Junior University, California, 
and others. It is, perhaps, superfluous to draw attention to the 
adaptation to national needs of these as of all other parts 
of the educational system ; but it is allowable to recall what 
Dr. W. T. Harris brings out in his monograph on " Elementary 
Education," prepared fm- the United States Educational Kxhibit 

«U9(». A 'J 



4 



U.S.A. — Scheme of Public Education. 



('o-educa- 
tion. 



Sources of 

Financial 

Support. 



National 
Bureau of 
Education . 



Compulsory 
Attendance. 



at the Paris Exhibition, 1900, that "American universities ex- 
hibit only a portion of what, in Europe, is thought necessary to 
the constitution of a complete university, viz., the traditional 
four Eaculties of Theology, Law, Medicine, and Philosophy," 
because, " although all four may be in existence, they are 
not all organised and demonstrated on the same plane : but, 
(m the other hand, they include elements which, m Europe, 
are strongly marked off from universities, viz., technical schools 
and undergraduate schools." On this account the formation 
of new colleges and departments is effected with facility, and 
their curriculum is extended to include subjects unrecognised 
in such connections in Europe. 

Co-education is the general practice throughout the whole 
educational system, though a few cities report separation of the 
sexes in High schools ; and a very small minority report separate 
classes for boys and girls in some Grade schools. From the 
statistics published in 1900-1 by the National Commissioner 
of Education, it would appear that in about two-thirds of the 
total number of private schools reporting to the National 
Bureau at Washington, and in 65 per cent, of the colleges and 
universities, co-education is the policy ; the advantages of the 
method preponderate so conclusively that reference to occasion- 
ally recorded disadvantages is rarely made. 

The national school system is supported wholly by taxation, 
imposed by each State or city, an appropriation for purposes of 
education being made from the genera 1 fund. The Federal 
Government has never exercised any official control over the 
public educational work of the country, but it has always shown 
its intimate interest by generous gifts to education in the form 
of land rights from the public domain : and its moral influence 
is wide reaching through the Bureau of Education at Washing- 
ton. This Government Department was organised for the 
purpose of gathering the fullest information from the whole 
educational world, at home and abroad, and for its gratuitous 
dissemination to all interested therein ; when the Bureau is 
under the direction of such a master mind as that of the present 
National Commissioner of Education, Dr. W. T. Harris, the 
extent of this influence for good is well nigh incalculable. 

Attendance is compulsory, either at a public or approved 
private school, in thirty States, one Territory, and the District of 
Columbia; the most general obligatory period is from 8 to 
14 years of age. Though the length of the nominal school 
year is about 200 days, statistics show that the average is con- 
siderably lower, amounting to not much more than 140. This 
is accounted for by the fact that, in rural districts, in order to 
facilitate agricultural operations, it is still a common practice 
to open the schools during the winter only, when, owing to 
difficulties of transit and bad weather, the regular attendance 
is much interfered with; thus the '^average" length of the 
school year for the whole school population is very materially 
diminished. Laws whieh absolutely prohibit the employment 



Notes on Organisation. 



of children under a specified limit of age, in mercantile or manu- 
facturing establishments, are in force and enforced in several 
States. 

The Local Boards which have the management of the schools Boards of 
are generally termed " Boards of Education," and form depart- Education, 
mejits of the State or city government. (In townships and 
districts the desio^nations most generally used are School 
Directors or School Trustees. A township usually signifies six 
square miles of land, quite irrespective of the population, which 
may be numerous or nil ; so many townships constitute a county, 
so many counties form a State.) These Boards are corporate 
bodies, and are empowered to make contracts ; to acquire, hold, 
and dispose of property; to employ teachers and fix their 
salaries ; to make the rules and reguJations for schools, and to 
fix the course of study and the list of text-books to be used. 

The following notes on the typical organisation of a city Oruani 
school system will serve to explain allusions in the text of this ^ition ()t 
Report. Each Board of Education, created by law, is, in the 
majority of instances, elected by the people, though some im-' ''' 
portant cities constitute exceptions to this rule of popular 
control ; in these cases the members of the Board are nominated 
by the Mayor, or by the City Council, or even by the city judges, 
as at Philadelphia. The members serve gratuitously, and have 
full powers to establish, maintain, and control free public 
schools for all children of school age within the limits of the 
city, township, county, or State. In most cities the teachers are 
appointed by a committee of the Board ; to an increasing 
extent they are required to be graduates of the city or county 
Normal School, or of an institution of equal or higher grade, 
i.e., they nuTst have received definite training in the art of teach- 
ing. Annual estimates of the disbursements anticipated during 
the coming year must be made and submitted to the City 
Council. That body appropriates such varying sums of money 
for the purposes named in the estimates as they think proper, 
in view of all the other claims on the city's funds. Once 
appropriated, all such money is controlled by the Board of 
Education. Each Board has two principal executive officers, 
a secretary and a superintendent. The latter is expected to be 
an experienced educator, well versed in school management and 
a student of pedagogy on its philosophical side, he should ako 
possess good administrative ability ; the course of study adopted 
IS, to a great extent, framed by the suporiiitendent, and usually 
embodies his ideas. There are county superintendents of rural 
or township schools in about thirty-five States. In thirteen of 
these they are elected by the people, in the remainder they are 
appointed! by certain state or county officers, or are chosen by 
the combined vote of the School Board. In addition, each State 
has a Superintendent of Public Instruction ; he is variously 
described as Superintendent of Common Schools, of Public 
Schools, of Education, or as Commissioner of Public Schools. Functions 

It must be always borne in mind that the central Government <,f (Central 
of the United States exercises remote authority over the public ( Joveniment, 



6 



U.S.A. — Scheme of Public Education. 



Develop- 
ment of 
Grade 
School 
Curricuhim 
in Massa- 
chusetts. 



Education 
as a Social 
Institution. 



schools, and has never attempted any control over education in 
the several States, though it has aided them by donations of 
land, and, in some cases, of money. 

A sketch of the progressive development of the Grade school 
programme in one State will best indicate the gradual expansion 
of the nation's educational ideals, and the influence exerted on 
})ablic bodies by private initiative, when based on sound 
^jL-inciples. The statutes of the State of Massachusetts require 
that in all the "common" schools, instruction be given in 
orthography, reading, writing, English language and grammar, 
geography, arithmetic, drawing, history of the United States, 
physiology and hygiene, and manual training. In cities and 
towns which have a population of more than 20,000, the same 
statutes authorise instruction, at the discretion of the school 
committees, in the following additional subjects : book-keeping, 
algebra, geometry, one or more of the foreign languages, the 
elements of natural science, kindergarten training, agriculture, 
sewing, cooking, vocal music, physical training, civil government 
and ethics. Thus to the reading and writing of the original 
colonial schools of Massachusetts have been added, in the 
following order : English grammar, spelling and arithmetic, in 
1789; geography in 1826; history of the United States in 1857; 
music (optional) in 1860; drawing in 1870; sewing (optional) 
in 1876 ; physiology and hygiene in 1885 ; manual training in 
1898. Several of these subjects were at Hvst allowed and later 
required. Physiology, for instance, was allotvedm 1S50, required. 
in 1885 ; drawing was allowed in 1860, required in 1870 ; manual 
training was allowed in 1884, required in 1898. The causes 
and the forces behind all this enlargement have been largely 
sociological, to a much less degree pedagogical. It is most 
significant that the original petition to the legislature in 1869 
for compulsory instruction m industrial drawing was signed 
exclusively by business men, leaders in the great industries of 
the Commonwealth. They declared that for the United States 
to maintain its standard as a manufacturing nation drawing was 
an " essential " in elementary education. For similar utilitarian 
reasons manual training was introduced. Of the authorised 
subjects, several have been forced into the front rank of 
" essentials " by modern social conditions ; this is specially true 
of sewing, cooking, physical training and elementary science ; 
the last under the modern title " Nature Study " has very 
strong claims, and is now often utilised as an introduction to the 
science of home life as well as to physiology. 

This outline, necessarily incomplete, endorses the assertion 
that " the present elementary school course in the United States 
is not a miscellaneous collection of subjects brought together by 
the chance efforts of enthusiasts, but a conscious and intelligent 
effort of the people to frame a scheme of elementary instruction 
and training adapted to the changing conditions of social life. 
It is wisely recognised that when the Legislature decrees a 
certain subject shall be taught in all the schools, it does not by 
that Act say that it shall be taught to each pupil ; the principle 



Educational Influences at Work. 



1 



of universal opportunity is the educational watchword." Dr. 
Murray Butler recently expressed this spirit in terms so suitable 
and explicit that their quotation from the " Educational Review " 
for May 1900 will best enforce the point. " Education, conceived 
as a social institution, is now being studied in the United States 
more widely and more energetically than ever before. The 
Chairs of education in the great universities are the natural 
leaders in this movement. It is carried on also in normal 
schools, in teachers' training classes, and in countless voluntary 
associations and clubs in every part of the country. Problems 
of organisation and administration, of educational theory, of 
practical procedure in teaching, of child nature, of hygiene and 
sanitation, are engaging attention everywhere. Herein lies the 
promise of great advances in the future. Enthusiasm, earnest- 
ness, and scientific method are all applied to the study of 
education in a way which makes it certain that the results will 
be fruitful. The future of democracy is bound up with the 
future of education." 

Of the moulding influences at work on the great State system Influence of 
none is more powerful for good than the National Educational National 
Association, which numbers its members by thousands, and is ^fj^^^ktion^ 
guided by some of the most gifted as well as most experienced 
educational leaders in the States. The bulky records of its 
annual meetings contain a mass of experience and suggestion 
combined with full recognition of the dignity and responsibility 
of teachers, and constitute a useful record of the worth of 
teaching ideals and of improved practice. Of the numerous 
organisations employed in the education of public opinion few 
can compete with this potent, wisely regulated force ; though to 
University Extension lectures, Summer Schools and other culture 
agencies may be attributed a part of the prevalent public 
sympathy with, and respect for, the profession of teaching which 
prevails over a large part of the United States. 

Under such circumstances it is conceivable that rational and 
universal education is looked upon by the American people as 
an element of national as well as of social strength ; and that 
the public mind is set upon utilising a well-balanced school 
curriculum as a factor in the attainment of that high standard 
of prosperous life to which the nation aspires. 

In the United States, as in Great Britain, detailed conceptions The School 
of the best methods to follow in the scheming of a school and the 
programme are almost as numerous as the individuals who Home, 
concern themselves with the question in any of its aspects ; but, 
emerging from this sea of opinions, are a few prominent 
personalities, whose freedom from prejudices or party spirit, 
scientific bases for their convictions, and courageous perseverance 
in fac3 of obstacles and apparent failure, secure a fair trial for 
their systems, and influence gradually the educational spirit and 
practice of their country. Of these one of the most notable is 
Dr. John Dewey of Chicago University, who has drawn public 
attention to two " tragic " weaknesses in the old school system 
where, in his opinion, social spirit was wanting, being replaced 



8 U.S.A. — iJevelopnient of Domestic Science Teaching. 



Edacatioiial 

versus 

utilitarian 

value ol" 

J3omestic 

Science 

Teaching. 



by " that mediseval misconception which limited learning to 
books." By precept and undaunted practice, Dr. Dewey 
impresses on those who have ears to hear and eyes to see that 
" the ideal school should reproduce systematically, and in a large, 
intelligent, and competent way, what in most households is done 
only in a comparatively meagre and haphazard manner;" while 
he maintains that " the root question of education is that of 
taking hold of a child's activities, of giving them direction, and 
of so training them as to produce valuable results." 

B. — History and Development of Domestic Science 
Teaching. 

It seemed to me that these two broad generalisations constitute 
to-day the chief motive forces at work in the organisation of the 
best Domestic Science teaching in the United States. The 
original purely utilitarian spirit which led to its introduction is 
now somewhat adversely criticised and often strongly resisted ; 
while the undoubted pedagogical and sociological value of the 
subject is emphasised and evidenced under the auspices of its 
ablest expouents. But though the end is not yet (for the 
finest courses are admittedly tentative, and those responsible for 
them are only " feeling their way," and buying their experience 
often at a high price) encouragement is not absent ; men and 
women of many interests and of diverse callings are giving in their 
adherence to the belief that on pedagogical and sociological as 
well as on utilitarian and economical grounds, Domestic Science, 
under one or other of its designations, deserves, and nuist 
eventually find, a place in the well-balanced curriculum of all 
grades of educational institutions. For a small proportion of the 
population, or even of its responsible directing units, ro reach 
this conclusion has demanded time, as is demonstrated by the 
following brief sketch of the growth of the movement. 

On both sides of the Atlantic the term Domestic Science is 
still limited by a surprisuig number of people to the two 
subjects of cooking and sewing. The scope is nevertheless usually 
extended sufficiently to include an introduction to the elements 
of personal hygiene and house sanitation; and, in England, 
laundry work frequently comes under the same head. In the 
greater number of the States, this latter subject is very rarely 
included in any elementary school Domestic Economy curriculum, 
though it is being gradually introduced into Household Science 
courses in the High schools and colleges. In the first instance, 
the utilitarian aspect of Domestic Science alone was that con- 
sidered in America ; those who pressed its introduction into the 
schools were stimulated by a realisation of the deficiencies ap- 
parent in home management and experienced a sense of dismay at 
the evils to the community which result from this ignorance. 
A quarter of a century ago education was still defined as 
" the preparation for life," instead of being recognised, as 
it is now, as co-extensive with life ; so, as this period of 
preparation was limited for a large proportion'of the population, 
the desirability of including a practical knowledge the Domestic 



Introduction of Domestic Science Teaching. 



Arts in the Grade school programme seemed urgent, and 
led to the persevering efforts of private individuals which 
culminated in the adoption of cooking and sewing in the 
grammar schools of a few cities. 

Almost without exception the existing recognition of the value Intro- 
of Domestic Science as a school subject, utilitarian or educational, duction of 
is owing, in the first instance, to private enterprise, but before J^omestic 
educational authorities would permit the introduction of the 'p^^j^^hino- 
subject into schools, cookery lessons were given to public school (i^g to 
children, from 1876 onwards, under the auspices of the Young l^rivate 
Women's Christian Association, and other philanthropic bodies. Knteiin ise. 
The children of the poorest classes were those gathered in by 
these benevolent individuals ; they were first instructed in the 
elements of needlework ; simple training in housewifery under 
the name of " kitchen gardening"* followed, succeeded later on 
by lessons in plain cooking. 

Sewing was adopted tirst in the public schools of Boston, which Intro- 
led the way in this matter, about 1840, though little was done duction iuid 
until 1865, when a lady furnished the materials for the children's development 
work and defrayed the expenses of a seamstress and of a dress- Jp^.^chino- 
maker, each of whom was engaged to teach an advanced class of :— ^ 
for half a day a week in the (lifferent schools. Eight years later (a) Sewing, 
a teacher was appointed to give her whole time to this work, and 
received an equal compensation with the regular teachers ; in 
1875 the iruportant step was taken of appointing a special 
committee to supervise sewing in the schools throughout the 
whole city. At this promising moment the hopes of those 
interested were apparently doomed to disappointment, for the 
solicitor of the City Board of Education reported that it was 
illegal to spend public money for this purpose. Again private 
enterprise came to the rescue, and for the next twelve months the 
work was carried on entirely by private funds, until the legisla- 
ture had passed a law authorising instruction in sewing in the 
public schools. To the present day, however, sewing is far from 
universally taught in the grade schools of the United States : 
and in quite a number of those where it is now found, it has 
been regularly introduced only within the last four or five years. 

The germ from which the New York Cooking School has 
since developed came into being 30 years ago, when Miss J uliet {h) Cooking. 
Corson organised cooking classes for women of all social grades ; 
public and private lessons being offered. The first public lesson 
to working women resulted in the formation of mission classes 
in cooking for children, and, about the same date, the Principal 
of Lassell's Seminary (Auburndale, Mass.) had sufficient enterprise 

*In the United States the term " kitchen gardening" signifies the training 
of children in domestic work under th(i guise of play. The utensils provided 
are in the form of toys, and each household operation is conducted on a 
scale proportioned to the size of the utensil. Small children from five years 
old and upward ai)i)ear extremely interested and ha])py wjien thus engagetl, 
but I think this method of teaching Household Science, has, in all cases, 
l)ei?n confined to private organisations ; it has never been considered 
sufficiently educational for adoption even in the kindergartens of the 
public schools. 



10 U.S.A. — Development of Domestic Science Teaching. 



to invite Miss Maria Parloa to give a course of lessons to its 
students. In 1879, this lady pioneered the first training course 
in cooking to teachers at Chautauqua Summer Schools, but the 
subject was not introduced into the public schools even of Boston 
(which has been the most progressive city in this respect) until 
1885. Philadelphia, Providence and Washington, rapidly 
followed Boston's example, and to-day cooking courses in grade 
schools are found in over fifty cities in the States, while each 
year sees an increase in this number. The introduction ot 
sewing thus apparently preceded cooking, but its development 
has followed very similar lines, and in numerous cities both 
subjects are included in the curriculum. Meanwhile Domestic 
Science, on a far broader and more thorough basis, has been 
gradually receiving recognition at the hands of High school and 
college authorities, with excellent results. These indicate the 
altered conception of the educational value of the subject since 
the first awakening of interest in Domestic Economy some 
thirty-five years ago. It was somewhat after this date that the 
advocates for early introduction to, and training in, the domestic 
arts pressed their point by calling attention to the advantages 
these offer for the exercise of manual dexterity by girls. Un- 
wittingly they made themselves responsible for the plausible 
and still current belief, that to deal with plastic materials under 
conditions where the attainment of the desired end (culti- 
vation of strict accuracy and manual dexterity) by occasional 
failure and repeated practice cannot be permitted on account of 
cost or want of time, is of equal educational worth with the 
manipulation of wood and iron carried on simultaneously by the 
boys. This misunderstanding, in conjunction with the still 
evident existence of the purely utilitarian spirit, has hampered 
true progress in the treatment of Domestic Science throughout 
a large proportion of the United States. Fortunately a power- 
ful note of progress has been sounded during the last decade, 
which has gained greatly in voliune since the concentration of 
effort resulting from the initiation, in 1899, of the Lake Placid 
Conference of Teachers of Home Economics. The directly 
educational value of the subject in schools, its great scope, its 
intimate bearing on every phase of life, is now steadily gaining 
recognition, while the field it offers for the application of 
scientific principles, rather than for the mere acquirement of 
manual dexterity, is forcibly emphasised by sound authorities. 

Three or four years ago. Prof. W. 0. Atwater (United States 
Dept. of Agriculture) made the observation that " the Science of 
Household Economics is now in what the chemists call the state 
of supersaturated solution which needs to crystallise out. Some- 
times the point of a needle will start such crystallisation." This 
needle point would seem to have been introduced by the mem- 
bers of the Lake Placid Conference when they held their first 
meeting in September, 1899. The initiators believed that the 
time was ripe for some united action on the part of those most 
interested in Home Science (or Household Economics); (1) be- 
cause of the benefit derived from wise organisation and 



Lake Placid Conference on Household Economics. 11 



co-operation ; (2) because of the growing popular feeling that the 
study of Home Science was one of the most important questions 
before the nation ; (3) because the real worth but often mistaken 
treatment of the subject demanded the direction and initiative 
of trained, enthusiastic experts. Invitations were, therefore, 
issued for a conference on this important sociological problem ; 
and the generous hospitality of the Lake Placid Club (in the 
Adirondack Mountains, New York State), was offered to, and 
accepted by, twenty or twenty-five ladies and gentlemen, earnest 
students of the subject, to whom it has been extended for the 
same purpose each successive year. The cordial recognition of 
the great services rendered to Household Science by Mrs. Ellen 
H. Richards. Professor of Sanitary Chemistry in the Massachu- 
sett's Institute of Technology, led to her unanimous election as 
chairman of the conference, a tribute to the unremitting and 
tactful efforts, which, backed by her profound scientific know- 
ledge, are responsible for a high proportion of the recent develop- 
ments in this subject, whether in the social or educational world. 

The conference devoted its first meeting to the selection of a suitable 
designation for its subject, such as should be simple and yet compre- 
hensive enough to cover sanitation, cookery, and kindred household 
sciences and arts, whether the instruction concerning them were given in 
kindergarten or college. After full discussion, the name " Home Economics " 
was agreed upon as the best title for the whole general subject. When thus 
classified as a distinct section of Economics, it can take its place 
logically in the college or university course to which its dignity, scope and 
sociological value entitle it ; restricted to the narrower conception implied by 
the title of Household Arts, the conference was of opinion that it could 
not be suitably recognised as a part of a university curriculum. Though 
Home Economics was selected as the general descriptive term, it was agreed 
that other phrases might be a'dvisedly used for subdivisions of the subject. 
Domestic Economy, for instance, might be appropriately reserved for 
lessons adapted to young pupils in kindergartens and grammar schools ; 
Domestic Science might be applied to it in high schools, where food and 
house sanitation should be studied by scientific methods, while Household 
or Home Economics appeared the title best suited for college courses. It 
was also at once emphasised that the teacher of Domestic Science and 
Household Arts should be an " all round " woman ; she should be qualified 
to bring a knowledge of many sciences and arts to bear on her work, and to 
this end a thorough practical training in each of these would be essential. 
The general opinion was in favour of intimate co-operation between special 
teachers of this subject with the other members of a school or college staff, 
and the desirability was pointed out of drawing the attention of educational 
authorities to the value of including some branches at least of Home 
Economics in school and college curricula, if only to combat the prevalent 
tendency to dissociate home life and interests from education, and thus, 
incidentally, to depreciate its dignity and influence. 

At the second annual conference, held in July, 1900, a large propoj-tion n\ Second 
of the sessions was devoted to debates on coui'ses of study ^ {ct) for public (Conference 
schools ; {h) for training teachers ; (c) for colleges and universities • {d) for 
vacation and evening schools ; (e) for university and extension teaching, as 
well as for other agencies devoted to the scientific and sociological study of 
the home. In the course of her introduction to the special subject for one 
meeting, namely, "Courses of study for the Grade schools," Mrs. Ellen H. 
Richards referred to the need of fundamental work that \nll touch tiie lives 
of all the people, and showed that, under existing conditions, the only place 
where this can be done is in the Grade Schools, where she said the aims of 
the whole course should be to develop power in children and to guide them 
in the use of this power over their own environment, food, clothing and 
shelter. The (potation of recent statistics showed that at least 40 per cent. 



12 U.S.A. — Devdopment of Domestic Science Teachinf/. 

of the pupils first enrolled drop out of school before the fifth grade ; and, 
though the National Commissioner of Education reports that "the increase 
in the number of high schools and in the number of students enrolled in 
them is something phenomenal," and highly satisfactory figures can also be 
quoted as to the growth in numbers of college students, it is but relatively 
few who as yet follow more advanced courses of study ; while, of these, the 
percentage who elect to devote definite attention dating a part of these 
precious years to any aspect of sanitation, though on the increase, is still 
modest. This opinion was not merely endorsed by this conference, but is 
shared by those responsible for the grade school course* in several important 
cities. 

With a view to discover to what extent such teaching is given in the 
elementary and secondary schools of the country, an inquiry was addressed 
during the following year to the Boards of Education of a number of cities 
by a specially appointed sub-committee. This question luiire included the 
following points : (1) topics included ; (2) syllabus of courses ; (3) grades in 
which taught ; (4) time per hour, per week, per lesson ; (5) size of classes ; 
(6) cost of equipment and material ; (1) the value attached to the subject • 
(8) the methods used to develop its value, either as manual training, applied 
science, or economics * and (9) the methods used to correlate the subject to 
others. Unfortunately only 25 replies were received, and these, in several 
instances, Avere not complete. All but one course included cooking, how- 
ever, in some form ; 13 included sanitation in part (as the care of plumbing 
and personal hygiene) ; 9 included sewing ; 10 included economics, but 
confined the subject chiefly to the economics of food supply ; few in- 
dicated appreciation of the value of time or of energy ; money value alone 
being taken into account. Even these imi)erfect returns seemed to indicate 
that the workers placed the educational value first, one alone cmi)hasised 
the utilitarian phase, though great diversity of opinion was reported as to 
the methods used to develop the value of the subject. In their discussion 
of an analysis of these returns, the conference concluded that to take 
its i)roper place in educational work, the subject of Home Economics or 
Domestic Economy must be both narrowed and broadened ; narrowed till it 
shut out much that, though useful, is not of great educational value, in that 
it has not been correlated with other branches of study ; made broader, in 
that the subject of the hygiene of the home, including foods and sanitation, 
should be so woven into the sciences and economics that it will be the 
foundation for a liberal culture. 

Another sub-committee of the same conference presented through its 
representative. Dean Marion Talbot, Professor of Sanitary Science in the 
University of Chicago, a report upon the existing courses of study related 
to Home Economics in colleges and universities ; the work of inquiry had 
been carried out by Mrs. Mary Robert Smith of Leland Stanford University. 

I Circular letters were sent to 89 different institutions, asking what they 

offered in courses on domestic science or household economics, personal 
hygiene, sanitation, nursing, bacteriology, domestic architecture, etc. 
Out of the 89, 58 reported work in one or other lines ; 13 had nothing, and 

I 18 did not reply. 

One of the concluding resolutions at this second conference has already 
borne fruit. It was resolved that " the time has come when public interest 
demands the recognition of Home Economics as a training of the child for 
efficient citizenship ; that the National Education Association be asked to 
consider and create a Department of Home Economics." This resolution 
was passed in July, 1900. In July, 1901, the Council of the National 
Educational Association included a " Round Table " of Domestic Science 
for the first time in the programme of its annual meeting. 

{(•) Third It was my pleasant privilege to attend the third annual meeting of the 

Conference. Lake Placid Conference, where the 30 invited members included teachers 
or professors in every grade of educational institution, inspectors, and the 
presidents of the most prominent social organisations for the advancement 
of Hygiene and Domestic Science. The representative character of the 
conference is apparent from the fact that its members were at wojk 
in at least 15 States, and held degrees from 15 different colleges. 



Lake Placid Confer enca on Household Economics. 



13 



The attention of the conference was concentrated chiefly on the con- Resume 
sideration of a Report, prepared by a small committee and presented by of Report on 
the Sman Miss Helen Kinn^, Professor of Domestic Science at Teaching of 
TeachS M^^^^ University. This report had occupied 3 years Household 

in its Dreimratio^ its suggestive, aseful character may be best gauged Economics, 
by : ^i^e u":^^^^^^ the following extracts While there is - J^^^^ (Third 
anpreciation of such work {i.e., the teaching of Household Economics) Conference) 
in^The c^^^^^^ as evidenced by .its introduction in nmny new pk^^^ 
there is also a sceptical attitude in the mmds ot many as to its value, a 
Sency to class it among fads, to regard it as one more ot the new 
su^^ct^'that are over-crowding the curriculum Even a^.ong su^^ 
tendents, general teachers, and parents who are f /j^^tv to thmw 
lack of formulated opinion as to its value, and a tendency to ti row 
responsibili the special teacher, and consequently there is lack ot 

' ital connS other school work. There is also, no common under- 

tandiTamon^^ teachers of the subject, and little intel igent and inter- 

ested d^fcussioS in general educational conferences. Yet statistics ^liow tha 
so-calSomestic8cience, 

more han fifty cities in the United States, m high schools and manual train- 
ng schools supported by public funds, and that it \^ ^^.^j^blished 
in?reasin- number of State agricultural colleges and universities, iheieare 

huTdSof teachers at work at good -l-i-^-^^^tf wt^" The 
technical schools are sending out more workers each year. Hence tne 
Solman who takes time to consider the situation fin/i^^^^i-se^^^^^^^^ 
by an extraordinary economic incongruity the expenditure by School B^^^^^^ 
of public funds for maintaining a subject about ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^ 
nothino- The purpose of the report is to present the whole matter to 
prSals and general teachers for discussion, by defining the su^]ect 
f^mXting a statement of its educative value, and Proposing definite 
courses ot study. It, therefore, propounds the problem ' What is Domestic 
Science and Art, or Home Economics % ' Here are various household arts, 
^iXas preparation of food, making of. garments and housf 
and keeping of things clean. In carrying on certain of these Processes, 
Da^ticularlv cooking and cleaning, we are working with forces outside our- 
LlvrandwC ask what these forces are, and how they behave, we 
diVcover that here in these matters of daily life we are applying the 
priSes of chemistry, physics and biology. In other processes such as 
sewTng weaving, and bksketry, we are dealing with form and colour, and 
so are^ipplying^the fine arts in the home. Per se, then, broadly speaking, 
our subject is one form of apphed science and art. ... 

" But home economics is more than the application of science and fine arts 
merely to the end that certain results may be correctly reached or certa n 
articles artistically made, for we must consider the place of these arts in 
?re lciaT"^^^^ ns immediately to the thought of the home 

amHts conduct ; th, home, as the place where the mchmdual u given such 
X^Jand ethical .urroundings, that he is made an etfect^ve human hei^^^^^^^^ 
tJie conduct of the home, on the material side, as the seeking to produce the 
^Zu^ udth the least expenditure of ene^-gy, material, t^^^^ f!^^^-^^^' 
Here we have reached the study of economics ; the economics of liome con- 
sumption. To sum up the whole matter, then, our subject consists of 
cSn household arts and activities, based on a number of sciences, and 
leadnig to the study of economics." 

The Report next discusses the value of the subject which it Presents 
from threJ points of view ; that of society of the individual, and o the 
school in its attempt to train the individual tor himself and for society. 

Does society as a whole show any needs that such a study would 
meet and answer ^ Surely the most casual student of present social con- 
TtLi^ must see that a large proportion of our population, both rich and 
Door hTn a poor physical condition, and that there is m consequence great 
economic waste ; for lack of vigour means lack of effective accomplishment 

and also makes necessary large expenditure for ^7^«d^^^Vr>;!.^u^?clotIHn 
better shelter, food, water, ventilation, rational cleanliness and pi operc^^^^^^^^^ 

a check would be placefl on this enormous waste, more real work would be 



14 U.S.A. —Development of Domestic Science Teaching. 

(d.) Resume ^^one, and there would be fewer patent foods, medicines, and hospitals An- 
of Report on other common waste is through poor buying and extravagant use ot materials " 
reaching of continues, "are these things due? Doubtless to many 

Household ^'.^f ^^f^e^' b^^t potent among^thein are two : (1) Ignorance of women on these 
Economics. Pomts m the management of the household ; and, (2) Ignorance of men and 
( rhird woinen together m the management of that larger Lusehold the citV 

Conference) ^"f '^tic ^''f economic conditions have greatly changed during the last 

—continued. ^^^Y century, and while men have met such changes in their business lives 
wilt themselves to them, women go on in many respects in the ways 

^Ullch Avere ade.piate m the days of their grandmothers, 1,ut which are far 

nZ^^I^'T' r^^'"^"' '^-^l'^^'^' family of sniall means 

n wo 1 . 1 her place as a breadwinner outside the home, and the child 
AC -to-do parsnts is absorbed in her school life. }]oth, e<iua]ly. enter 
Wr b hte with htt e or no k.iowledge of the business ot'house- 

keepmo before them (2; If all our citizens, both men and women, were 
aiive to tlie physical and economic evils consequent on bad buildinc^ im- 
?hW. .on 7 «^\PPl^^'\^l^tftive di^sposal of waste, and dirty streets,'t'hese 
3 • 1 political organisation could hoodwink such 

intelligence into surrender of the right to sanitary surroundings. The 
teaching of Home Economics should go far to correct these errors, for it 
emphasises health as a normal condition, and gives knowledge of the 
phj^sical conditions that will maintain this; emphasises the home as the 
unit of society, and the management of the home as a business needing 
bram and special training; shows how, on the economic side of marriage 
the wite IS the business partner, that her part as spender and manager is 

f J?p'f 'T^'?'^''"^ the husband's as earner, and that he cannot succeed 
It she tails to meet her obligations.'* 

The Report next dwells upon the educational advantages to the individual 
consequent upon a right introduction of the subject into the school time- 
table. Experience otters evidence that children gain increased power of 
muscular control and e^^ression through the hand work: they become 
selt-rehant and useful to others by the capacity thus evolved, while the 
variety of occupation is not only agreeable at the time, but conduces to 
their social value. The subject also affords excellent opportunities for the 
development of the relating j.ower, that is, for tracing cause and effect, and 
tor the realisation that successful practice depends upon a firm grasp of 
underlying principles. Luck becomes a myth ; judgment as to time is 
developed, and good taste is formed in regard to colour and form, in 
turnishmgs and clothing It becomes apparent to the most self-willed 
child, that in dealing with materials and forces it is not as we please but 
as natm-e pleases, and to control her we must obey her. While, at first 
sig-ht, it may seem a small matter for pupils to make a loaf of good bread 
yet see what it involves. They are free individuals and may do as they 
please. I hey may release to pour boiling water on the yeast, forget the 
salt, refuse to make their muscles work effectively, let the dough stand a 
length of time convenient to themselves, and fail to manage the oven 
dampers ; Mdiat then ? Nature has gone quietly on her way and returns to 
them their just due ; their own careless, irresponsible selves expressed in 
a soggy dark, sour, ill-shaped loaf of bread. We have here in concrete 
terms the whole matter of the limitation of the individual by his environ- 
nient t hrough a series of such experiences there comes an understanding 
ot what law means, and self-control, obedience, and freedom. . . . TakmS 
the thought and hand work together, the subject gives the school a field 
where the knowledge and powers gained in other subjects may be applied 
to practical ends ; and conversely, it stimulates an interest in other subiects. 
Ihis idea ot application is an essential part of the plan that aims to make 
a close connection between school and home life." 

^ The -Report proceeds to consider the general order of the subiects 
included in Household Arts, and Economics, beginning with the lower 
elementary grades and running throudi the high school. Remembering 
the definition of the subject as a whole, as consisting of household arts 
based on several sciences and leading to the study of economics, the com- 
mittee recommend that as, in the lower grades, the child is interested in 
the mere doing (the j)lay element should enter largely into his activities) 



Lake Placid Conference on Household Economics, 15 



the art side alone should be given ; such processes as sewing, weaving, (d) Resume 
basketry and cooking may be used as " forms of expression," with an of Eieport on 
occasional short series of cooking lessons. " In the Upper Elementary, the Teaching of 
scientific aspect can be introduced ; sewing, cooking, cleaning, can be given Household 
in continuous courses ; the reasons why can be developed and principles Economics 
established. The economic aspect also arises in the necessary decisions (Third 
upon the best way to carry on a process in order to save time or strength. Conference) 
all other things being equal, or the best material to select for a given — continued. 
purpose. The health aspect finds its place by a study of cleanliness, not 
merely as the cleaning of things soiled by use, but, as the provision of 
clean air, clean water, clean food, and good drainage. In the high school, 
the activities must continue, but are less prominent, therefore the scientific 
a-])ect should be further emphasised, and the economic somewhat fully 
developed. The definite subjects of study are food, in its relation to 
nutrition ; clothing in its relation to health, and as embodying the beauti- 
ful ; the house with its artistic and hygienic furnishing, its sanitation 
and practical management ; the health of the household, as dependent 
on personal hygiene — this should comprehend the care of little children, 
as well as of those who are ill and injured. Thus, looked at as a 
whole, from the Primary Grades through the High School, the subject 
is seen to develop from the concrete doing through the scientific to the 
economic, but with no sharp dividing lines. This is not only the 
natural unfolding of the subject in itself, but it meets the natural 
interest of the pupil at each stage of his growth. First, we like to do, just 
for the pleasure of doing ; then w^e ask why ; and not until the mind is 
maturing do we care to balance values, and judge of the worth of things in 
relation to each other ; and here are the three phases of our subject, the 
art, the science, and the economic." 

The Committee's next consideration was the arrangement of definite 
courses, where " it is necessary to have in mind some of the practical 
difficulties which arise in the arrangement of an ideal course ; and v\ here 
the differences of opinion which exist among thoughtful special leachers 
must be clearly understood and be given due weight." These include the 
problems of the school itself. " Our nrst stumbling block is the fact that 
if we are to help the mass of our people by means of this subject, we must 
do it in the elementary school ; and if the work is to have real social value, 
we must enforce there those economic aspects that in an ideal scheme develop 
in perfection in the high school. The problem is to do this without over- 
crowdii)g the school course, to make the work natural and interesting, and 
to avoid dogmatising. Our second difficulty meets us in the high school. 
In spite of the numbers o^' manual training high schools, and high schools 
giving so called English, scientific, or general courses, large numbers of our 
high school pupils are in college preparatory schools. The main pur- 
pose of the college preparatory is to put the pupil into college, and ' time 
is worth £1,000 a minute.' Of course, the manual training school gives an 
adequate amount of time to the home subjects ; the ' general' course may 
do so, and becomes a better course in consequence ; but the ' college 
preparatory,' — how can it ? What it can or can not do depends on the 
dictum of the colleges. While it is encouraging to note the broadening of 
entrance requirements, in general, there is nothing as yet that really touches 
this subject. And is it not to these very girls, who are to spend four 5^ears 
as college students, removed from responsibility as to home life, that we 
need to give a bent toward the thought of home as a field for the use of 
their best powers ? " 

The opinions of special teachers are next taken into account. " While 
thoughtful teachers are agreed as to the })urpose of this work, and have 
the same ends in view, it is but natural that they should differ as to the 
form of the work. The main points at issue occur in the lower element- 
ary and in the high school. There are some teachers who advocate, even in 
the first, second, p-nd third years in school, continuous courses in cooking, 
and would, indeed, have it run through every year of the elementary. 
Others advocate an occasional short series of cooking lessons as expression 
work, specially in connection with a study of i>rimitive life, equally witli 
other hand work. It may be said for the foi'nier that they certainly touch 



16 U.S.A. — Developmeiit of Domestic Science Teachmg. 



(d) R'is^ume a large mass of children on the practical side, for the dropjuiig out from 
of lvei>ort on school soon l)egins. Against this plan and in favour of the second, it may 
Teaching of be said that this form of hand work is in itself more diihcalt and better 
Household suited to the older pupils, and that the youngest pupils are not ready to 
Economics, grasj) the principles that need to be developed. Again, economy of time 
(Third must be considered ; a subject may be good, but others, too, are good, and 

Conference) each subject should claim only that amount of time that makes it effective 
— continued, in connection with others for the child's development, rather than for its 
(jwn complete unfolding. It would seem that cooking and cleaning need 
not require so much time as this first plan involves, when proi)erly com- 
bined with other household arts and with all other kinds of hand work. 
It must be added that such work in the lov/er elementary is new, and is 
carried on in few schools. It is fortunate, however, that both of these 
schemes are in actual practice and that experience will argue for or against. 
The difference in opinion as to the high school courses is in regard to the 
amount of practical work and its relation to the other work of the high 
school. One attitude is this : that the hand work belongs strictly in the 
eleinentary school, because that is the time to develop self-activity and 
right habits of doing ; that if the household arts belong in the high scliool 
at all, they should be at the minimum and in connection with some other 
subject, not in consecutive courses ; as, for instance, in studying acids and 
bases in chemistry, baking powder could be made, and even baking powder 
biscuit ; or in physics, in studying siphonage, trails could be examined and 
cleaned. Tne main thought is to emphasise the scientific and economic 
aspect, by reducing the actual practice of the arts themselves, and by giving 
those arts directly in connection with the scientific courses. Another plan 
while emphasising and developing the scientific and economic aspects, would 
retain the practice of the arts in continuous courses, running parallel 
with the science and fine arts work, and closely connected with 
them. The advocates of this arrangement feel that in this 
way the girl's nature and likings are taken into account as they are not in 
the other. The first plan seems to assume a sudden change in the girl in 
passing from the elementary to the high school that really does not occur. 
Indeed, the first year high school girl is apt to be in a state of disorganisa- 
tion, and is in the high school rather than of it, so far as serious and 
thou 'htf ul work is concerned. She cares little for science j>er .se, and 
nothing for economics, but is delighted still to plan, prepare, and serve a 
meal or trim a hat. Shall we not take her as she is, give her what she likes 
to do, and lead her through that doing to see what lies below it, and so 
develop her interest in science and in greater things ? While the former 
plan may b(5 the ideal one, the real girl seems to demand its modi- 
fication. ..." 

To facilitate the criticisms and suggestions which it was the object of this 
Report to i:)rovoke, several tabulated schemes are included, illustrative of 
these various stages and methods of treating the subject. Its comprehen- 
sive character is further emphasised by the following extracts : " Certain 
practical considerations will suggest themselves as to the teaching staff", 
e(]uipment, and cost of materials. First, as to the teacher. It is being 
demonstrated in a few schools that in the lowest grades the general 
teacher can carry on the various kinds of hand work without difficulty or 
overcrowding. In the 7th and 8th Grades it is desirable to have a special 
teacher for household arts, but teachers can be found who are able to 
combine the various kinds of work. In the high school, if the course is 
well developed, running through two or three years, and with large numbers 
of pupils, more than one special teacher is proved to be necessary ; and, so 
far, there seems to have arisen a natural division between the household 
arts that lean towards the sciences and those that lean towards the fine 
arts. 

" Next, equipment and material. Up to the 7th grade most of the work, 
such as weaving, basketry, and sewing, can be carried on in the ordinary 
schoolroom. If cooking and cleaning are introduced below the 7th grade, 
some small amount of equipment is necessary. This, however, can be pro- 
vided at a cost of from $30 to f 100 (£6 to £20) for fifteen to twenty 
children, and may consist of two or three work tables, a few gas stoves, and 



Lake Placid ConfeTencp on Hoitseliold Eaonovi'tcH, 17 



utensils, and a cupboard for utensils and necessary food materials. Below 
the 7th grade the cost of all kinds of materials per child is from two to 
three cents (Id. or l^d.) per lesson. For the work in the 7th and 8th 
grades, where cooking, housekeeping, and cleaning are taught, an extra room 
and special equipment, costing from $500 to $1,000 (£lOO to £200), 
are necessary. In these grades cost of jnaterial for cooking and cleaning is 
four to five cents per child per lesson. In the high school cost of equip- 
ment will depend on the natui e of the work, as indicated above. Equipments, 
ranging from $1,000 to $1,500 (£200 to £.300), and even more, are 
put into our manual training schools, but effective work can be done with 
an equipment at $1,000 or less. But when the amount of money ex- 
pended is too small, results must be unsatisfactory. The conditions are 
so variable that no fixed standard in eiiuipment is ])0ssible. Apparatus 
should be good in quality but not excessive in amount. If too meagre, 
the work is restricted, and pupils do not learn the principles or value 
of good tools. If too elaborate, ingenuity is not developed, and ex- 
travagant standards are established. Cost of materials, too, is variable. 
Salaries of special teachers in elementary grades are $600 to $1,000 
(£120 to £200) a year ; in high schools, $800 to $1,800 (£160 to 
£360) ; this will vary in different localities, depending on cost of living 
governed by local conditions." 

In conclusion, this suggestive and well-considered Report declares that 
" Good teaching of this subject is based upon the same principles as good 
teaching of other subjects, and the work should be in the hands of trained 
teachers, not of those who are familiar with the practical side of the 
subject only while, with compulsory briefness, it touches on the question 
as to the desirability of giving Home Economics to boys. " So far, boys and 
girls have shared in such work in the lower elementary grades, and in one 
school in the upper elementary also. Usually in the upper elementary 
the boys carry on heavier work in place of the domestic arts, and follow 
this by metal work in the high school. It seems necessary that boys as well 
as girls should understand hygiene and food values and their practical 
applications. If they do not share the household economic work with the 
girls, provision should certainly be made for this in their study of science, 
bearing in mind the responsibilities they assume later on as fathers, 
householders, or members of civic councils." 

The consideration as to how far boys' education should Influence 
include some introduction to the subject of Home Economics ; of Lake 
and, in the event of its educational and sociological values Placid Con- 
being recognised, to what extent and in what form it should l^^^Q^QQ^n 
be presented, has assumed some prominence in certain jncr the^^^^'^ 
minds, whose opinion is respected in the United States, importance 
Whether it be the immediate result of the co-educational of home 
teaching of the elements of Physiology and Hygiene during the economics 
first 7 or 8 years of school life, or whether the prevalent 
determination to attain the premier position among nations be 
the incentive, a realisation is evident on the part of both sexes 
that each is intimately connected with and responsible for the 
maintenance of the conditions essential to a healthy life. Some 
credit for this evident impulse to improve the conditions of 
home life is probably due to the State Board of Agriculture at 
Washington, which has carried on, for many years, true 
missionary work along lines at once simple and scientific, by the 
gratuitous diffusion of sound knowledge on the subject of food 
and diet in relation to the health of human beings.' Then the 
desire to purify numicipal politics, and to secure to each citizen 
in fact that which the (ionstitutiou accords to him in theory, may 
0491 ». li 



18 U.S.A. — Development of Domestic Science Teacfdng. 



also account for the growing appreciation that mere election by 
popular vote to a position of authority does not carry with it 
innate qualifications for the responsibilities assumed, but that 
previous preparation is demanded by honesty, if by no other 
motive.^" Municipal Housekeeping," in which men play by far 
the more prominent part, is a common topic just now in many 
parts of the United States. As a consequence, opportunities 
nave already been provided for students of both sexes in Colleges 
and Universities to follow courses in sanitation, chiefly in 
connection with the study of Sociology, Bacteriology, Household 
Science and Architecture. These assume that both have already 
received a slight, though practical, foundation in the elements 
of Hygiene in the Grade and High schools, where, obviously, such 
preliminary instruction is of great moment. As a matter of fact 
well-nigh every child does receive some teaching in the subject, 
but the time available is often limited, and the lessons may be 
not alone purely theoretical but confined to a very narrow 
presentation, so that at most, but a slight conception of its 
myriad ramifications through the whole structure of life is 
formed. It is against such unsatisfactory, contracted, lopsided 
teaching, that the Lake Placid Conference enters a protest. Two 
points hitherto often overlooked in the framing of school courses 
have been, the desirability of linking school and home life Avith 
ties of mutual interest, and the imrecognised importance 
attached by children to subjects included in their school 
programme. If home and the conduct of daily life be ignored 
by the teaching staff and find no place in the Aveekly studies, the 
scholars are apt tacitly to assume that they are of no account, 
that training in right methods is requisite only in school subjects, 
and that household duties do not demand, or are not worth, the 
exercise of qualities studiously cultivated in school practice for 
use in other phases of future life.^ Possibly these thoughts, too, 
as well as the point of early leakage from school, were in the 
minds of those responsible for the Report from which I have 
quoted at such length. 

As has been pointed out, the Lake Placid Conference conceives 
of Home Economics as a subject well-nigh as all-eiribracing as that 
comprehensive term. Hygiene. That this influence and these con- 
ceptions carry social weight is apparent from their echoes in the 
following quotation from a pamphlet on " Domestic Economy," 
widely circulated among, and approved l)y, the Ohio Federation 
of Women's Clubs, which numbers many thousand members. 

" The question is frequently asked — ' What is meant by Domestic 
Economy?' and the answer is confidently given— ' Cooking and Sewing.' 
Such a conception is pitifully narroM'. If domestic economy spans no 
broader horizon than this, there is just reason why educators should stop 
and count the cost, but cooking and sewing are only small parts of the 
subject, as are carbon and hydrogen small parts in the science of chemistry. 
To those of us who have most studied the subject, it is as broad as the 
world and as vital as life. . . . By political economy or national economy is 
meant all that bears most intimately upon state and nation : domestic 
economy then should Include all that l)oars upon home life and human 
development, and if this is true it is the nucleus of every other ec(3neiiiy in 



Growth of IntereM in Domestic Science. 



19 



the world. No ology or ism but touches it. History, science, literature, 
language and economics are part and parcel with it, and link us to the 
past. Art is the stimulus to greater beauty and truer ideals for to-day, 
and sociology and religion are the beacon lights for the future. . . . Dewey 
says, 'After all, life is the great thing, the life of the child, not more than 
the life of the man,' and domestic economy means the conception and 
maintenance of life at its best. Its whole aim should be to create the best 
children, to place them in the safest environment, and to so train them that 
they shall develop into the most perfect type of men or women, physically, 
mentally, and morally. ... To accomplish the desired result help must 
come from all sides, the ward school has its particular field, the high school 
may advance the work, the college and university must train the leaders, 
but back of all must stand the home and the men and women who are 
bearing the burdens of life to-day. When the parents of our country are 
convinced that a training for the most practical and sacred duties of life is 
needful for the truest development of their children, then from educators 
and statesmen will come a response to their call. . . . An improved home 
life is perhaps not all that is necessary to humanity, but if mothers and 
teachers were better informed concerning the actual needs of the human 
being, the result would be a superior race of men. From no source but 
from the homes can a nation recruit her citizens, and upon the training of 
her girls depend these homes. . . . We are yet to learn that there is 
power in correct living, and that nothing which pertains to life is trivial 
or unimportant." 

The gradual formation of an intelligent public opinion on this 
subject, the promising growth of popular support in favour of 
its educational developments, are assisted by the action of this 
and other State Federations of Women's Clubs, and also by the 
influence of the National Household Economic Association, the 
Women's Educational and Industrial Union, the Association of 
College Alumnie, and similar bodies.* These social organisations 
have done good service, not alone in the direction of securing a 
recognition of the school value of Domestic Science, but by the 
fact that the grounds upon which their advocacy is based is a 
realisation, by their members, of their own defective knowledge 
in this respect and of the price paid by those dependent upon 
them for their needless and costly ignorance. 

Allusion has already been made to the three classes of opinion Three 
held and supported in the States as to the character, position, ^^^^^^^ 
and methods to be employed in the teaching of Domestic Science ^ Dmuesti^ 
or Household Economics, each of which linds representation in Science 
ditierent cities and in schools of various types and grades : — Teaching. 

1. The utilitarian party, who desire to secure instruction for 
girls in cooking, sewing, cleaning and the elements of house 
sanitation, with the sole view of preparing the home makers of 
the future for the duties which will devolve upon them ; and 
by this means to raise the standard of health and happiness 
among the people. The supporters of this opinion ask, therefore, 
that practical work in domestic subjects shall be included at an 
age which shall secure its advantages for all girls before " leak- 
age " sets in, and that the courses shall bear as directly as may 
be upon the innnediate economic necessities of the pupils; 
facility of accomplishment being more emphasised than reasons 
for results gained. 

* See Part III. of Report. 
6490 B 2 



20 U.S.A. — Devdopraenf of Domestic Science Tcachrag. 



2. The iiuiiiual training advoeales, who hopefully anticipate 
the attainment of two, or even three, ends ; viz., the acquirement 
of such desirable faculties as quick observation, rapid correlation 
between hand and eye, careful precision and skilled fingers, by 
means of and coupled with increased command of the household 
arts. In addition they hope that a realisation of the dexterity 
and thought demanded by right manipulation will lend new 
dignity to the materials employed and to the home in which 
they find their natural place. 

3. Those who have recognised the real educational import- 
ance of the subject in all its fulness and scope, when judi- 
ciously mtroduced into schools, quite apart from immediate 
utility or from the possible acquirement of manual dexterit}'. 
The sup])orters of this view consider tlie former conceptions 
incomplete, possibly mistaken, estimates of its real worth. To 
them its value lies in the field it offers for the application of 
scientific knowledge and for the exercise of the arts; in the 

^ strong social links it forges between school and home life at an 
early period : in the dignity it attaches to domestic matters at a 
later stage; and in the introduction which it involves to 
economic and sociological problems, when studied in its entirety 
"by more advanced students. 

Diversity of It will be well at this point to draw attention to, and to lay 
Educational emphatic stress upon, the fact that no generalisation can be 
P^-actice ^^^^^Y made upon educational methods in the United States. 

The elasticity permitted and independence possessed lead, as 
one result, to a diversity of detail in each city, often in each school 
of a city. This, while beneficial to those immediately concerned, 
is bewildering and discouraging to a " foreigner," who desires to 
form and to record an accurate conception of which method, 
among many, yields the most satismctory results. It is 
possible to broadly classify the objects in view as utilitarian, 
manual training, or educational; but, in practice, the line of 
division is rarely defined with absolute clearness, and exceptions 
AvoiUd almost equal the number which conform even to a very 
broad rule. 

Under one or other title, and to a greater or less extent, 
Domestic Science finds a place in every type of educational 
institution. These may be classified under the main divisions 
of I. State Institutions, supported by taxation and controlled by 
the people, at Avhich attendance is gratuitous ; and II. Private 
Institutions, endowed by individual munificence, independent of 
popular control, at which the payment of fees is required. 

The accompanying table will serve to convey some idea of the 
diversity of practice which obtains in Grade and High Schools 
with respect to the teaching of even two branches of Domestic 
Science. The particulars are adapted by kind permission from 
" Teachers College Record," for November, 1901, which contains a 
mass of interesting details upon the subjects therein grouped as 
Manual Training. 



Methods of Domestic Science Teaching. 



21 



Lewistoii, Me. - - 
I roakliue, Mass. - 
I oston, Mass. - - 
Concord, Mass. - - 
Dedham, Mass. 
Fall River, Mass. - 
Kitchburg. Mass. • 
Medford, Mass. 
Natick, Mass. - - 
N. Easton, >[ass. - 
Walthani, Mass. - 
Hartford, Ct - - 
New Haven, Ct. - 
Bingham i)t<jn, N. Y. 
Brooklyn, X. Y., 

M.T.H.S. 
Brooklyn, Pf.Y , Pratt 

Institute. 

Ithaca, N.Y. - - - - 

Jamestown, N.Y. - - 

New York, N. Y. - - 

Newbiirgh, N.Y. - - 

Syracuse, N.Y. - - - 

Utica, N.Y. - - - . 

Yonkers, N.Y. - - - 

Asbury Park, N.Y. - 

Atlantic City, N.Y. - 

Camden N.Y. - - - 

Cape May, N.Y. - - 

Carlstadt, N.Y. - - - 

Garfield, N.\^ - - - 

Hackensack, N.Y.- - 

Hoboken, N.Y. - - - 

Montclair N.Y. - - 

Newark, N.Y. - - - 
Fast Orange, N. Y. 

Orange, N. Y. - - - 

South Orange, N.Y. - 

Passaic, N.Y. - - - 

Summit, N.Y. - - - 

Wilmington, Del. • - 

Columbus, Ga. - - • 

Cleveland, O. - - - 

Toledo, O., Uk T.S. - 

Champaign, 111. - - 

Chicago, 111. - - - - 
Chicago, Farra School 
Chicago, Jewish Fr. 

School. 

Minneapolis, Minn. - 

Kansas City, Mo - - 

Menominee, Wis. • • 

Oshkosk, Wis. - - - 

Carthage, Mo. - - • 

Moberly, Mo. - - - 
Denver, Cal, M.T.H.S. 

San Francisco, Cal. - 
San Francisco, School 

of Mech. Arts. 



G/ade Schools. 



I. II. III. IV 



VI. VII. VIIT. IX. I 



•\ Ck. 



s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 

S. Ck 



s. 



S. Ck. 

s. 

Ck. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 

s. 
s. 
s. 



s. 

S. Ck, 
Ck. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 



s. 

Ck. 
Ck. 

s. 



s. 
s. 
s. 

S. Ck 
S. 



Ck. S. Ck 



S. 

s. 

S. Ck, 



S. Ck, 
Ck. 



s 

S. Ck. 



Ck. 
Ck. 
S. 

S. Ck. 



S. Ck, 
Ck. 



S. 
Ck. 



Ck. 
Ck. 
Ck. 

s. 
s. 

S. Ck, 



Ck. 
Ck. 
s. 

S. Ck, 
». 



Ck. 



High Schools. 



Ck, 



Ck. 



Ck. 



S. Ck 
Ck. 



Ck. 
S. Ck, 



S. 

Ck. 
S. Ck. 
S. 



Ck. 
S. 



s. 
s. 

S. Ck. 



Ill 



Ck. 
S.'ck 



S. 

S. Ck, 



Ck. 



Ck. 
Ck. 
5. Ck. 



I^ote. — The above particulars are derived from "The Economics of 
Handwork in Elementary and Secondary Schools " by Louis Rouillioif , 
Table A. "Manual training subjects given in the various school years in the 
schools enumerated." Teachers (Jolhije Record., vol. 2, No. 5, November, 
1901. 

S. — Sewing. Ck. — Cooking. 

If, for convenience sake, the broadest English definition of Use of th 
Domestic Science be employed throughout this Report to cover ^^^"^ 
the topics which that subject comprises in this country, it will g^^^c^e^^ 
be found to include the greater part of the ground occupied by 
the different designations of which use is made for describing 
the same subjects in the United Slates, f shall therefore com- 



22 



U.S.A. — State Grade Schools. 



rehend the following subjects under this generic term when 
iscussing their treatment and position in all grades of educa- 
tional institutions, where they appear variously grouped under 
the heads of Manual Training, Domestic Sciences, Domestic Arts, 
Household Economics, Physiology and Hygiene, and Sanitary 
Science : — 

(i.) Cookery, 
(ii.) Needlework, 
(iii.) Dressmaking, 
(iv.) MiUinery. 
(v.) Laundry work. 

(vi.) Housewifery (which includes purchase v:)f conuuodities). 
(vii.) Elements of Domestic and Personal Hygiene (including 

house sanitation), 
(viii.) Care of young children. 

Scheme of A number of specimen schemes and syllabuses, typical of 
the present Domestic Science and Hygiene courses and methods in each 
repoi . grade of institution are included in the text and in the Appendix. 

In the course of my comments upon these, I shall endeavoiu* 
to give a just vicAv of the present position and treatment of 
the subject, though time and space forbid the inclusion of imich 
suggestive material. 

In conclusion, concise allusion is also made to the problems of 
domestic service ; for these, it is anticipated that at least partial 
solution may result from the educational efforts recor ded in 
the following pages. 

The Report is sub-divided as follows : — 

Part I. — State Institutions. 

A. — Primary and Grammar, or Grade Schools. 

B. — High Schools. 

C. — Colleges. 

D. — Normal Colleges. 

Part II. — Private Institutiovs. 

A. — Kindergartens, Primary and Grammar Schools. 

B. — High Schools. 

C. — Technical Institutes. 

D. — Women's Colleges. 

E. — Universities. 

Part III. — Social Agencies for the Promotion of Domestic. 
Science Teaching. 

A. — Women's Clubs. 

B. — Philanthropic Agencies. 

C. — Summer Schools. 

D. — University Extension. 

E. — The Domestic Service Problem. 



23 



PAKT 1. 
kState Institutions. 
A. — Grade (Primary and Grammar) Schools. 

As the Report is primarily concerned with State educational Domestic 
methods, this class of institution will be that first treated. Hcience 

Domestic Science is frequently limited in the Grade Schools taught In 
to the subject of cookery, and its accompaniment of the elements Grade 
of cleaning. Needlework is more often included under Manual Schools. 
Training than under Domestic Science, and, in some cities, e.g. 
Cleveland (Ohio\ Detroit (Mich.), and Toledo, both subjects are 
classified under the former head. Laundry work has not yet 
found a place in elementary schools; a great prejudice exists 
against its introduction, in spite of home washing being the rule 
in most families, especially in cities where the industry has not 
been absorbed by the Chinese. Housewifery, apart from that 
incidental to a cookery course, is rarely taught, but the inclusion 
is contemplated of definite teaching on simple house sanitation ; 
probably this is now a fact in Philadelphia. Considerable time 
and attention are devoted to the outlines of domestic and 
personal hygiene, but as subjects apart from Domestic Science ; 
they constitute the obligatory elements in the curriculum of 
practically all State elementary schools. • Dressmaking and 
uiillinery are obviously too advanced for children in the grade 
schools, though the cutting and making of a simple blouse lends 
great attraction under some Boards of Education to the last year 
of the needlework course. The Care of Young Children is not 
usually dealt with at this period of school life. New York City 
is a direct exception to this rule, though incidentally scholars of 
both sexes get some insight into the subject, or, more precisely, 
gain some conception of the care necessary to ensure health, by 
means of repeatedly impressed lessons in the elements of hygiene. 

1. — Cookery, 

Cookery is not yet an obligatory subject under every Board 
of Education, though it is becoming so in the majority of cities, 
as the result largely of the gradual removal of the difficulties 
which previously existed. These included parental objections, 
Avant of necessary accommodation, or of appropriations for the 
purpose, and considerations as to suitable employment for the ^^.^^^gg -^^ 
boys while their girl companions were thus occupied. The vvhich^ 
subject usually finds a place in the time-tables of the 6th or 7th generally 
and 8th grades of the grammar schools, more generally in the taught, 
last two. As the age lor compidsory school attendance is 5 
years, the average age when these grades are reached is 12 or 
13. Weekly lessons are everywhere the rule during one, or 
more generally two, school years of 8 or 9 months each. At 
Brooklinc ( MassY where manual t rnininu' and the domestic aits 



24 



U.S.A. — State Grade Schools. 



were developed and made increasingly educational during the 
last 10 years, of Professor- Button's valuable service as Superin- 
tendent of schools, cooking is practised by the girls for 2 hours 
a week for three years m the 6th, 7th and 8th grades, and a 
Length of three years course is available also at Menominee for girls who 
Course and pass on to the high school. Here the last, or 8th grade, 
Methods of year in the elementary schools is devoted to the introductory 
'J caching. stages of cookery, serving, housekeeping, and house sanitation ; 

the course being continued during the first two high school 
years. At Boston, Washington, Philadelphia, Toledo, and 
Chicago, the cookery course lasts two years, while in New 
York City it is confined to a year and a half, and at Cleve- 
land (0.), and St. Louis (Mi.) to one school year. In these 
cities, however, the lessons are longer, 2| hours being the rule, as 
against the 1|- hours at Toledo, Washington, and Chicago. 
Boston stands well with its 2 years' course of 2 hours lessons, 
but for the weekly loss of this half-hour at Washington some 
compensation exists in the small number (12) to which each 
class is limited, which favours careful individual guidance and 
supervision. 

The number of scholars in a class is as variable as the length 
of the lessons. It is influenced by several factors. One of these 
is the almost impossible task, in some places, of keeping pace 
with the growth of the school population. In New York City, 
e.g. (a recognised proportion of whose children consists of very 
poor and ignorant emigrants), the Domestic Science Organiser 
(Mrs. Mary E. Williams), advises and sanctions classes of 40 or 
even 50 girls, in order to secure the advantage of some training 
for the largest possible number. The same cause and feeling are 
partially responsible for very similar conditions at Boston, 
though where possible the classes there are limited to 25, 
and an assistant is provided where this is not the case. 
Another factor appears in the relative proportion of boys to girls 
in any particular locality of a country where co-education is the 
iiccepted custom ; it is, for instance, responsible at the present 
time for the organisation of small classes at Washington, 
though their small size is in part due to the fact that this city is 
characterised by its large number of relatively small schools, less 
crowded classes being the result. At Chicago, where the 
influx of emigrants is large, the size of the Domestic 
Science classes varies from 18 to 32. The average 
number in most cities is 20, and the general rule is indivi- 
dual work on the part of each child. Group work — two or more 
— is only introduced when the article does not lend itself to 
much subdivision, or Avhen the principle cannot be illustrated 
without sufficient bulk. To this rule New York City, Washing- 
ton, and Cleveland are the three prominent exceptions. In 
these cities one-third only of the girls do practical work, the 
remainder make observations and take notes. Such large and 
numerous classes entail very heavy work on the teachers, 
especially where the work is individual, as at Chicago ; here 
nearly 600 girls pass through the hands of each teacher. 



Cookery. 



25 



weekly, allowing for four 1| hour classes per day of 30 
girls each ; the additional strain of securing a tnorough " clean 
up" by each class during the already brief lesson involves 
much nerve tension and physical fatigue. The 2 or 2^- 
hour lessons at Philadelphia, although they permit of the attend- 
dance of but a quota of girls from each school, reduces the 
number of weekly classes per teacher to 10, and the number of 
children to be individually known by each teacher to about 
200. ^ 

It is of interest to note that in Philadelphia, cookery classes 
were first organised 15 years ago, in the Girls' High School ; 
the experiment proved so successful thnt in two years a place 
was found for the subject in the grade school programmes ; 
even now, it is only an " optional," or " elective," but, neverthe- 
less, very popular subject. 

The system of " centres " seems general. These are attached .« Qe^tre " 
in most instances to new schools, though the adaptation of System, 
basement rooms for this purpose is very common, in which case 
the light and ventilation are apt to be defective; still, great 
credit is due to organisers and teac^hers for the skilful care, 
thought, and personal trouble they spend to make the best of 
the second best premises. The Supervisor of Manual Training at 
Cleveland, Ohio (Mr. W. E. Roberts), has introduced a manual 
training centre method which presents various advantages, and 
has the merit of not being extravagant. A kitchen for girls and 
a carpenter's shop for boys are provided as an annex to the selected 
school buildings ; the cost of building and equipment sufficient 
for classes of 20, respectively, averages £1,000 ; cloakrooms and 
sanitary conveniences are attached. Light, airy, suitably 
arranged apartments are provided, infinitely preferable to the 
more pretentious basement rooms frequently allotted to these 
purposes. This plan obviates the necessity for outside classes to 
enter the school building, and the proximity of the kitchen and 
workshop promotes mutual interest in each other's work among 
pupils who pursue all other studies together.* 

The number of centres provided in each city depends upon 
the time Domestic Science has been adopted as a school subject; 
whether it is required of all girls in the selected grades ; upon 
the size of the classes ; and last, but not least, upon the funds 
available for building and equipment. At Boston, where the 
subject has been taught many years, 22 centres exist, each 
attended by girls from 5 to 7 grammar schools; these centres 

* Significant of the strong development and recognition of the social 
spirit in the United States, is a pleasant little custom which prevails in 
the city of Cleveland for maintaining sympathy between boy and girl 
classmates. Permission is given at suitable intervals for the interchange 
of visits at these manual training centres. Simple hospitality is dispensed 
in their kitchen by the girls, as on the occasion of my visit to the Wade 
Park School, where preparations v;ere in force to entertain the boys with 
cocoa and cake, prepared by ihe young cooks. Later on the courtesy 
would be returned, by an invitation from the boys to inspect their work- 
shop, when each would present a small specimen of his skill to one of the 
girl visitors. 



26 



U.S.A.—Sfate Grade Schools. 



" Centre J^re convenient in situation, but niam^ of them are only adapted 
►System" — rooms, basement or otherwise, though improvements now in 
continued, progress will gradually replace :hese with modern apartments. 

At Chicago, where the subject was introduced in 1898, 1 found 
11 centres; the same stage of adaptation is being gone through as at 
Boston, with a like promise of better things, already fulfilled in 
the newest schools. The acconmiodation, even with large classes, 
sufficed for less than one-half of those eligible to receive the 
instruction. At this date it is probably considerably increased. 

Comparison with developments in New York City will 
exemplify the rapidity with which these take place. In 1898 only 
^4 cookery teachers were employed l)y the Board of Education of 
that city, though the subject had been tentatively introduced 
into the schools some years before. In May, 1901, the supervisor 
had 29 teachers under her charge, employed at 40 centres. 
There the basement plan does not obtain, but the kitchens are 
located on the top floor of the 4 and 5 storied buildings. This 
plan involves nuich stair climbing on all concerned, and on that 
account should be discountenanced unless lifts are provided, as 
is customary in High Schools when carried up to this height ; 
in respect of light and ventilation such a position is admirable. 
Five centres suffice for the needs of a less populous city, such 
;is Toledo, in spite of cookery being obligator}' on all girls in the 
7tli and 8th grades since iS99 ; previous to that date it was 
" elective." Spacious cooking " laboratories " are attached to the 
new^est schools at Washington ; hitherto, owing to want of space 
and the number of centres necessitated by the small classes 
and numerous schools, private houses have, in some instances, 
been employed for the purpose, and are still in use ; these are un- 
objectional under the exceptionable conditions which obtain there. 
Equipment. The small details of equipment are as variable as those of 
all the other particulars recorded, but the broad general plan 
is the same m all the cities I visited, or of whose courses 
L obtained reliable information. Even this, however, is subject 
to modification according to the method emploved, either of 
individual work or of practice limited to a, smalt grou]>, or by 
the funds at the disposal of the organisers. Illustrations convey 
the best idea of the prominent feature which most (ionspicuously 
distinguishes an American schoolkitchen, or "cooking laboratory " 
from the appearance familiar in England. It consists of a table 
of varying length and form ; three sides of a square to acconunodate 
20 students, as at the Pratt Institute and some of the Boston 
school centres ; or a short oblong, just sufficient for two, or at 
most four, workers, as at the Ohio State University, the Toledo 
Manual Training School or the Bradley Institute, Peoria, 111. 
Whatever the length, the table is usually of hard wood, from 
80 inches to 83 i inches in height, about 25 inches wide, and 
calculated to allow from 25 inches to 33 inches per pupil 
according to size. [ saw several instances where the front 
portion was wood, either plain, polished, covered with metal, 
slate or white glazed tiles, or coated with some vitreous 
])roparation rescnri)ling glass. Mr Louis Roubillion (Teachers 



Cookery. 



27 



College, Columbia University) considers " that unglazed, vitrified, Equipment 

white tile laid over asphalted paper, bound at the table edge by —continued. 

a metal strip is perhaps the best, although somewhat expensive." 

At one high school each pupil is supplied with white American 

cloth to protect the polished wood, and an asbestos mat upon 

which to place her hot pans. The back half of the table may, 

or may not, be covered with sheet zinc ; above this portion 

runs an iron grid raised about 6 or 8 inches ; this may be 

continuous the whole length of a long table or be fitted in 

sections of 12 to 18 inches. It serves the dual purpose of a 

range which permits of individual cooking, and of a stand for hot 

pans ; bunsen gas burners, or gas rings, are fitted underneath 

the grid, one for each pupil, and a considerable amount of the 

cooking processes are conducted by these means. When gas is 

not available, single burner oil stoves are substituted — one for 

each pupil. Each pupil's place, about two square feet at the 

table, IS fitted as follows : slid immediately under the top are 

two boards, one for bread or pastry, one for meat, etc., below are 

two draAvers, the deeper one usually provided with one or two 

sliding trays. In this drawer is kept the small ware in constant 




Plan Showing Horseshoe and Group Arrangement of 
Cooking Tables. 

Figs. 1, 2, 3 are reproduced hy kind permission from " Tlie Economics of 
Manual Training," Teachers College Kecord. Vol. II., No. 5, Nov. 1901. 



FIG, IV. 




6490. To face page S8. 



Cookery. 



29 



use, generally two knives and forks, two tea-spoons, two dessert Equipment 
spoons, two table-spoons, two wooden spoons, two plates, salt and —continued. 
pepper boxes, glass or metal measuring cup,* a small strainer, 
pattypans, and a box of matches. (Inexpensive appliances 
conducing to economic methods are freely provided, e.g., " soap 
shakers," costing 5 cents; these consist of a small wire soap box 
at the end of a long wire handle, they are used for the ra]3id 
production of lather ; the smallest fragments can be utilised for 
the purpose without wetting the hands, while the handles 
projecting from the pans serve, upon occasion, to remind 
the careless that soap is going to waste.) The equipment in 
hardware, always simple, is usually sufficient for 20-25 individuals. 
I saw instances of admirable ingenuity exercised by teachers 
to improvise a supply for the needs of individual work under the 
stress of the large classes in some cities ; but a crowded class- 
room is not the right opportunity to make such additional 
demands on an already hard-worked teacher, and the principle 
of demanding resourcefulness under such conditions cannot be 
commended. In the second and shallower table-drawer, note- 
books, recipes, and so forth, are kept. Below the drawers is a 
metal bin, used for either flour or potatoes, and a cupboard 
which usually contains a granite ware and a tin saucepan, a 
baking-dish, one or two china bowls of different sizes, and so 
forth. Between one drawer and the bin or cupboard is a sliding 
seat, of which prompt use is made, if a pause in active work 
occurs for the purpose of receiving directions from, or watching 
demonstrations by, the teacher. The dish-cloths, towels, etc., 
hang at one end of each table, while large utensils, such as a 
washing-up pan, hang generally at the other. 

*The glass or metal cup measure is too prominent in all cookery teaching 
and recipes in the United States and Canada not to demandfuller description. 
It offers the unquestionable advantages of economical simplicity, cleanli- 
nes i and uniformity in practice, and when of glass leaves little to be desired. 
Its usual shape is slightly facetted ; there are 4 broad and 8 narrow facets, 
and each of the 4 V>road facets bears a scale on a different scheme of 
measurement, as follows : — 

FACETS. 



I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


h pint eren full. 


Coffee f^up or 


Table 


spo( 


)nful. 


Sugar. 






2 Ten- cups. 














6 OA. 


Sugar. 






Licjuid. 


5 oz. 


IgiU 


4 oz. 


even full 


4 






8 


4 oz. 






1 Tea cup. 














3 oz. 


Wine glass. 


3 









3 oz. 




2 oz. 




2 


4 


2 oz. 




I oz. 




1 


2 


I oz. 



The one measure can thus be employed for fluids and solids, is uniform 
throughout the rountry, and is the accepted standard upon wliich i-ecipes 
are compounded. 



U.S.A.—S^tate Grade SchooU. 



Equipment In some recently fitted school-kitchens a small glazed earthen- 
— continued, ware sink finds a place in each cooking table, either at one end, 
or dividing the table into two halves. More generally the sink 
accommodation is provided against an outside wall, and, in either 
case, there is a good supply of hot and cold water available. In 
other respects the fittings closely conform to those customary in 
this country, though occasionally a six-foot marble table is pro- 
vided for the making of pastry or of very refined dishes. The 
universal custom is to expose all pipes, whether for the supply 
of water or of gas, or for the removal of waste. The plumbing- 
appears excellent, and, indeed, needs to be, in a country where 
the climate necessitates the protection of soil-pipes within the 
dwellings, and where sanitary fittings are furnished with far 
greater liberahty of supply and consideration for comfort than is 
at present our habit. Pipes are usually painted white, in a few 
instances they are of polished metal; without exception they 
are well managed, so that, far from being an offence, they are 
pleasing to the eye, and contribute to cleanliness and convenience 
of access. A coal range and a gas range with ovens are found in 
most schools ; in Technical Institutes conveniences for cooking 
by electricity are occasionally provided in addition. An Aladdin 
oven is a frequent feature, and is found very useful for 
soup-making, or for processes requiring slow, steady and pro- 
longed heat. An ice-box of more or less pretension is considered 
almost as great, if not a greater, necessity than a coal range. 
Large cupboards are usually fixed against the walls ; these are 
usually glazed. The " supply " cupboard contains the groceri es, etc. , 
in constant requisition, and specimens of preserves, canned fruit, 
etc., often the handiwork of former pupils ; the china cupboard 
frequently displays a tasteful dinner and tea-service in addition 
to bare necessaries ; these are used in the " serving lessons," to 
which marked attention is paid in all grades of cookery courses. 
In closed cupboards, or on open shelves below the china, are 
found the larger utensils in general use, and others more rarely 
required — stew-pans, double boilers, moulds, cake -pans, and 
cutters, ice-cream freezers, mincing-machines, coffee-mills, etc. 
A third cupboard is often subdivided into lockers or small com- 
partments; each member of each class has one assigned and 
numbered, wherein to keep the cap and apron invariably re- 
quired to be worn during class-work. The making of these 
articles constitutes, I was often told, a foretaste of good things 
to come for small needlewomen, who thus anticipate during the 
quiet hours of stitching the future active pleasures to be enjoyed 
when young cooks. Charts and drawings find a place on the 
walls, and show the various cuts of meat, the proportion of 
nutrient properties contained in different foods,' and the amount 
of certain nutriments which can be bought for a given price in 
different foods. 

A nice dining table, often with chairs e7i suite, is the rule, as 
an essential equipment of the table-serving lessons. Good 
napery is provided in addition to the special china mentioned 
above. In many cases a recess, or a small separate rooni is 



TypicAtl Cooking iJouTf^e^. 



attached and utihsed as a dining room, a great feature heing Equipment 
made of tasteful and suitable surroundings. The part of the --continued 
room in which the table and china are placed is always notice- 
able for some appearance distinguishing it from the " kitchen " 
air of the rest of the apartment. I do not know how widely the 
opinion of the very successful Supervisor of cooking in one large 
city is held, but it may be partially responsible for the homelike 
atmosphere observable in many of these school kitchens. She 
considers that the cookery room should be the " cosy corner " 
of a school, the place for pleasant surprises and little 
treats, to which a tired teacher or child can sometimes resort 
for a cup of tea or other light refreshment. No doubt the 
elasticity permitted to the schools under some superintendents, 
and the invariable custom for all food cooked to be- consumed on 
the premises, usually on the spot, by the student responsible for 
the dish, are also factors of some account in this characteristic. 

In quite general use, too, are the' sets of admirable wood 
blocks, first designed and made at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Boston, and now supplied by the Pratt 
Institute, Brooklyn. Of these there are three sets in all ; the 
largest represents, in blocks of various colours, red, blue, white, 
and yellow, and of various sizes, the proportions of water (blue), 
proteid (red), fat (yellow), carbo hydrate (white), salts (grey), in 
the bones, muscle, blood, etc., of a full-grown man. These can 
be arranged in many useful ways ; to illustrate, for instance, the 
whole amount of each constituent in the body, or the 'pi-opovtion 
of each in blood, bone, or muscle ; their superficial area is 8 inches 
X 8, and the total height 5| feet. The other two sets of blocks 
are much smaller — superficial area,3f inches x 3|, total height 17 
inches ; but made to the same scale of proportion they illustrate, 
respectively, the daily income and outgo of a healthy body the 
colours being similarly employed to those in the large body blocks, 
though others have to find a place — indigo blue for the daily in- 
take of oxygen, brown for the daily outgo of urea, and so forth.* 

Among the specimen Grade School Cookery Courses which I Typical 
have selected to include in this Report are those in use in New Courses. 
York City, Toledo, and Washington. They show the scope and 
extent of ground covered where the amount of time expended, the 
number of scholars in a class and the methods of practice are 
somewhat diverse; it must be borne in mind that all are subject 
to frequent revision. 

In New York City the course at present consists of {a) New 
weekly lessons for 1 years ; the number of children legally York City, 
allowed is 40, though, owing to the rapid increase of popula- Table I. 
tion, 45 and even 50 names appear on some rolls. It is open 
to girls in the 6th and 7th grades. In girls' schools, where 
the whole . class follows the course, two-hour lessons are usual, 
but in mixed schools (by far the more general), the neces- 
sarily smaller class is nominally limited to 1^ hours weekly, 
though, in practice, the principal usually succeeds in allowing ^ 
hours for this popular lesson. 

■*^For details and cost of a Model Kitchen iH]ui]mie,nt, Sec Appendix A. 



U.S.A. — State Grade Schools. 



(d.) New To secure a measure of uniformity among the teachers in 
York City presenting both the scieniific and practical sides of their 
—continued, subjects, Mrs. M. E. WilHams, Supervisor of Cookery, has prepared 
a comprehensive outUne for their guidance, though great 
elasticity is allowed in the details and actual ground covered. 
She advocates the method of prefacing each new department of 
practice with one theoretical lesson, to embrace experiments 
wdiich bear directly on the principle of cookery involved. 

This outline opens the course with instruction on air, fire, and water, the 
three essentials to life. Very simple experiments and demonstrations with 
air are carried out, e.g., testing it for carbon dioxide with lime water, suh- 
se(iuently comparing results with expired air and with that in which com- 
bustion has taken place. A short study of combustion follows ; the series 
of demonstrations being conducted with the aid of a candle and lamp 
chimney, wood blocks, cards, and lime water, and so forth. This introduces 
an examination of the structure and management of kitchen ranges for coal 
and gas, time being devoted to the study of fuels, hard and soft coal, gas, 
kerosene, etc. Water and its most salient properties are then studied ex- 
perimentally, subsequently to which cleanliness and cleaning introduce the 
girls to their first elementary lessons on moulds, yeasts and bacteria. 
Natural and artificial aids to cleanliness are illustrated by careful practice ; 
the reason for each process and its constituent ])arts being carefully followed 
out. By this time it is anticipated that an intelligent, though, perforce, 
elementary insight will have been gained into matter, its nature, and 
changes ; the importance of care and ac(;uracy in details will have been 
impressed, while practical ac(piaintance will have been made with ordinary 
utensils and their uses, the principal methods of cooking and the accepted 
table of measures. A short time is then devoted to a consideration of the 
elements composing the human body, and of the part played by food in its 
growth and repair ; the subject of food principles being thus introduced. 
These are classified as water, protein, fats, carbo-hydrates, and mineral 
matter. Simple starch foods are first cooked, the })otato, cereals, wheat ; 
then tissue building foods, as eggs and milk. Bread and bread stuffs follow, 
succeeded by meat and fish. The practice of frying and sauteing leads to a 
study of fats as valuable fuel foods, while the preparation of vegetables and 
fruits turns attention to the acid and salt supplying foods. Throughout, 
the experimental treatment and explanation of underlying scientific 
principles is consistently followed. For instance, at an early stage of the 
course, a potato is subjected to very careful examination, and a rough 
analysis is carried out to find " what it contains," the iodine test for starch 
is taught, and the results compared with those obtained with solutions of 
sugar, cornflower, laundry starch and salt ; the effects of heat on albumen 
are closely observed, and their applications are demanded ; milk and flour 
are subjected in turn to simple analysis, and the rasults discussed from the 
points of view of cooking, nutriment, and so forth. Bread making serves 
to introduce the action of acids on alkalies, and, more immediately, of an 
acid on baking soda ; indeed the study of baking powders is entered into 
at some length for the sake of its many lessons. What yeast is, its growth, 
requirements, products, are all included under this study of iDread. The 
principles of broiling, roasting, stewing, braising, frying, baking, soup 
making, are, of course, explained and illustrated in due order, and " made 
over" dishes, such as hashes, croquettes and mince, find a place. The 
practice of " canning " and preserving is made use of to present the germ 
theory and the eflects of moulds on food stuffs. 

Near the end of the se3ond year the question is raised as to what consti- 
tutes a suitable diet, and experiments on cooked food with saliva, pepsin 
and pancreatic juice are carried out to demonstrate the processes of digestion. 
A short study of infant feeding and invalid cooking follows this physio- 
logical teaching. The course concludes with the cooking and serving of a 
simple, nutritious and economical dinner. The syllabus seems to me com- 
prehensive, wcll-})lanned, useful, and educational ; infinite care is taken to 
secure " intelligent doing," not mere mechanical ])ractice. 



Typical Cooking Courses. 



38 



TABLE I. 
Grammar school cooking course, 



NEW YORK CITY, 1902. 



Length of 
Cotirse. 



Scope of Course. 



First Year. 
Air.— Why important to life ; relation 
to combustion. 

Fire.— Combustion ; uses; fuels, varie- 
ties of, etc. 

Water.— Sources : characters; impuri- 
ties, etc. 

Chemistry of Cleaning.— Personal 
cleanliness ; houseuold cleanliness ; 
aids to ventilation, sunlight, disin- 
fectants : care of beds and bedding, 
floors, walls, ceilings, closets, traps, 
pantries, ice boxes, dish towels, etc. 

The Human Body.— Elements compos- 
ing it, and where obtained. 

Food. — Its function ; food prin- 
ciples. 

Potatoes (specimen of treatment)—. 

Theory.— History ; botany, note dif- 
ference between sweet and white 
potatoes ; composition ; experiment 
thowing water,btarch test,cellulose, 
use of microscope ; drawing— plant, 
tuber, starcli grains ; digestion of 
starch ; salivary glands ; action of 
saliva on glands ; test saliva witli 
litmus ; pancreatic juice ; food 
value of starch. 

Practice.— 
Boiled ^ 
Baked 
Mashed C 
Ci-eam J 
Compare nutritive value of same. 



White, sweet. 



Cereals.— Theory and practice. 

iiREADS.— Theory and practice. 

Yeast. — Botanical classification ; 
manner of grovvth, with experiments ; 
use of microscope ; drawings ; fer- 
mentation—lactic, acetic. 



Flour. — Other wheat preparations; 
theory and practice. 

Protein. — Theory ; digestion of ; under 
what cjnditions mos„ easily digested ; 
mastication ; gastric and intestinal 
digestion ; experiments. 

Eggs. - Theory and practice. 

Tea, Coffee, Cocoa. — Theory and 
pi-actice. 



Milk. — Theory; nutritive value; care 
of ; pasteurisation, sterilisation, 
cleanliness of utensils. 



Butter. —Theory and practice;. 
Cheese —Theory and practice. 
Vegetable ClaS8Ific.\tion. 
Vk<;etaulr Protein. 



Second Year. 
Animal Protein.— Tlieory and prac- 
tice. 



Boiling and Parboiling.— Practice. 
Roasting. -Theory and practice. 

Simmering ; theory and 



Broiling, 
practice 



Stewing.— Theory and practice. 

Braising.— Theory and practice. 

Fricasseeing.— Theory and practice. 

Frying.— Theory and practice. 

Made-over Dishes.— Theory and prac- 
tice. 

Sauteing.— Theory and practice. 

Fish.— Theory and practice. 

Soups with Stock. — Theory and 
practice. 



- Theory 



Beef-Tra, Juice Extract. 
and practice. 



Vegetables.— Tlieory and practice, 

Sal.vds.— Theory and practice. 

Dressings.— Theory and practice. 

Desserts (sweets).— Theory and prac- 
tice ; method of treatment ; their 
relation to food and diet ; use ami 
abuse ; use of fruits alone, and in 
combination with other materials : 
reason for the indigestibility of pastry ; 
use, cjmposition, and adulteration 
of tiavom'ings for desserts. 

Custards. — Practice. 

Souffles. — Practice. 

Gelatine Jellies.— Practice. 

Batter Puddings.— Practice. 

Cakes.— Practice. 

Sauces.— Practice. 

Canning and Preserving.— Method 
of treatment. 

Germ Theory. — Foreign matter in 
the air ; dust, and what it contains ; 
moulds, yeasts, and bacteria ; show 
moulds on bread, lemon, clieese, 
jellies, etc.; fermented canned fruits ; 
souring of milk, soups, uncooked and 
cooked food, etc. ; use of microscope ; 
food value of canned fruits compared 
vvitli other foods ; {)ractrce ; canning 
of fruits in season ; jellies. 

Freezing.— Tlieory and practice. 

Physiology.— Alimentary canal; draw- 
ing sliowing salivary glands of canal ; 
saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice ; 
experiments witli saliva, pepsin, and 
pancreatic juice. 

Invalid Cooking. 

Infant Feedinc;. 

ConKiN(; AND Serving of a Simple 
DiNNER.-Table-sotting, decoration, 
S'.Tving. 



6490. 



C 



84 



U.S.A. — State Grade ScIlooIs. 



(a) New Details are larg'ely left to the discretion of individual 

York City teachers : e.(/., in a Jewish quarter, special care is given to showing 
--continued. i^qUqj. methods of cooking the fish and coarser kinds of poultry 
which form the staple diet of " Hebrews," as Avell as the right 
methods of keeping .and preserving fruit and vegetables, which 
they consume in large quantities ; or, in an Italian quarter, where 
home made wine is the rule, the process, conducted imder 
conditions of scrupulous cleanliness, is introduced into the school 
kitchen. Habitually the girls "can ' and preserve fruit and 
vegetables for use throughout the winter months. 

The regrettable and very weak point in this course is that so 
few pupils share in the actual practice work of each lesson. The 
group method on a large scale is compulsorily adopted in all 
schools, about one-third of the girls doing practical work, while 
the remainder make notes and observations. The one-third who 
are selected for the practice are subdivided into cooks, house- 
keepers, and scullery-maids, thus the actual number Avhich 
liandles the food is very small, and no one child carries through 
a dish from first to last. This incidentally prevents also the 
formation of a true estimate of the time necessary for a single 
individual to prepare either a dish or a meal, as the " house- 
keepers " are expected to put ready to the hands of the " cooks " 
all the material and utensils they need at the very moment they 
are required, while the " scullery-maids" remove and Avash each 
article inunediately after use, by which means the final clearing 
up is reduced to a minimum. The coincident demand upon the 
attention of the observers is rather severe ; they are expected to 
concentrate their minds for over an hour upon processes in Avhich 
they take no active share. Excellent and most comfortable 
" tablet " armchairs Avere provided in the kitchens of the New 
York Cit}^ schools I visited, but many children stood throughout 
the time in order to see, as the large room had no raised gallery 
to fiicilitate observation. The supervisor is Avell aAvare of the 
disadvantage of the present system, but until far larger " appro- 
priations " are made by the Board of Education neither stalf nor 
equipment can be supplied on the scale essential Avhere individual 
Avork at each lesson is the rule; meauAvhile Mrs. Williams 
belicA^es that she does the greatest good to the greatest numl)er 
by pursuing the present policy. The interest aroused among 
parents, the cordial support they accord to the subject, and the 
facilities afforded to the girls for home practice, are all factors in 
the formation of a public opinion Avhich will presentlj^nsist upon 
the provision of further opportunities for each girl in every 
school. The system of alternate demonstration and practice 
lessons, such as is the rule in England, is quite the exception in 
the United States, even if it be anyAvhere found. In Ncav Y'^ork 
City it is the custom to demonstrate part of the time more or 
less early in the course, but only to do so just enough to secure 
right manipulation at each step by beginners. In the " bread " 
lesson, for example, the teacher Avould begin the kneading; if 
" omelettes" be the subject she Avould make one first; but if the 
process be simple, the girls Avould carry out the Avhole under her 



Typical Cookivg Coiirses. 



35 



direction, and this is the ordinary plan witli lessons on the (a) New 
cooking of vegetables, or the broiling and roasting of incat, etc. ^oik City 
Marks are given for conduct ; no examination is held, knowledge ~coyi^</i«e 
being tested by the prevalent cnstoni of revision. It is usual to 
inquire and to record which girls have practised at home what 
has been learnt at previous lessons, and samples of home Avork, 
to which special encouragement is given, are brought habitually 
for criticism or approval. Experience shows that home applica- 
tions are general, even in Avell-to-do homes where competent 
servants are kept. 

High qualifications are demanded of the special teachers, and 
it is proposed to insist in future upon a college degree, plus a 
special course in cookery of at least one year. Teachers nuist 
be licensed under the New York State Examination Board, after 
passing a successful qualifying examination, of which the follow- 
ing is a specimen paper : — 



EXAMINATFON FOR LICENCE TO TEACH COOKING. 
New York Board of Examiners. 
19th October, 1899. 

Time, three Jiour^^. 

1. (a) Describe the structure of a coal range, stating the use of each part. 
{h) Describe the operating of such a range. 

(c) Describe your method of teaching the structure of a coal-range and 
the use of its i)arts. 

2. Which is more easily digestible, a crust of bread well browned or a 
boiled ])otato ? Give reasons in full, indicating the chief i)hysical, chemical, 
and physiological processes involvecl. 

3. Describe j^our method of giving a lesson on meat soup as regards {a) 
instruction, (/>) laboratoiy management. Give reasons. 

4. {a) Classify the food principles. 

(/>) State the nutritive function of each food principle. 

(r-) State with roiisons the a])proximate proportion of each food 
principh; in the a^'erage daily ration. 

5. Discuss impurities in drinking water and in ice, treating {a) their 
kinds, (/>) their source, (r) their etiects, {<l) household i)recautions or counter- 
agents, with reasons. 

G. {(i) Show how in the matter of language instruction, the cooking 
teacher may co-operate with the regular teacher. 

{h) Suggest specimen themes for compositions drawn from your 
subject. 

(r) How would you correct su('h comjKjsitions ? 

(J) What directions would you give r(\garding note taking and the 
keei»ing of note-books in your class 

(t) Frame two arithmetical ])rol)lems such as you would give pupils 
in connection with their cooking lesson : in measure aiul proportion, 
and in cost of food. 

7. (a) Classify the cooking processes with relerciicr to the fnode of 
applying heat. 

{b) State the appn)ximate ten)peraturc of the sevtTal proi-esses. 
6490. c 2 



U.S.A. — State Grade Schools. 



(c) State in degree;-; Fahrenheit the proper temperature for baking a 

loaf of bread ; muffins ; meat. Give reasouKS. 

(d) Give two w^ays in which the temperature of the oven may be 
approximately determined without- the use of a thermometer. 

The salaries for teachers of cooking and sewing are as follows : 
First year, $900 (about £180), with a rise of $100 (£20) a year for 
the succeeding three years, making a maximum of $1,200 (about 
£240). Supervisors of these subjects receive $1,500 (£300) the first 
year, and progress by annual increase of $100 to the maximum of 
$2,000 (about £400). The Supervisor in New York City gives 
personal instruction at the Teachers' Conferences on the division 
of the work in the different grades, and teachers are required to 
give, in turn, a lecture from some subject chosen from the 
excellent little manual in use, " The Elements of the Theory and 
Practice of Cooking." Free use of the blackboard during each 
lesson is advocated, also composition and dictation lessons on the 
class subjects. In addition to the use by teachers of the State 
Board of Agriculture's Food Bulletins, Professor. Atwater's " Prin- 
ciples of Food and Diet " is employed as a reading book in each 
class ; Mrs. Williams also desires and ensures that pupils should be 
familiarised with quotations on cooking, cleaning, and housekeep- 
ing from the best authors, to emphasise the dignity of the 
subject, and to illustrate the high estimate attached to home 
life by the most eminent writers. Valuable books of reference, 
both for teachers and pupils, are provided in the school libraries, 
and care is taken to keep these abreast of the progress made by 
investigation and research in this line of work. To afford useful 
stimulus and assistance to her staff the Supervisor periodically 
conducts parties of these special teachers to visit manufactories 
of food products, such as flour mills, cream of tartar works, 
canning and baking establishments, or tea and spice importing 
works. 

(h) Toledo. Toledo, cooking is an obligatory subject for girls of the 

Table II. 7th and 8th grades of the grammar schools. The average age 
is IfS, and the average number 80 in a class ; the otherwise 
excellent work being done has its practical value seriously 
neutralised by the limited time allotted for the lessons. One 
and a quarter hours per week is the period assigned to all 
classes of manual training, and though this may suffice for 
deriving some of the advantages oftcred by sewing, chip-carving 
and carpentry, it is quite inadequate for cooking classes, where 
girls first receive a small amount of theoretical instruction, 
then prepare and cook a dish, and subsequently clear up the 
utensils employed in the lesson. A one-year course of 2^ 
hours weekly lessons, such as is provided in Philadelphia, is on 
many accounts preferable to half the lesson period for two years, 
as is the case at Toledo. The syllabus finds a place in this 
Report for two reasons — (1) Because the City Superintendent 
of Instruction states that, in spite of its shortcomings, the in- 
fluence of the Domestic Economy course in the public schools 
is distinctly apparent in the homes of the people, a statement 
amply confirmed by several teachers; the Superintendent is 



Typical CooHvg Coiivf^e!^. 



37 



satisfied that not only are families served with better food, but 
houses are cleansed and their inmates refined because of this 
training. In four years it covers the field of the selection, mak- 
ing and care of the wearing apparel of a family ; instructs girls in 
the art and economy of the purchase, preparation and serving of 
meals, and demonstrates some of the elementary jninciples of 
those sciences and arts which underlie housekeeping fmd the 
beautifying of homes. (2) Because, though the syllabus 
drawn up by Miss Matilda Campbell of the Manual Training 
High School has naturally much the same scope as that gener- 
ally found, it approaches the subject in an educational as well as 
a utilitarian spirit, and deals more directly than is usual with 
the municipal protection of food and water by means of the 
Public Health enactments. The experimental demonstrations 
are on lines similar to those in the New York City Course, but, 
apparently, rather more detailed attention is given to the various 
methods employed for the preservation of food ; the useful 
question of adulterations and sophistications is raised on several 
occasions, while some possible causes of water pollution are not 
only discussed, but pupils are incited to make their own outside 
observations and to brmg reports for discussion. The chemistry 
of cleaning is introduced towards the completion of the course, 
rather than at its commencement, which, conceivably, might 
lead to more intelligent appreciation of its principles. An ex- 
perienced eye, however, quickly detects the compulsory limitation 
of choice to rapidly-cooked dishes, and trained teachers Avill per- 
ceive that time does not permit the whole preparation of even 
these to be carried through in class, though here, as in NeAV 
York City, general, well-justified reliance seemed to me to be 
placed on home practice. The girls work in groups of two and 
the equipment is good, but materials are cut down to an unwise 
limit. Each teacher is responsible for 20 classes a week, and 
receives poor remuneration, $360 per annum (about £75). No 
normal training in addition to their special subject is required 
at present of teachers, indeed, it could not be at the existing 
salary. 

With the exception of the syllabus, which is framed on some- (c) Phila- 
what old-fashioned conventional lines, Philadelphia offers a clelphia. 
favourable contrast to the conditions obtaining in respect of the 
cooking classes at Toledo. The first permanent cooking centre 
for grammar schools was established in 1889. In 1901, 13 
school kitchens were in operation, and provided instruction for 
about two-thirds of the whole number of girls eligible to attend. 
The course extends through the nine months of one school 
year; each weekly lesson averages 21 hours, and is open to 
'Cth grade scholars. The S3^stem gives each teacher of cooking 
10 classes a week, and about 250 girls attend each centre ; the 
actual number in a class is variable — the inevitable result of (co- 
education in the schools. There is keen competition to bo 
among the selected quota from each school ; indeed, the children 
coming from the best houses arc often among the most eager 
applicants. 



38 



U.S.A. — State Grade ScJwols. 



TABLE 11 



TOLEDO GRAMMAR GRADE SCHOOLS. 
Schedule of Course in Cooking. 





1st Year. 


'ind Year. — Cont. 


Lenp;tli of 

Course, 
Two Years. 


INTKODUOTION, Ilistory and import- 
ance of cooking. 

Table ok Weights and Measures 
(illustrated). 

Boiling or Water, Temperature, 
etc. 

Combustion, different fuels used, 
making and care of a tire. 

Effect of cold and boiling water on 
food principles in starch and 
aU)umen. 

Cereals. 

V KG KT a l: LE C L ASS I FIC AT I ON . 
Seeds Shoots Flowers 
Roots Stalks Fruits 
Tubers Jjcaves Fungi 
Composition and food value. 
Fruits. 

Composition and food value. 
Recitation and Review (typical 
treatment). 
Milk, its composition and food 
value. 

Analysis : Fat shown by making 
a small amount of butter. 

(!asein, by action of rennet .and 
acids. 

jVlilk sugar with alcohol test. 
Danger of disease from milk. 
Introduce opituon of Health 
Officer as to sonic sources of 
contamination. 
Sterilization and its object. 

Soui'S, ec(jnomy of as food. 

Composition and food value of Tea, 
(JoKFKE and Cocoa. 

Le.ssons on the Cuts or Meat. 

Stewing. Economy of thus using 
cheap cuts of meat. 

Pi'eservation of meat by different 
methods. Smoking, salting, 
freezing, cold storage, etc. 

Broiling. Direct application of 
intense heat to cut surface of 
tihrin of meat. How to retain 
the juices of meat. Evils of 
fryitig meat. 

Composition fcod value of iveats. 

Baking Rowdier. Composition. 
Chemical union of .acid and 
alkali, liberating C 0„ : adulter- 
ation with ahun anil starch. 
rrox>oitions of acids and alkali. 

Breads. 

Invalid Cooking. 

Neatness and daintiness of ser- 
vice. 

Thorough cooking of starchy 
foods. 

Low temperature cooking of 

albuminous foods. 
Practice 

Cheesi;. Manufacture, composition 

and food value. 
Table setting and serving. 

Cooking and serving of a simple 

dinner by each class. 
Freezing. 


Eggs. 

Composition and food value. 

Effect of heat upon albumen. 

Test for fresh eggs -preserva- 
tion of. 

Soft and hard cooked. 
Soui'.— Made from meat. 

Amount of meat : slow cooking. 

Stock. 
Meat. 

Review cuts of meat. 
Chickens. 

How to buy. 

How to prepare for cooking. 
Fish. 

How to tell fiesh tish. 
Com))osition and food value. 
Practice. 

RliVlEVV JSIaKING 15READ. 

Digestion of Food. 

ExpHrimcnts with artificial 
digestion. 
F'rying. 
Pastry. 

Wati:r (typical treatment). 
Surface wells. 
Deep wells. 

j Rivers ami brook 
Its .source 4 Springs. 

[ Rain wa'^er. 
Test of hard and soft water. 

( For cooking 
f 1 •!• j iturposes. 
lvea.sons for boihng -j rpj destroy 

I germ life. 
r>anger of surface wells. 
I*u|)iis investigate wells in their 

neighbourhood and report. 
Possible sources of contamination. 
Salads. 

I)essI':rts. Use and abuse. U.se of 
fruits alone and in composition. 
Adulteration of flavouring ex- 
tracts. 

Chemistry of Cleaning. 

f Soap. 

Al-iicri-ils J Washing 
Mattnals ^ T'owder 

l^Ammou'a Sapolio 

Dirt [ 

&a 
f 1 Fresh air. 
Natural ] Sunlight. 
I Heat 

Disin- ! /Carbolic 
fectanis) acid. 

! Sulphur 
V I fumes. 
Flour.— Manufactured flour. 

Spring wheat. 
Winter wheat. 
Analysis of. Separating starch 

and gluten. 
Burn flour to show presmce of 

water aiul mineral matter. 
Yeast.— Where found. 

Methoil of Growth. 
Chemical caused by its 
growth. 
/Lactic. 

Fermentation Alcoholic ( llus- 
VAcetic traied.) 
Table Setting and Serving. 

Daintiness, cleanliness, quiet- 
UPSR. c ' >efu'Me«s. 


Average age, 
13. 

No. in class, 
») 


Grades 
VII & VIII. 


Lessons, 
l^y hours 
"weekly. 


2nd Year. 


»-;iiAysiKioATiON OF Food. 
UsiiJS of food in the body. 
'liiE Human Body. 

Elt-i lents and compounds com- 
posing it. 

Growth. 

Food, its function, waste and 

repair : heat and energy. 
Typical foods of different 



Typical Cooking Courses. 



39 



The course comprises instruction in the usual processes, 
economy, cleanUness, method, promptness, and the development 
of executive ability being the primary objects ; the high standard 
demanded of the special teachers obviates any risk of disparage- 
ment, of the importance of the intellectual value of Domestic 
Science. A manual is provided for the use of the pupils, which 
contains a very extensive variety of dishes, including delicate 
invalid cookery, the selection from which is left to the judgment 
of the teacher. The recipes arc generally distributed, legibly 

Erinted on cards, for use during the lessons, which minimises the 
u'ge amount of time otherwise absorbed by note making, which 
is then limited to a record of methods or other observations. 
The girls work cither individually or in groups, according to the 
particular recipe to be carried out. Both oral teaching and 
practical demonstrations are given by the teachers ; the propor- 
tion of time devoted to the two depends upon the subject under 
consideration, and a little upon the individuality of the teacher ; 
the whole period is never devoted to teaching or demonstration 
except at the introductory lesson The teacher actively directs 
the pupils' work, and where group work is fur some good reason 
inevitable, she divides it so far as may be anjong the members 
of the group in such a way that each member may take part in 
each step of the process. Periodical " quizzes " are conducted 
by the teachers, and examinations form part ot the ciu-riculum ; 
table setting, and the cleaning of room, sink and utensils con- 
stitute a part of such tests. The equipment, with the exception 
of the necessary plumbing, is left entirely to the discretion of 
the Supervisor, Miss Wright ; while very simple it seems com- 
plete. All cooking teachers are required to be graduates of the 
Drexel Institute, and their sound scientific training must 
gradually influence school methods ; the Supervisor is also hope- 
ful of securing by degrees more connection with physiology and 
other suitable subjects now included in the regular school 
course. Numerous instances of home applications were ad- 
vanced, and each child is systematically called upon to say what 
she has done at home each week during the interval between the 
classes. 

At Washington, cooking is an obligatory subject for girls (ri) \Yasliing- 
in the 7th and 8th grades, the total number of lessons ii^?,?^\^;9j 
the two years' course is 72, of 1\ hours' duration. The classes J^'Ji^^^J^- 
are held at centres, each of which swerves a weekly average of 
200 pupils. As has been said, the mmd)er in each class rarely 
exceeds 12 — an arrangement supported by the Supervisor, Miss 
Emma Jacobs, for various reasons, to which I have referred 
below. In the new schools large cjooking laboratories are 
provided ; well fitted, spacious, with an air of great comfort. 
The arrangement of lessons varies somewhat each year, 
though in substance the syllabus is the same; that employed 
the tirst year is repeated in a more extended form during the 
second. All recipes are written from memor}^ after the article 
has been made, except in such cases as soup stock and bread, 
when it is impossible to complete the entire process in the 



40 



U.S.A.-^State Grade Schools. 



(d) Washing lesson period ; these recipes are, therefore, dictated. The oiit- 
linued^^^' ^^^^^ sheep, calf and lamb are supplied to each girl 



pq 



S 4^. 

o 



^ SCI? 



5 O 



;> o X a 



I s 



a; «- i- a 

a> 01 o ci; 



^ " 
I = 'A . 

XI V 



. p 



.S O S ^ * 



'i^ o § ° 

% P m <X, 
C O « ,^ tC 



ce 3j g 



O O S 



5 >. 



is 2 o 

cn 3J X 



1-^ 



Coo 



a 



^0)-- 5 «^ g ^ 2 



2* ^ 

^ O 3 

.2 



HO 



01 

'is 



Typical Cooking Courses. 



41 



attending the classes : these she fills in and numbers as the joints (c?) Wasliino-- 
so defined are cooked or described. The market price is recorded ton—cmi- 
of each article used, and the variation in price of certain articles tinued. 
is also shown, as the date of each statement is recorded for sub- 
sequent comparison ; pupils are called upon at intervals to 
compute the cost of meals from data so collected ; the recipes 
provided give quantities sufficient for six persons. Knowledge 
IS tested by revision lessons, Avhich are very liberally introduced ; 
specimens of home efforts are also invited and constantly brought 
for criticism, while the practical value and influence of the 
work are evidenced by the frequent letters of approval received 
from mothers, grateful for the assistance gained in home life 
from school tuition. The lessons seemed spirited and most 
practical, and were evidently enjoyed by those who took part in 
them. There arc no demonstrations in the English sense of the 
term. Miss Jacobs believes that better results attend work 
performed by the pupils under careful supervision ; she there- 
fore allows only one-third of the twelve girls to w^ork at the same 
time, two as cooks, two as housekeepers, while the remaining 
eight watch, criticise and make notes. Those who are selected 
to work, do so, following the explicit verbal directions of the 
teacher, who can at once see and correct an aw^kward or imper- 
fect movement. If a pupil fails to secure correct manipulation 
the teacher will guide the child's hand, and show how the 
muscles must be controlled, for instance, in the kneadmg of 
bread. If the children are likely to have acquired a poor method 
of holding an implement or using the muscles in some familiar 
home process, the teacher would show the correct and better 
way of doing the work before giving her directions, as wdien 
beating white of eggs to a stift* paste. The fact that no teacher 
can watch at once the work of 20 children and be sure that 
each is doing the work with accurate facility is one of Miss 
Jacob's strongest arguments in favour of the Washington system. 
" Our children," she writes, " are able to work from dictation, 
because from the first day they enter school they are trained to 
obey directions which call into play the muscles of the hands 
and other parts of the body in the execution of orders. Manual 
training begins for them in the Kindergarten, and the work for 
each grade calls into play more groups of muscles and other 
powers. I do not mean to say that the manipulation in the 
cooking classes is all that could be desired, but with only two 
girls at work the teacher secures better results ; thus something 
more perfect is presented to the class without having to use 
every alternate lesson for demonstration on her part." 

High qualifications are demanded of the teachers ; graduates 
of the Pratt or Drexel Institutes, or of some Hrst-class training 
school are preferred. Details of the lessons and personal obser- 
vation show th(^ attention d(n ot(Ml to learning the " reason why," 
to basing practice on intelligent knowledge, and the importance 
attached to thoroughness. Frequent revision, even at the 
expense of fewer recipes, is preferred to mere mechanical 



42 



U.S.A. — State Grade Schools. 



compliance with a stipulated programme. The intelligent efforts 
to connect the Domestic Science work with the language, 
literature and plan work (geography) throughout the grades 
are largely due to Miss Jacob's intiuence; e.g. in the Nature 
work, under animals, the bee, hen, duck and rabbit (creatures 
of food value to mankind) are discussed and studied ; under 
plants, the development, growth and fruition of the bean and 
pea and their uses in the daily diet, are observed and noted ; 
under institutional life, ice, ice wagons, ice houses, markets, 
their produce, how and why sold, find a place. In number 
work, simple exercises in the application of the number of pecks 
in a bushel, quarts in a gallon and so on, are based on articles 
in common family use. Jn language work, work done in and 
around a home is often the selected sid)ject, with the direct 
object of arousing- interest in the right fulfilment of home duties. 
The formation of good habits in the protection and right care of 
food is fortunately promoted by the stringent milk regulations 
in force in Washington.* 
Coat of sunmiarise accurately the expenditure involved by Grade 

Classes. School Cooking Courses is impossible; the cost of ecpiipment is 
much affected by the prices which rule in a particular city or 
State— labour is nuicli dearer in the east than in the west, to 
the extent of almost doubling ttie cost of some articles, such as 
tables — metal work is subject to almost equal variations, and the 
"appropriations" granted bring in another element of un- 
certainty. In Chicago, given a suitable room, $150 (£80) sulHces 
to equip a class of 24 well ; but, were other figures quoted, they 
Avould admit of no really accurate comparison. In more than 
one city the cooking tables were made by the boys as part of 
their manual training course. The cost per head per lesson is 
much more generally the same, one cent represents a fair average. 
At New York City the cost varies from | cent to 1 J cents ; at 
Boston it must not exceed | cent ; at Chicago 1^ cent is the rule; 
at Detroit, Ih cent is allowed. This means that the quantities 
for individual work are very small, though, as a whole, food 
stuffs, and especially vegetables and fruit, are cheaper than in 
]l]ngland. Each class eats on the spot the food it has prepared, 
miless request be made to take specimens away from the centre 
for display to the Principal or teacher at the school attended. 
This custom is prevalent throughout every grade of institution. 
I still reineml)er the novel impression it conveyed to me, as a 
complete stranger, on the occasion of my visit to the Pratt 
Institute shortly after my arrival in the United States. I had 
watched the class of normal students engaged in the prepji ration 
of a suitable meal for a child of IS months; immediately the 
processes were complete and had been criticised by the teacher, 
e.ich drew out her sliding seat, sat down and, with the most 
businesslike air, disposed of her handiwork. The English 

■^^ No person or company is permitted to send milk into the city who 
does not conform to the requirements as to air space, cleanliness, ])rotection 
of the milk, etc., in the cow byres and dairies from which the milk is 
des])atched. The rules are stated to be rigidly enforced. 



Needlework. 



43 



method of selhng the food cooked excited very severe comments : 
the general opinion was that only by eating her production could 
a student of any age test its quality and really gauge its short- 
comings or good points. To require children to handle, smell, 
see, savoury or sweet dishes, and then to turn their backs upon 
them was considered a relic indeed of Puritan days. As each 
Grade School Course includes the making of cake and ice cream 
(the latter really almost a national dish), on some occasions a 
truly festive spirit pervades the kitchens. The usual plan is to 
conclude the whole course with the cooking and serving of a 
sinq)le three-course dinner, to which are invited some members 
of the Board of Echication, or the Principal and a few of the 
staff; the young cooks are responsible for the provision, for a 
given sum, of a suitable aiid seasonable meal, in siilliciL'nt 
nutritive proportions. The dainty ways and quick ])cr('ej)lions 
observable in American girls make them deft at the table servi(;e 
upon which such stress is laid during the cooking courses, and 
table manners " are by no means neglected. I was glad to hear 
emphasis laid upon daily care and method i-ather than upon the 
occasional display for which this concluding dinner might other- 
Avise set a precedent. 

Salaries are a variable quantity, thougii Toledo is fortunately Teachers, 
conspicuous in its very low scale of reimmeration. Those in 
force at Chicago seem to me a fairly usual average : i.e. $500 
(£100) the lirst year, rising by annual increase of $50 or $100 
to $900 (about £180). The tendency is for the salaries of special 
teachers to rise. As each year the standard of training is some- 
what raised, the Normal and Technical Institute classes are 
followed by a higher class of women; superintendents also 
realise the valu'3 to the work of " all round " as well as ot 
" special " knowledge, and demand evidence of a good general 
education as well as expert knowledge. The grade school 
teacher of cookery is not one apart, she is as highly trained and 
qualified as any one of her colleagues, and shares their lives nnd 
interests. I have reason to believe that the tea(?hers at the 
Hyde School, Boston, are not unique in their frecjuently volun- 
tary meetings to discuss the inter-rela,tions between the various 
subjects for which they are severally responsible, so that in- 
telligent interest may be stimulated by co-ordination of subjects 
in all the various classes, cookery taking its place on equal terms 
with history, literature, or languages. 

2. — Needleworl', 

Needlework is not an accepted " constant quantity " in a Of recent 
United States public school programme as it is in Great ^^"^^ ^i?''^"^^ 
Britain. It is not imusual to learn that the introduction of the adoption, 
subject, for so limited a p(^riod as even one or two years out of 
the eight which constitute the full curriculum, coincides only 
with the comparatively recent adoption of manual training into 
the schools of such cities as Detroit or Cleveland, and it would 
be possible to name inq:)ortant towns where no instruction at / 
all in sewing is included in (^lemontary school work. / 



44 



U.S.A.—State Grade Schools, 



Various causes are assigned for this fact: (1) There are 
those who attribute it to the very rapid development of the 
country, with which its system of education, in spite of its great 
elasticity, finds it no easy task to keep pace ; but a few years 
since, in many districts the distance to bo accomplished to reach 
a school made the attendance so limited in time that only 
subjects which could not be acquired at home found a place in 
the time table. (2) The sudden advancement of industrial 
fortunes coincident with the country's grov/tli threw the mental 
perspective of the masses awry, so that parental and public 
misconceptions of the value and dignity of manual occupations 
bulk yet as large obstacles to the universal introduction of 
needlework into the Grade schools. (8) The world-wide, slow- 
dying delusion that book-learning is the only agent of culture, 
and that attention should be concentrated upon the printed page 
during school hours, is still responsible for the continued exist- 
ence of a monotony of method under some Boards of Education 
by whom the intellectual stimulus derived from variety of occu- 
pation is as yet imperfectly recognised. 
Methods of Outside New England the present rapid adoption of needle- 
Teaching work as a school subject seems to me the direct outcome of an 
and Length evident reaction in favour of almost any form of manual occupa- 
Course. iIqyi. The shortcomings for purposes of absolute exactness in 
manipulation inherent in the employment of finely-woven, 
pliable materials, which also make considerable demands on eye- 
sight, and favour " coaxings " to conceal slight inaccuracies, are 
overlooked or condoned, in view of the other facilities offered. 
One of the most attractive of these is the small expense incurred 
by the employment of needlework as a branch of manual train- 
ing for girls, where boys enjoy the superior advantages, for the 
special educational object in view, of wood and metal work. 
To maintain, so far as possible, the parallelism of the two em- 
ployments, several directors of the subject in different cities 
have adopted the method of dealing with the various stitches as 
so many " exercises," to be carried out on pieces of unbleached 
calico from 4^1 x 4^ inches square to 9 x 5 inches in size. 
These are then fastened into a book, to be retained by the pupil ; 
usually written descriptions, and very frequently excellent pencil 
sketches, are appended of the position of the hand in sewing, 
for instance, or the fixing of the material for a bias seam. Un- 
less the acquirement of the usual stitches be followed by their 
sufficient application to a suitable garment, these "exercises" are 
decidedly unsatisfactory. All difficulties of manipulation are 
emphasised by the use of such small pieces of material, in- 
sufficient in themselves to provide space for real practice or to 
reproduce ordinary conditions of employment; and the learneronly 
experiences the discouragement attendant on most first attempts, 
unmitigated by the subsequent realisation of the power gained 
througii repetition and constant application. This from the 
utilitarian point of view. From that of manual training, does 
not the real worth of any " exercise " adopted for this purpose 
depend upon sufficient time alloAvance to favour, if possible, to 



Needlewoi'k. 



ensure, the individual development of accuracy, facility and Methods of 
skill ; does it not almost presuppose sufncient opportunity for '^j^j^L^'^f.i.] 
repetition, so that success be gained by sturdy strides of indepen- of Course ^ 
dence, though these involve a few bad falls, rather than by care- —continued. 
fully guided, faltering, unstable steps, as of an infant, whose leading 
strings have spared it any hard tumble, but have robbed it at the 
same time of the healthful spirit of active self-reliance ? I am 
by no means alone in the opinion that these " sample " books, if 
desired, should form the apex, not the base, of such a course, 
when their contents would serve to demonstrate the skill gained 
by long practice on actual garments, rather than the painfully 
executed handiwork of untrained lingers. 

This, at best unsatisfactory, method seemed to me to be 
carried to an extreme at Toledo, in spite of the undoubtedly 
good intention of the organiser ; all the 5th and 6th grade pupils 
receive 75 minutes manual training instruction per week. The 
special teachers visit each school in pairs, a teacher of wood- 
work and a teacher of sewino; too^ether. The mixed classes are 
divided, and the boys do chip- work on one side of their ordinary 
class-rooms, while the girls learn to sew upon the other side. 
The course for each term contains a certain number of problems 
and pieces, with the object of allowing a pupil to progress slowly 
or rapidly according to ability, and to secure for each child a 
fair share of individual attention. Thirty pieces of needlework 
must be completed during the two j^ears ; as a consequence, very 
small samples of each stitch or its application are possible, and 
the results, as observed, did not appear very satisfactory. The 
boys were interested, eager, and happy; the girls uninterested, 
bored, and rather careless. This introduction to " Manual Train- 
ing " is succeeded in grades 7 and 8 by cooking for the girls 
and by carpentry for the boys ; the change of attitude among 
the girls was significant and striking. 

The length of these sewing courses as well as the methods 
adopted are variable ; that advocated in " Scientific Sewing and 
Garment Cutting," by Antoinette Wakeman and Louise M. 
Heller, illustrates one in common use (this seemed a favourite 
book wich teachers). The latter lady is the originator of a 
system of cutting out generally adopted, which is guided by 
simple, easily-comprehended, mathematical principles. 

This manual provides for sewing practice throughout the eight 
public school grades ; an exceptional arrangement at present, 
for there are still cities where girls get no training in needlework 
under high school age. The usual length of grade school course 
is two years, though Philadelphia and Brooklyn cover approxi- 
mately the ground dealt with in Miss Heller's book, during the 
five years needlework is taught in their schools. 

The custom seems general of employing coarse canvas for 
beginners, and at no period of the grade school course is the use 
of fine material approved ; coloured thread on a cream-toned 
material is generally employed during the first stages. The 
methods of instruction and usual scope of practice closely re- 
semble those usual in this country, but 1 think greater emphasis 



46 



U.S.A. — State Grade Schools. 



is laid on the artistic side ; grace of form, taste in colour, selec- 
tion and (combination are dealt with at every stage. Large 
frames with coarse canvas are supplied for tlie teachers' demon- 
strations, and a very liberal use is made of the blackboard for 
illustrative purposes. Satisfactory importance is attached to 
cleanliness and care in keeping of mat erials.* 
Specimen i include a few notes on the courses and methods I observed 
Coursey. in different cities, but, as I have already said, there is too wide a 
diversity of detail in practice to permit of generalisations, while 
the tenor of the whole is closely allied to what has been long- 
established in England. 
(a.) Brof k- Brookline (Mass.) needlework is continued throughout the 

line, Mas^:. grades in a few schools where French and Latin are not taught. 

in the other schools an hour a week is devoted to it from Grades 
in. to VL inclusive. The co-educational system is here consis- 
tently enforced : boys share these classes with the girls and 
prove themselves very adept in the use of the needle. An excellent 
example of home work recurs to my memory in the form of a 
neatly patched knee in a cloth knickerbocker, executed by the 
small boy wearer. At this particular school one room was set 
apart for sewing. The actual method of instruction by the 
motherly teacher might be described as " old fashioned," but the 
results secured and the interest aroused spoke volumes for its 
merits, plus, of course, the personality of the instructress. She 
mentioned Avith gratification the increased neatness and atten- 
tion to personal appearance apparent after a few weeks' attendance 
in her classes, and referred also to the influence on posture and 
carriage which follows the making and fitting of simple blouses 
by the girls in the upper grades. Additional and useful interest 
is lent to these sewing lessons by the use of a well-proportioned 
doll, equal in size to a child of three or four years of age, upon 
Avhich garments of every description are fitted b}^ their makei-s, 
who are thus stimulated to accuracy in measurement, care in 
cutting out., skill in fitting, and to a generally business-like 
attitude in their manipulaticm of materials. 

*Mi.ss fleller describes an inexpensive case in which work and materials 
can be kept • which, with modifications for convenience, was to be nc^ticed 
in several schools. 

It consists of a series of nine wooden shelves arranged between two 
standards, 4^x1 ft., i)laccd against a wall. Arranged in tiers of seven 
on each shell' are strong pasteboard boxes, furnished with small brass 
rings, so that they can be tlrawn out with ease. Each box is 12 
ins. long by 8 wide by 5 deep. On the front part, beneath the ring, is 
l)asted a slip of paper bearing the name of the pu})il whose work is placed 
in the box. The innate mechanical ability of the Americans shows itself in 
many little neat, simple devices of tliis kind, which economise troubh', and 
promote order and cleanliness. At ]>uflalo, the boys make w(n'k-calnnets 
for the girls' use as part of their manual training. In some Philadelphian 
. , . . schools a simple labour saving appliance is in use, devised and made by 

one of the staff (Miss Trumble). A ])iece of stiff card is fitted about Ih 
ins. below the surface of a wooden (cigar) box, the card being perforated 
with rows of oblong holes. At the conclusion of each sewing class the box 
is carried round by one of the pupils ; each of her companions drops her 
]iair of scissors into one of the slits, the number of which corresponds with 
the number of scissors in use. The whole number are thus rapidly collecteel 
and ready for the next occasion, the absence of a pair is immediately 
detected, while the scissor blades are protected from damage and dust. 



SjMchnen Needlework Courses. 



47 



To arouse a similar active spirit of self-help in their sewing (h.) Boston, 
classes seems the object of many Boston teachers. At an exliibit 
of the year's needlework in one school I saw not only creditable 
sewing, especially in the execution of buttonholes, but undergar- 
ments and blouses cut out and made at home almost without any 
assistance or supervision ; these gave evidence of personal selection 
on the part of the maker, combined with efforts to produce what 
would beof service at home and satisfactory to the teacher at school. 

In the schools of Cleveland, Ohio, manual training includes (c.) Cleve- 
sewing, and the whole is under the charge of a male supervisor, land, Ohio, 
a not infrequent occurrence; the work is considered to be 
developing satisfactorily. In the earlier grades simple cla}^ 
modellmg, cutting and pasting of paper into cubes, prisms, etc., is 
the rule for both sexes. Subsequently boys have drawing, knife 
and woodwork, while girls have sewing in grades V. VI. and VII., 
and cooking in Grade VIII. The sewing course covers running, 
basting, overcasting, hemming and stitching. These are applied 
in grade V. to small model aprons, pillow-slips and laundry bags. ] n 
grade VI., in addition to " review lessons " of stitches previously 
learned, corners are "mitred," patches prepared and henuned, 
bands cut and stitched, ruffles gathered and sewn. In grade VII. 
buttonholes are made, garments brought from home are darned 
and patched, and simple garments are cut out in calico and print. 

In Philadelphia, 40 instructors in sewing work are under the 
direction of a most able woman supervisor. Miss Kirby. Each of ^ phiia- 
her staff has an assigned district comprising adjacent schools ; deipliia. 
about 60,000 girls are eligible for, and receive these lessons : Table IV. 
boys share the instruction in some schools and are among the 
brightest pupils. The course covers six grades (III. to VJIL). 
The City allows G cents per annum for each child engaged in 
sewing. There are two lessons a week of 35 or 40 minutes each. 
Every pupil is provided with needles, pins, thimble, scissors, 
buttonhole scissors, cotton, dressmakers' scales, emery bags, 
drafting paper and calico. Very free use is made of the black- 
board by teachers, who endeavour, by question and answer, to 
enable each pupil to grasp the underlying principles of their 
work. The genuine enthusiasm aroused speaks volumes for the 
excellence of the teaching ; great pleasure and pride, of a purely 
disinterested character, are taken by ilie children in this subject, 
for neither marks nor j^romotion depend upon the ])roficiency 
displayed. The reward for progress takes the form of permission 
to make some dainty and atti-active article, su(;h as an 
embroidered petticoat, a smocked frock, a Liberty hat for a 
younger member of the family, or some special garment whi(?h 
appeals to the fancy of the young seamstress. In each grade I 
saw specimens of really ex([uisite needlework, Avhich seemed the 
rule rather than the exception. Instruction in how to draft and 
cut paper patterns is given systematically throughout the course; 
the elder girls manifestly enjoy the cutting and fitting of a 
simple dress and blouse, Av hich form the sidjjectof their last year s 
needlework. All the course is carried through in tlie ordinary 
class-rooms; table acconunodation is provided for the cutting out. 



48 



U.S.A. — State Grade Sclwots. 



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Needletuork Courses. 



49 



In Washington, sewing is taken for Ih hours a week during (e) Washing- 
4 years of the school hfe. The number in each class averages 
25 for plam sewing, 18 for the cutting and fitting of plain 
dresses ; special rooms are provided for these latter classes at 
convenient centres, and excellent practical training in more than 
mere dressmaking is the result of the method adopted. Mathe- 
matical precision is required in the patterns designed and 
drafted, " while attention is directed also to the development of 
the activities and creative faculties " through drawing and colour 
design. The teacher gives frequent " talks" on the processes of 
manufacture, illustrated with samples of the various processes 
to which each material is subjected, and the girls gain a working 
knowledge of how to distinguish good from bad materials. As a 
rule, pupils bring a sufficient number of home articles in need of 
careful darning for ample practice when that stage is reached in 
the course, and the girls are quite commonly enthusiastic enough 
to cut out and make blouses for themselves at home, which they 
subsequently wear at school for the approval of the teacher and 
the admiration of their friends. 

The salaries of sewing teachers are, as a rule, similar to Teachers, 
those earned by teachers of cooking. A t Boston, for instance, the 
maximum for both is identical, $936 (£187) ; but, whereas, the 
minimum salary for a teacher of cooking is $532 (£106), subject 
to an annual increase of $48 (about £10) that of the sewing 
teacher depends on the number of " divisions " for which she is 
responsible ; thus, in the Annual Report by the Boston Board of 
Education, it is stated in School Document No. 2, 1900, that the 
salary for a teacher of sewing in one division is $144 (£28), in two 
divisions, $240 (£48), three divisions, $336 (£67), and so up to 
eleven divisions $880 (£176) the maximum is $936 (£187) for 
teachers of over eleven divisions. 

The custom of employing specially trained women seems in- 
variable ; frequently they are required to be graduates of the 
Pratt or Drexel Institutes, or of some other institution of re- 
cognised standing. The special training is as a rule supple- 
mentary to the general preparation demanded of all teachers ; 
it includes a knowledge of common textiles and their manufac- 
ture, ability to design, draw and draft patterns, practical 
acquaintance with sewing machines (hand and foot, of various 
makes), the details of needlework, and a certified familiarity with 
educational principles as applied in the teaching of sewing. 

Although it is a general and advantageous custom to include Dress- 
the cutting and making of a simple blouse in the majority of Making, 
grade school sewing courses (while in one or two cities the Millinery, 
cutting and making of a " housemaid " skirt is utilised to intro- ^^jljf J^^^. 
duce elder girls to the use of the sewing machine), the instruc- taught in 
tion so given could not be described as dressmaking. Grade 
Neither that subject, nor millinery, nor laundry work, have Schools, 
yet found a place in the United States elementary schools. 
Dressmaking or millinery would be out of place where compul- 
sory school life ends at 13 or 14 ; of the time devoted to needle- 
work the whole nuist be expended on the acquisition of its 

6490 D 



50 



U.S.A. — State Grade Sc J tools. 



elements. Considerable diversity of opinion prevails as to the 
desirability of introducing laundrywork into the grade schools. 
Parental opposition appears to be pronounced, and those who 
advocate its inclusion are forced to recognise that the time is 
not yet ripe. This is the more strange in that most women of 
all classes take a more active share in housework than is usual 
in this country, and the washing of ordinary articles is generally 
done at home ; the charges at a public laundry are very high, 
double or even treble those general in this country; but it must 
be confessed that the results seem to compensate for the cost : 
professional laundry work is more of a fine art, more akin to 
the best French clear starching than it is in England. 

3 . — Housew i fery. 

Method of Housewifery, as a separate subject, does not appear in 
teaching Grade school courses. Great attention is given in the cooking 
Housewifery courses to the cleaning of kitchen fittings and utensils, and to 
in Cookery ^j^^ cleaning of floor and furniture. A usual method employed 
essons. .^^^ towards the conclusion of each lesson, to divide the girls into 
groups of two or three ; of these one group will wash utensils, 
another rinse, a third will dry, a fourth will clean the stove or 
sink ; another group will put each article in its place, while one 
group is told oft* to superintend and inspect the work of the rest 
of the class. As an instance of what care will do, apart from the 
incidental training in good methods, I saw saucepans in ex- 
cellent order in one Boston school which had been used for 9 
years by 13 classes weekly with 30 girls in each. The causes 
and sources of household dirt, and the reasons why the diflerent 
cleansing agents attain their object are usually treated in detail ; 
experiments are made with the cleaning of metals with different 
materials, and their effectiveness is compared ; e.g., tarnished brass 
articles are rubbed respectively Avith rottenstone, with rotten- 
stone and water, with rottenstone and oil, with vinegar or with 
lemon juice ; the results are turned to account for the inculca- 
tion of underlying scientific principles, which are thus thoroughly 
brought home to the children, who seem to gain an intelligent 
comprehension of some of the physical and chemical changes of 
matter, to be able to differentiate elements from compounds, 
and to understand practically some of the relations and pro- 
perties of acids, bases and salts. The staining of steel, the 
corrosion of tin and other metal ware by potatoes or fruit ; the 
action of the acids in meat or fruit upon the tins in which they 
are preserved when these are opened to the air ; the unwholesome 
products liable to be so formed ; all afford endless opportunities 
for the application of these principles, once their existence is 
realised, and should foster " systematic knowledge of things per- 
taining to the home." The subject of "Living and Dead Dust" 
treated on similar experimental lines, introduces girls to an 
elementary conception of the causes which favour the develop- 
ment of moulds, yeasts, and bacteria; e.g., a piece of bread, 
cheese, or some cooked fruit, is exposed to the air for a few days, 



Hou^eivifery. 



51 



covered sufficiently to be kept moist, and the resultant growth Method of 
is examined with hand lens and microscope, comparisons being taaching 
instituted with specimens kept entirely protected from the air, Housewifery 
or allowed to dry. ^ _ ^ Wns"'^ 

Methods of household cleanliness outside the kitchen are —continued. 
included in some cookery courses: at Brookline (Mass.), for 
instance, a bed and simply furnished room are provided in 
one school cooking centre, where the airing and making of a 
bed, with the daily care of a bedroom, are taught by demonstra- 
tion and practice. This is, however, exceptional ; such instruc- 
tion when given, is most usually theoretical, and is ordinarily 
deferred to the more advanced High school course. 

Great stress is laid in all cooking courses upon the cost of food 
materials, and the relative nutrient properties of food stuffs of differ- 
ent qualities and of various prices, specially in connection with the 
different cuts of meat. Thanks to the work of Professor Atwater 
and his assistants and to the liberality of the State Department 
of Agriculture, a vast amount of more reliable information upon 
diet and food-stuffs is gratuitously available in the United States 
than in Great Britain, and this is turned to excellent practical 
account by good teachers in the schools. It is not the custom 
to entrust the outside purchase of commodities to the children 
composing a class ; to send untrained girls to select articles, a 
judgment of whose qualities they are not competent to form, is 
regarded as unprofitable. The teacher, without exception, 
discusses the price of her own purchases, her reason for selection, 
and the signs by which she has been guided; she will also 
occasionally take her class to the market and draw their attention 
to the choice available and to the features which should 
influence a wise choice. Towards the end of their course the 
girls are called upon to practise the drawing up of a plan of a 
day's or a week's meals, which must contain a definite amount 
of nutriment for a given sum ; from a series of these exercises 
one menu will be selected for preparation, which is then probably 
served to school managers or parents as the finale of the school 
year. Reference has been already made to these little functions, 
which consist usually of a three-course breakfast or dinner. 

Table service and " table manners " are dealt with very practi- 
cally and with repeated emphasis. The girls waiting on the 
several occasions when refreshment was served to me during 
visits to schools, gave evidence that their dexterity was the 
outcome of studied and intelligent practice: the natural 
deftness of the American girl makes her an apt pupil where 
taste and neatness are demanded. The higher standard of 
living which prevails generally in the United States may 
account for a rather different attitude towards this part of 
the training from that usual in this country, where, so far, 
such teaching is confined to our primary schools; neverthe- 
less, in cities like New York, Boston or Chicago, where some 
quarters are given up to the poorest and most recently arrived 
emigrants, 1 found dainty methods and refined " table manners " 
inculcated and exercised with reiterated carc,and not by any means 



6490. 



52 



U.S.A. — State Grade Schools. 



An Obliga- 
tory Subject. 



Attitude of 
Teachers ; 
Methods of 
Teaching. 



in the cooking classes only— the " Good Habits Talks " deal con- 
stantly with the subject. 

4. — Hygiene. 

The obligatory inclusion of the elements of Hygiene and 
Physiology in the time-table of all primary and grammar schools 
in almost every State of the Union is the direct result of the 
persistent and successful efforts made to obtain legislation on 
the subject by the Women's Christian Temperance Union, which 
advocates this method of arming the rising generation against 
subsequent temptations to excess in the consumption of either 
stimulants or narcotics. The extent of this vast influence, which 
has imposed uniformity in even one particular upon a national 
system priding itself upon its elastic independence, is not easily 
appreciated in a country such as ours, where centralisation is the 
rule, as far, at least, as elementary education is concerned ; 
and though there are some wise and thoughtful minds who 
question the realisation of the ideal by this means, there 
certainly appeared to me to be a promise of good fruit, not so 
much directly from the occasionally crude inculcation of so-called 
" temperance " doctrines, as, indirectly, from the coincident 
lessons on good habits, and the simple, reiterated instruction on 
the beauty and complexity of the human body and its functions. 
To these lessons so many hours must be devoted for so many 
weeks each year for the seven or eight years of elementary edu- 
cation ; the very text books employed must, in most States, be 
submitted to the Council of the Temperance Organisation, 
before circulation in the schools. Both requirements are really 
working for good, though at a regrettable expenditure of" 
friction and irritation on the part of those who disapprove of the 
compulsory introduction of highly debateable topics. 
The " Good Habits Talks " in the lower grades are not 
only very popular with the little ones, for they deal 
chiefly with familiar surroundings, and with that centre of 
deepest interest to the young child — his own self — but they are 
found to offer a broad field for the cultivation of other subjects. 
As these simple lessons gradually develop in the higher grades 
into more specific treatment of hygiene and physiology, direct 
stress is laid on the dignity of the body, and its dependence 
upon environment for the attainment of perfection, emphasis 
being meanwhile given to the claims of home life in all its rela- 
tions. Such teaching demands previous acquaintance with the 
subject by the teachers, especially as the tendency is to encourage 
practical illustrations; consequently more care is now devoted 
to the study of hygiene and physiology in the Normal schools 
and State colleges, with undeniable advantages to the students 
and their prospective pupils. 

The irritation and soreness which followed the adoption of 
these coercive measures are, though visibly existent, gradually 
giving place among some of the more thoughtful and intelligent 
to a recognition of the undoubted value of the subject, when 
shorn of the questionably desirable obligation to include specific 



Obligatory Teaching of Hygiene. 53 



instruction upon the effects of alcohol and narcotics upon the Attitude of 

human body. Its educational possibilities show themselves to Teachers ; 

be ample. It excites interest, exercises observation and reason, Methods of 

links school lessons with daily life, promotes reverence for the ^^^^^y}^ 
ij i- r 1^ 111^1 — continued 

body, suggests reasons tor everyday customs, and lends them a 

new dignity, fosters good habits, and affords a convenient 
gathering ground for the clans of nature work, geography, 
history, science (elementary or advanced), art and physical 
exercise. Manual work and field trips, both desirable in a 
well-planned curriculum, are almost essential elements in its 
study, while in the upper grades, in skilled hands, the first 
principles of economics and sociology open young eyes to a wider 
social world than has been hitherto conceived. Already a 
respectable proportion of superintendents, inspectors and 
teachers are agreed as to the undoubted claims of hygiene to 
recognition on other than reforming grounds; while none but 
affirmative answers were offered to m}^ persistent inquiries as to 
its attraction for and influence over the children. The some- 
what hot partisan spirit apparent in a number of the recognised 
text-books, to which exception is taken by principals and 
teachers alike, results also m the more general employment of 
that preferable method, which discards implicit reliance on the 
printed page in favour of more apparently spontaneous instruc- 
tion by the teacher. In some cases the modified laboratory 
method adopted enables pupils to gain their information at first 
hand, chiefly by direct observation of the concrete object, though 
this plan is yet in its infancy. The details of these State laws 
vary slightly as to numbers of hours and weeks per year that 
the instruction must find a place in the time-table : the 
minimum period appears to be 10 weeks, the maxiiiuun 6 
months annually, with five, four, three or two weekly periods of 
instruction, given to both sexes, of each grade, in every public 
school. 

A fair presentation of the whole movement and a well- 
balanced revicAV of the questions involved may be found in the 
" Educational Review" for March and J une, 1902. Superintendent 
W. B. Ferguson (Middletown, Conn.) takes for his text the recent 
modification of the State law which was carried a few months 
ago, and his remarks embody my own impressions of the best 
educational thought on the subject as I heard it expressed 
during my recent visit. 

In the course of this article Superintendent Ferpjuson traces the history of 
what he describes as "one of the most remarkal)]c movements in modern 
times. The Connecticut statute of 1893 resembled in its general features 
the statutes of several other States : it was less stringent than the law 
of New York, Ilhnois, or New Jersey, but more exact than that of 
Massachussetts or Pennsylvania." The statute has been in force eight years. 
" The hope entertained by the Women's Christian Temperance Union of 
effecting a thorough temperance reform in society by teaching the chihlreii 
the effects of alcohol on the liuman body rests upon the old Socratic 
philosophy that knowledge of evil ensures the avoidance of evil, that 
people do wrong from ignorance only." . . . This instruction was to be 
given in c()nnecti{»n with Physiology and Hygiene, but " temi)erance was 
to be made the chief object." The writer ])oints out that the first greaf 



'54 



U.S.A. — State Grade Schools. 



Attitude of i»istake made by the temperance leaders was to compel publishers to revise 
Teachers • their text books on " Physiology " and to incorporate in them chapters on 
Methods of narcotics. "These books, therefore, instead of being scientifically accurate, 
Teaching contained statements that contradict both science and the everyday 
—continued, observations of men." 

Superintendent Ferguson deals admirably with one reason for the general 
disapproval of these "endorsed" Physiologies by intelligent teachers, 
namely "the emphasis placed upon facts— or assumed facts — that appeal to 
fear, and to negative teaching chiefly, to the disregard of facts that 
appeal to manliness and the moral nature, and to the omission of much that 
should be given to emphasise the beauty, nobility, and strength of a 
temperate life. The poverty, crime and misery of the drunkard are 
hysterically held up to the gaze of the children, but the steady hand, the 
distinct speech, the quick senses, the healthy body, the clear brain, the 
success and happiness of the temperate man are scarcely mentioned. Says 
Professor S. T. Button of Columbia University : "We do not teach hygiene 
by the study of disease, cleanliness by the observation of filth, nor purity 
by the contemplation of vice. . . . We teach truth, kindness, 
generosity by pointing to men and women who exemplify those virtues." 
Froebel's injunction was so "to fill the mind with the beautiful that there will 
be no room for the ugly." . . . We do not contend that the evil effects of 
alcohol and tobacco should never be pointed out to children. They should 
be, but chiefly in order that by contrast the nobility, strength and success 
of the temperate life may be made more impressive. . . . This temperance 
education law had been tried in Connecticut eight years with results that 
were unsatisfactory to both teachers and temperance leaders, when, suddenly, 
the widespread opposition to the law that had been gathering force among 
the educators became manifest and made itself felt in favour of radical 
modifications. . . . It was suggested that a committee of school teachers 
be ai»pointed to confer with the officers of the temi)erance organisation of 
the State, with eminently satisfactory results. . . . Oreat honour is due to 
the temperance i)eople of Connecticut, especially the W.C/.T.II., for mani- 
festing a broad-mindedness and a spirit of conciliation which made agree- 
ment with the teachers possible. They placed duty before policy, good 
teaching before any desire for a "perfect" law, and the interests of the 
children before the fear or pleasure of anybody. The future will show, we 
believe, that in winning the respect and confidence of the teachers by 
uniting with them in support of a more reasonable temperance education 
law they " builded better than they knew." ... If this statute be compared 
with that of 1893, the following chief difference will appear, the present 
law does not re(iuire tempemnce insti-uction below the fourth grade, nor in 
the high school ; it does not require the use of text books below the sixth 
grade, nor the use in any grade of books that devote any definite ])ortion of 
space to narcotics. Neither does it require the use of text-books by the 
pupils. All these requirements were definitely specified in the statute of 
1893." 

It seems probable that similar action will be graduall}- taken 
in other States, for Avhicli reason I include a reference^ to the 
preliminary report of the Committee of the New York State 
Science Teachers' Association, which is distinguished by its 
temperate tone, and by its recognition of the unquestionable 
advantages to be gained if the desired instruction be wisely and 
scientifically imparted. 

The opinions and recommendations submitted in their 
preliminary Report on "School Instruction in the Effects of 
Stimulants and Narcotics" by this Committee deals with (1) the 
discrepancies which exist on this subject between the scientific 
text books used in Universities and Medical Schools and the 
" endorsed " text books employed in the public schools ; (2) the 
extrenie complexity of the problem involved; (3) a resume of 
the opinions of upwards of 200 teachers regarding the present 



Obligatory Teaching of Hygiene. 



55 



required methods of teaching physiology ; (4) the Committee's Attitude of 
conclusions from their investigations, and (5) their reconimenda- Teachers ; 
tions. No doubt is raised as to the great importance of the Methods of 
proper study of physiolosry in both sfrade and hi^h schools ^^^^'^]^^ 
" because of the practical teachings of hygiene that may be thus 
widely diffused," but it is pointed out that so far there is no 
evidence " of a marked change of sentiment in the young either 
for or against the use of " stimulants and narcotics, while " by 
the unpedagogic methods employed (frequent and unnecessary 
repetition, the exhibition of charts showing morbid physiological 
conditions, etc.) it succeeds only in cultivating in children an 
abhorrence of the beautiful and useful science of physiology ; " 
therefore the recommendations urge modification of the existing 
arbitrary laws; — freedom for teachers to decide as to the 
character and content of their instruction in physiology and 
hygiene; broad truthful teaching on the subject of alcohol and 
narcotics until this modification has been effected, time being 
devoted to a treatment of the subject from the moral and 
economic rather than the physiological standpoint. I have 
dwelt thus in detail with the present attitude of the teaching 
world towards this question, because of its importance to us in 
Great Britain. Daily evidence of the want of self-control in the 
use of stimulants confronts even the least observant among us ; 
the necessity for checking the continuance of a menace to the 
nation's health and prosperity is generally recognised ; the most 
effectual methods of inculcating self-control, and removing 
causes contributory to its destruction or inhibition are yet to 
seek. I believe that our great neighbours across the sea are on 
the right road when they include in their school curriculum 
lessons in self-respecting patriotism and such a practical 
acquaintance with the body and its working as to stimulate 
the acquirement of hygienic habits. It will be readily recognised 
that meanwhile, and in spite of its limitations, this legal 
obligation to include the elements of physiology and of personal 
and domestic hygiene in the curriculum of all Primary and 
Grammar Schools thro^ighout at least seven - eighths of the 
United States results in the devotion of much more attention 
to these subjects than would otherwise be the case. As the 
primary object has hitherto been to secure to each boy and girl 
simple teaching, impressed by constant repetition, on the pernicious 
effects of alcohol and narcotics on the human body, the laws 
usually demand that one third of the specified time be set 
apart for this immediate purpose. Originally the coincident 
lessons on the structure, functions, needs and possibilities of the 
body were included to supply reasons upon which to base the 
special instruction. My observations gave me the conviction 
that in the hands of the greater number of superintendents, 
principals and teachers, the first has become last ; every allow- 
able minute, and possibly a good many more, is devoted to 
instilling the general principles of healthy living, the 
temperance " teaching is reduced to a minimum and often 
given under protest — wisely so, in the opinion of some whn are 



56 



U.S.A.-State Grade Schools. 



qualified to be the best judges. To give lessons of apparent and 
desirable simplicity on a highly complex subject to immature 
minds is an achievement possible only to the few, as, for instance, 
to such rare brains as those of Professors Huxley and Tyndall. 
The average well-intentioned, but often indifferently qualified, 
hard-worked teacher is liable to be led into one of two dangers^ 
rash, exaggerated dogmatism, or commonplace, unimpressive, 
even ridiculous platitudes, neither of which methods attains the 
really good object. 

The subject of Personal and Domestic Hygiene usually, 
therefore, takes its place not as a branch of domestic economy, 
but as one among others, in the general school programme ; this 
is the case at Cleveland (Ohio), Buffalo, Washington (D.C.), or 
Lynn, (Mass.) ; but it is not uncommon to find it first brought 
before children in their language or object lessons, or in the 
nature study course, which last would seem, for good reasons, 
the most suitable position. These latter methods have been 
adopted in Philadelphia and Boston among other large cities. 
Occasionally this teaching on the physical structure and 
development of the body is connected with the course on 
" Conduct and Government," or with that on " Manners and 
Morals," which find a place in the time-tables of some Boards of 
Education. The most evident advantage which arises from the 
obligatory prominence assigned to physiology and hygiene is that 
boys and girls alike share the instruction, whereas if the subjects 
appear only as incidental to Domestic Economy, as in England, 
girls alone devote time or attention to their study, and that to a 
scant degree. As a rule, all the children appear to enjoy these 
lessons, if at all suitably given, but if there be a preponderance 
of interest it is on the side of the boys ; this is not the observa- 
tion of a prejudiced witness, it is the confirmed opinion of 
experienced school authorities. 

Typical '^^^^ course at Cleveland. Ohio, has been selected for presenta- 

Courses. tion, because it offers a good illustration of an intelligent 
method of treatment when physiology forms the backbone of the 
course and hygierie appears chiefly in the form of applications. 
The course of study in the Public School of Lynn, Mass., is given 
as an example of a scheme which starts with the habits familiar 
to the Httle ones in home life, supplies reasons for their adoption, 

(fO Hyannis and leads up to the structure of the body only in the later years. 

iable VI. q^l^Q selected course (Hyannis Normal School) also 

approaches the subject from the familiar side of home habits 
and is of interest on two accounts (1) as an illustration of the 
quick observation which enables educators in the United States to 
remark, appropriate and adapt to their school use, material put 
into shape in other countries; (2) the fact that this scheme 
embodies very closely my own views of what should be taught 
to every child in every school. The original was drawn \ip 
four years ago by request of the Council of The Sanitary 
Institute, with the hope that it might find a place in the Board 
of Education's Day School Code, a hope not destined to be 
realised. It was therefore the more satisfactory to find it 



Typical Hygiene Courses. 



51 



had been meanwhile successfully adopted in some Massachusetts 
schools, where it has answered its desired ends to a degree which 
warrants its employment as a model for students in the Practice 
school of one of the best Normal colleges. 

The children in Grade I. at Cleveland make acquaintance with the (^) Cleve 
human body by first having their attention turned to the appearance, j^nd Ohi( 
position, number, form, use and beauty of its external parts : this suggests Tables V. 
the idea of care being desirable, and emphasises one form of that care, ^nd Vli.* 
viz., cleanliness. Upon this a talk on the skin and its uses follows 
naturally, and the proper care of hair and nails is a practical point 
emphasised. The use of the different senses is then taught objectively, 
and is incidentally useful as a language lesson also : the children must not 
only touch objects, and name the sensation, for instance, but must mention 
other substances and the "feeling" they induce; so with the parallel 
exercises on sight, smell, taste, sound. The first year's teaching concludes 
with very simple lessons on why and what and where and when we should 
eat and drink. In order to comply with the legal requirements, it is 
suggested to teachers that "they should make a simple statement that 
people should not use very strong drink if they wish to have good health." 
Grade II. revises the previous instruction, with considerable amplification, 
e.g., attention is called to the relations of the parts of the body to each 
other, and to the purpose of life ; " the neck turns the head, the arms help 
the hands to reach, to carry," etc. Prominent bones are identified and 
named (skull, spine, ribs, hip bones) ; the relations of bones and muscles 
to bodily posture serve to throw light on motion, and to bring in the 
application of the need for exercise, rest and sleep. The direct purpose of 
the lessons on the special sense organs in this Grade is to train the 
children to greater acuteness in distinctions between sounds, colours, 
forms, distances, flavours and muscular efforts. The idea of growth and 
nutrition is next connected with food, also the advantages of cooking 
food are discussed. Table manners as well as table setting are practised 
as well as preached ; talks on the lungs and on air, with rudimentary 
ideas on ventilation, introduce another useful topic. 

In Grade III. the same points constitute the basis of instruction. The 
children find, name, and suggest the uses of many more bones. The 
connection between food, posture, and good physical development is 
carried further. The special sense organs are subjected to simple tests, 
and the pleasure derived by their means is emphasised. Various forms of 
food, right and wrong methods of preparation and consumption, some idea 
of the process of digestion and the reasons for habitual care of the teeth 
again culminate in a talk on table manners and arrangements. The 
mechanical aspect of breathing is discussed, and the good or ill efi'ects of 
impure air and out of door exercise, together with suitable means of 
domestic ventilation, find a place. In Grade IV. the instruction substanti- 
ally follows similar lines, but assumes a less colloquial form, though the 
importance of simple treatment is emphasised ; thus, in treating of the 
heart and circulation, teachers are advised not to touch on the subject of 
cavities or valves at this stage, but practical applications to assist the 
formation of good habits are to be invariably included. The outline of 
work in Grade V. is preceded by the following " General Suggestions " for 
the course of study in the remaining grades : — 

" Never lose sight of the practical side of the subject ; it will profit a 
child but little to know about bones, for exani])le, if after all he lets his 
shoulders droop and his spine become unnaturally curved. Pupils should 
study their own bodies as much as possible. They should find out by 
actual examination how many bones they have in the arm, hand (not 
wrist), leg, foot (not ankle), ribs, etc. They should study heart beats, 
pulse in wrist, neck and temi)le, weight and height; chest measure and 
expansion in inches ; motion of the different joints ; the wonderful motion 
of the hand and arm ; of the head upon the backbone ; of the whole trunk 
upon the hip joints. The sight and hearing of pupils may be tested rouglily, 
also sense of touch. The microscoin' and apparatus in the 8th (irado are 
free to the teachers of the oth." 



58 



U.S.A. — State Grade Schools 



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Typical Hygiene Courses. 



59 



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60 



U.S.A. — State Grade Schools, 



(i)C)eveland Interest in the study of the organs of motion is stimulated by com- 
Qhio— parisons between the motions of dilferent animals, as horse, fish, worm, 
continued. nian, bird ; the activity of muscles with observations on the results of use 
upon known substances, leads naturally to the topic of the organs of 
repair and the material furnished in the form of food, drink, or air. 
After a review of the processes of digestion, the fact that the digested 
matter must enter a " common carrier " which has " the right of way " over 
the entire body, introduces the subject of the blood, and to some teaching 
on absorption by the lactea.ls and lymphatics. This and the remaining 
subjects for this Grade (the lungs, skin and organs of perception) are 
but lightly treated, as they are repeated in far more detail in Grade VI. 
Here digestion is reviewed, and absorption is taught more fully. The 
structure and functions of the heart and the circulation of the blood occupy 
a great portion of the allotted time, but the concluding lessons are devoted 
to a preliminary study of the brain, spinal cord, and great sympathetic 
nervous system, especially to their great importance as instruments of 
mind and centres of nervous force. Prior to this period most illustrative 
material is found in observations made by the children, but at this stage 
teachers are urged to employ simple experimental illustrations, especially 
" during the winter months, when there is less to observe out of doors." 
(A few specimens of such illustrations may prove suggestive.) 

" To illustrate why bones are hollow : Take a sheet of foolscap paper and 
roll it into a cylinder about an inch in diameter, holding in shape by means 
of strings or rubber bands ; support this cylinder in a horizontal pf)sition 
by placing a support under each end. Now place weights upon the middle, 
noting how much it sustains before breaking. Next, take the same kind 
of sheet of paper and fold or roll it into a solid bar : support and load as 
before. Notice the result. 

" To show the animal part of bone : Soak a clean bone, as a rib, in strong 
vinegar or dilute muriatic acid until it becomes flexible. Mineral matter 
has disappeared. 

" To show what part of a bone is mineral : Weigh a small bone accurately, 
then roast it for about three hours on a hot bed of coals. Remove carefully 
and weigh again. Animal matter has disappeared. Notice what propor- 
tion. 

" Saw a bone through lengthwise. Notice the structure of ends, middle, 
and outside part. 

" To show the structure of muscles : Take a piece of lean meat that has 
been boiled ; pick it to pieces with needles, showing connective tissue and 
the larger and smaller mu--cular fibres. Place one of the smallest fibres 
under a microscope and notice the markings. 

" To show the action of the flexor and extensor muscles : _ Procure the 
front leg of a sheep. Remove the connective tissues which surround 
the entire leg, and carefully separate the muscles from each other, loosening 
up the tendons to where they are attached to the bones. By pulling the 
different muscles, their function in life can be nicely shown. It will be 
seen that many muscles act together to cause the same movements : that 
other muscles are antagonistic. 

"Have children notice the swelling of muscles when in action on their 
own bodies. Let them find the muscle, or set of muscles, which makes 
certain movements : as, extending the arm, bending the arm, extending or 
bending the index finger, turning the head to left or right, chewing, etc. 
Show the muscles as the power acting upon the bones as levers of different 
classes." 

Further suggestions include how to make models to show the principle 
upon which the diaphragm acts in respiration, or to illustrate the action of 
the intercostal muscles. Most teachers find no difficulty in improvising or 
adapting many more of the same kind to meet the need for concrete 
demonstrations. 



Typical Hygiene Co'urse&. 



61 



The method adopted in the remaining two Grades brings out well a (/>)CIeveland 
point yet dimly perceived in this country, which is, nevertheless, susceptible Oiiio — 
of far fuller development than is accorded to it even in this instance at continued. 
Cleveland, Ohio, viz., the valuable field afforded by hygiene and physiology, 
not alone for the acquirement of the theories of physics and chemistry, but 
for their application under most favourable and attractive circumstances. 
The syllabus opens as follows — 

" We do not know what life is, but the mechanism which life has woven 
and built around itself conforms to the same laws and principles which 
hold in the physical world, and cannot be well understood without some 
reference to physical laws. The following outline is an attempt to suggest 
lessons which will be a blending of the two great departments of science, 
physiology and physics, life and matter — and the two thus brought together 
become one, viz., physiology, since all matter and its laws are but subser- 
vient to the one great thing — Life. 

" As a preliminary to these lessons the teacher should place the minds of 
the children in the right attitude towards the work. They should know 
that it is the hunmn body that forms the central figure in all these lessons, 
and their thoughts should be continually brought back to that fact." 

The foUowmg is the outline: — "All the manifestations of life, whether 
individual or national, can be reduced ultimately to certain changes. All 
changes are of one of two kinds : either changes of place or of composition : 
the former are known as physical, the latter as chemical. The teacher will 
illustrate physical changes and chemical changes. Let the children classify 
the following changes : water evaporates ; dew forms ; coal is mined, 
transported, thrown upon the fire, burned ; unsupported bodies fall to the 
ground, trees grow, sugar dissolves in water, a match ignites by friction, 
gunpowder explodes, water boil^ iron melts, iron rusts, grape juice 
ferments, apples decay, cherries ripen, blood circulates, food digests ; 
animals inhale air, a certain part unites with the blood, the blood repairs 
worn-out tissues ; animals feel, children think, sudden news quickens the 
pulse, etc. Physical force. Muscles exert force. What force is. Other 
kinds of force than muscular force, as cohesion, adhesion, gravitation, 
magnetism, electricity, etc. How force is measured ; units of force ; as, 
pounds, ounces, etc. Weigh many things on spring scales or other kind. 
Educate the muscular sense by having pupils estimate the weight of many 
things after lifting them. 

" By exerting force, muscles produce motion. Some kinds of motion, as 
uniform, accelerated, retarded, pendulum movements, etc. 

" The circulation and the laws of liquids. 

" The heart fully explained as to its shape, size, walls, cavities, valves, 
interior, by means of dissections of heart of ox or sheep. The circulation 
carefully and minutely traced through both the ])ulmonary and systemic 
circuits. 

" The circulatory system compared with the distribution of water in a 
city ; the heart, arteries and capillaries and veins having their analogies 
more or less perfectly in any city supplied by a pumping station. 

" Study, in connection with the circulation, the effect upon liquids when 
subjected to pressure ; also capillary attraction. 

" Respiration and atmospheric pressure. Why we breathe ; the relation 
of air to the blood. Show nature of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Experi- 
ment with lime water to show that breathing and burning give rise to 
same products, llelation of plants and animals as regards the air. Show 
simple experiments in atmospheric pressure. Connect the facts ot the 
physical properties of air with the organs of bi-eathing, showing that it is a 
purely physical process. Teach the mechanism of breathing ; ribs, inter- 
costal muscles, abdominal muscles, diaphragm, trachea, bronchial tubes, 
air cells, and how all operate together, thus forming the respiratory 
apparatus. 

" Dissect lung of sheep, showing lung tissue and air tubes. 



62 



U.S.A.— State Grade Sehools. 



(b.) Cleve- "Perform, if possible, the experiment with mercury and barometer tube 
land, Ohio to show the principle of the barometer. 

continued. " Ventilation. Why necessary : how performed. 

" Digestion and absorption. Relation of these processes to the blood. 

" Digestion is performed by a combination of physical and chemical pro- 
cesses, while absorption is identical with the taking up of moisture by the 
roots of plants. The effect of alcohol upon the body in general and in 
particular should receive a large measure of attention." 

THE SUGGESTIONS FOR GRADE VIII. ARE GIVEN IN FULL. 

The Ear and Sound. 

" Teach as much of the anatomy of the ear as is found in any elementary 
physiology. 

" The ear constructed with reference to sound. 

" Sound. What it is. Wave motion shown by rope. How sound is 
produced. Show by using tuning fork, small bell or large glass dish, that 
a sounding body is vibrating. Show how sound travels through the air : 
string telephone : experiment to prove that sound will not pass through a 
vacuum. Velocity of sound in air : echoes. Musical sounds : pitch, 
loudness. 

"Having studied the ear and sound to some little extent show how the 
former is adapted to receive the latter : trace a sound wave from a dis- 
tant bell through the air, into the ear, through its different parts until the 
ends of the auditory nerve are excited. 

" Test the hearing of pupils. 

" What knowledge is brought to us by the sense of hearing. 

The Eife and Light. 

" The anatomy of the eye. The eye-ball and its surroundings. Muscles 
to move. Why located where it is. The cornea, sclerotic coat, choroid, 
iris, lens, retina, aipieous and vitreous humour. Drawings of eye made. 
Light and what it is. Travels in straight lines (nearly) through the air. 
Velocity : how found. Reflection. 

General Sensibility and Heat. 

" Why our sense of heat should be distributed over the entire body. 
What heat is? Various ways of producing by mechanical action, by 
combustion. 

The Nervous System and Electricity. 

" The anatomy of brain, spinal cord, nerves, sympathetic system, taught 
by use of chart. Do not go too deeply into structure of brain, a very 
general notion only. Show that the nerves bring all parts of the body into 
a sympathetic relation. A nervous impulse is a discharge^or liberation of 
energy analogous to the electric discharges : not identical but having an 
analogy so near as to make the study of electricity in place in this con- 
nection : occupies time. Experiment. 

"Teach paralysing influences of alcohol and narcotics upon nervous 
tissues, and especially upon the brain. Discuss other physiological 
reasons why stimulants and narcotics should not be used : also moral 
aspects of drinking alcoholic stimulants." 

Througliout the whole eight years teachers are incited to 
maintain a close connection between nature study and 
human physiology ; applications are also required and intro- 
duced in his classes by the Physical Culture Instructor. At 



TypicaX Hygiene Courses. G3 

the teachers' quarterly meeting when this among other 
subjects is discussed between the supervisors and their staff, 
unremitting efforts are made by the former to present suitable 
suggestions of how associations may be created betAveen these 
subjects and daily life, either by judicious co-relation with 
other subjects, or by the constant diffusion of a general 
atmosphere of healthful habits around and among the children. 
Teachers are also furnished with a list of suitable books of 
reference : " Physiology for Little Folks," " The House I live in," 
and Blaisdell's " Our Bodies " for the earlier grades : Huxley 
and Youman's " Physiology," and Shaw's and Gifford's and 
Avery's "Physics" for the later. 

The complete curriculum at present in force in the Grade schools 
of Cleveland, Ohio, is detailed, as it appears to be a good specimen 
of such time-tables, and brings out clearly the propoitioa (f 
hours devoted each week, throughout the compulsory school 
life, to the various studies, mental, moral, physical, manual, 
and so forth, upon which the attention of the children is 
concentrated. Hitherto sparse attention has been given to 
physiology in the Cleveland Normal School, a defect to repair 
which no pains is spared by the Superintendent of the City 
Schools. Admirable and exhaustive courses of lectures to the 
teachers are given by the Medical Officer of Schools, Dr. R. Leigh 
Baker, or by other authorities, and the sincere interest exhibited 
in the lessons by their supervisors must prove a useful impetus 
to good work. 

The school course at Lynn (Mass.) also shows the posi- (c.) Lynn, 
tion assigned in the time-table to civics, elementary Mass. 
science, and morals and manners, as well as to hygiene. This Jnd I X 
last subject is divided into two parts : the first treats of good 
habits, of what the children do daily; the second takes up 
the study of physiology. Teachers are advised to begin by 
brief and simple conversations, to direct children to their own 
experiences and observations at home, at school and elsewhere, 
and to bring out the elements of healthy living : eating, drink- 
ing, working, resting, sleeping, playing, cleanliness. It is 
intended that children should then be led to see what parts 
of the body are brought into use through the actions noticed ; 
t3 see why these parts are useful, how they should be cared 
for, and why exercise, rest, and pure air are necessary. Among 
the many suggestive " Notes to Teachers " the folloAving is one 
of the most valuable : — " In order to impress upon the children 
the importance of correct living, the teacher nuist practise in 
school what she teaches. She should see that the schoolroom 
is kept clean, that the heat is properly regulated, that the air 
is kept pure by proper ventilation, that the children are not 
subjected to dangerous draughts, that the light is suitable, 
that the physical exercises, songs, and other diversions are 
used at the right time, so far as these things are under her 
control or influence. She should sec that the children observe 
the hints on cleanliness of person or clothing, that they take 
proper care of themselves ana their garments, etc." 



64 



U.S.A.— State Grade Schooh. 




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Typical Hygiene Courses. 67 

The lessons are illustrated at first by using the pupils (c) Lynn, 
themselves, the school buildings, or common objects easily ^^^s— 
obtainable. Charts and experiments are employed in the ^^^^ * 
higher grades, but ii: is not usual to make use of fresh animal 
tissues or organs, as it is at Cleveland. Advantage is taken 
of opportunities offered for correlation with the " Observational 
Lessons " on natural and physical phenomena, and on people 
and occupations, as well as with the Nature Work and 
Elementary Science later on. This inter-relating method is 
turned to account also in connection with the history, geography 
and civics taken in the upper grades. The details of all courses 
are left to the discretion of his staff, by Mr. 0. Bruce, the 
Superintendent of the Lynn Schools, so that the personal 
equation of the teacher may find expression, and the special 
needs or interests of the class be consulted. Two demands he 
makes, and expects to have met ; the one, that each lesson 
be well prepared and presented, in order to arouse, direct and 
maintain a wholesome interest among the children — the other, 
that his staff and their school houses shall be living object 
lessons of hygienic practice to the town. 

Similar good methods and terms of advice to teachers are (<^) Massa- 
found under other Boards and Superintendents. The Massachu- chusetts. 
setts Board of Education, e.g., in its published "Course of 
Studies for Elementary Schools" suggests the following as 
a method of teaching physiology and hygiene to children 
which has been tested and proved successful by experience : — 



Section 1. The Whole Body. 

Position. Teach the pupils to observe their own and others' positions 
while sitting, standing and walking. Teach them to desire and to strive to 
be erect. The lessons on height and weight should be to this end. Height. 
Each pupil should know his height. Mark the height of a pupil on an 
unused blackboard or door jamb : record the date, the height, and weight, 
beside the mark. Do the same for three or four pupils. Repeat the 
measurement at regular intervals. Encourage other children to have the 
same done at home" by their parents or by older children. Have children 
compare their growth during different intervals. All the lessons should 
tend to producing and retaining correct posture and carriage. Weight. 
Do the same as for height. The practice of measuring height and weight 
.should be continued through the period of growth. 

The External Parts of the Body. 

Pupils should touch and name the parts in regular and irregular order. 
Care of parts. Each child should be taught to take proper care of his hair, 
eyes, nose, mouth, teeth, hands, feet and nails. Cleanliness of the body, 
and the clothing should be insisted upon daily before the school exercises 
are begun. 

The Senses. 

Teach by simple experiments what each sense is, the parts that are 
prominent in structure and delicate in sensibility, the uses of the important 
parts, the knowledge gained by each alone, and the care of each sense. 
Avoid in experiments all sources of error, such as learning through touch 
what ought to be known by hearing. 



6490. 



G8 



U.S.A. — State Grade SGhools. 



In Section II. which comprises the next three classes, attention is directed 
to the limbs and structure of the body, the following extract indicating the 
method advised : — 

Section II. The Limbs and Walls. 

Skin, muscle, tendon, blood, blood vessels, nerves, fat, bones, joints, 
ligaments, cartilage. 

Sources of knowledge. The body. At home — fur, raw and cooked beef, 
leg of a fowl, veal, lamb. At the market — sides and cuts of beef, mutton 
and pork, l)ones. At school — shank of beef, bones, pictures, diagrams, 
books. 

What to teach. The organ : its chief characteristics and its name ; its 
position and uses ; how it should be cared for ; the effects upon it of 
alcohol and narcotics. 

Method. 1. Find what is known. 2. Teach pupils to observe the organ ; 
to observe its uses ; to learn its care from experience, home training, from 
knowledge of use, from reading. 3. Contribution of facts. Selection and 
arrangement of facts by pupils. 4. Oral and written descriptions, drawings 
with and without objects, according to outline. 5. Reading of selected 
articles. Suggestions. Observations of corresponding parts in other 
animals. (Teach to put a piece of sticking plaster on a wound ; to cleanse 
and bandage a cut ; to assist one who is weak.) 

The remainder of the course is devoted to the consideration of food, air, 
clothing, removal of waste, exercise and rest, the necessary illustrations 
being gathered by the pupils and added to by the teacher ; the nutritive, 
digestive, circulatory, respiratory, motory and nervous systems being 
considered and studied in Section III. by the higher grades. Teachers are 
exhorted to avoid technicalities as far as possible with the younger pupils, 
to make use of numerous simple experiments, and to let rules for the 
proper care and use of the different organs, systems or functions of the 
body be repeated and re-enforced. Special attention to the interdependence 
of vital processes is advocated, and the ideal of a strong, wholesome 
and unabused body as best fitted for successful and happy living is kept 
constantly and conspicuously in the foreground. In consequence of the 
law which requires special instruction in schools as to the efiect of alcoholic 
drinks, stimulants and narcotics on the human system, these subjects 
appear in each section of the course, but the teachers are cautioned to 
deal only with the more serious consequences, just enough to attain the 
purpose of mentioning them at all, to refrain from assertions of what is 
uncertain or sincerely doubted by high authority, or likely to be repudiated 
by the pupil when he is mature enough to judge for himself. If the 
children thoughtlessly incline to make merry over the weakness, or folly, 
or misfortune of persons visibly under the influence of alcohol, their teachers 
are advised to lead them to a truer and more serious attitude towards 
such thin,<;s, dwelling on the pei'soiial effort and capacity necessary to form 
good habits and to avoid bad ones, and showing by illustration, that the 
man needs a strong and beautiful body if it is to be sound and well 
balanced. S]iecial delicacy of treatment is ])ointed out as necessary in 
those unfortunate cases where children find themselves between the safe 
teaching of the school and the counter ])ractices and influences of home. 

{e) Washing- Good methods and wise counsels to teachers find admirable 
ton, 1).C'. illustration at Washington, where the enthusiasm, on occasion 
limited elsewhere to supervisors, extends to most members of 
the staff. This is largely due to Mrs. I. G. Myers, who has been 
responsible for many years for the Normal School curriculum 
and has also had an intimate connection with the schools thera- 
selves. 



Typical Hygier}e Courses. 



69 



The following extract from the "Outline of Work for 1901 " 
speaks for itself as to the personal practice which it is assumed 
should accompany the teachers' precepts : — 

" To the teacher— 

"Study the ventilation of your own building and schoolroom. Know 
how to secure the best possible fresh air conditions for the children and 
for yourself. Test this frequently by going from the room for a minute, 
returning sensitive to vitiated air. Keep a fraction of the mind on tem- 
perature, to see that it is the proper one. Have a watchful care to the 
adjustment of shades, for the best distribution of light. Be mindful of the 
seating of pupils having defective sight, so that their defects may lessen by 
fostering care. The direct aim of the early study of physiology is the 
intelligent care of the body. The formation of healthful and refined habits 
is the end to be secured." 

In Grades IV., V., VI., VII., and VIII. advantageous place is found for 
the elements of sanitation. The skin, nails, hair, and teeth are first 
studied in Grade V., then appears the following note : " Study the con- 
ditions of a healthful schoolroom : sunlight, its effect ; dust, its dangers ; 
fresh air, its value ; temperature, what it should be. Let the responsibility 
for this care gradually pass from the teacher to the pupils, by whom in 
turn, it should be sustained, with intelligence and conscience." In Grade 
VI. sanitation comprehends " The care of the sleeping room ; a kitchen 
sink, use, construction, care, risks from want of care, etc." In Grade VII. 
air and ventilation are required to be treated experimentally and " practi- 
cally ; " and sewer gas, its nature, effects, and dangers, is considered in 
connection with the city regulations for plumbing. The physiology in 
Grade VIII. is confined to a simple general study of the nervous system : 
the sanitation concerns itself with the sources of diseases, germs and their 
conditions of development, a study of simple disinfectants (sunlight, soap, 
and water, par excellence), and concludes with an introduction to municipal 
sanitation (sanitary dwellings, street cleaning, sewerage, garbage, con- 
tagious diseases, etc.). Appended is this suggestion : " Combine this unit 
with the study of city government;" the force and worth of which 
note is appreciated when the fact is recalled that boys of 13 or 14 
constitute half the pupils who come under this instruction. No text-books 
are suggested for use until Grade IV., then "The Child's Health Primer" 
and Stowell's " Essentials of Health " are named as suitable ; but long and 
valuable lists of reference books are appended for the teachers' use through- 
out the course, all of which are available at the teachers' library. Among 
books on general physiology, Foster's, Colton's, Tracey's, and Bertha Browii's 
find a place, with Ball's " Care of the Teeth," Mercier's " Nervous System 
and the Mind," Rosenthal's " Muscles and Nerves," and Lagrange's " Physical 
Exercise ; " Billing's and Morrison's excellent books on Ventilation and 
Heating, and Prudden's "Dust and its Dangers" and "Story of the 
Bacteria" are also included, besides the Annual Pieports of the Health 
Department and references to articles in current literature. 

Practical methods and field trips are advocated, and unusual 
trouble is taken to inter-connect this with other school studies. 
The much talked-of principle of correlation is practised witli 
most encouraging results in the Washington schools, though all 
concerned are aware that but the first steps along this right 
road have yet been taken. 

At Philadelphia the Good Habits Talks find a place among (/) Phila- 
object lessons in the four primary grades. delphia. 

In view of the well-recognised fact that eating and drinking bulk largely 
in a small child's mind, the conversational lessons open on articles of food 
and drink (bread, beef, mutton, coffee, tea, butter, cheese, rice, fruits), and 
from what natural objects these are obtained, followed by a similar treat- 
ment of common articles of clothing. In Grade III. the care of the human 



70 



U.S.A. — State Grade Schools. 



( f) Phila- body, by means of cleanliness, clothing and breathing fresh air, gives occa- 

(ielphia ^^^^ much useful talk, so that by the time Grade IV. is reached (the 

continued. children being from 9 to 10 years old), curiosity is aroused as to the general 
structure of the body and the means by which it receives sensations. Dur- 
ing the remaining four years the physiological and hygienic aspects of the 
study are well balanced in treatment, as is evidenced by the written notes 
of the more advanced grades. P>y the courtesy of Miss Wright, one of the 
l^oard of Education Supervisors, I have been furnished with a large num- 
ber of notes made by x)upils in Grade VII L, executed without previous 
notice in the ordinary course of work, and handed to me without revision 
as they left the writers' hands. Of these, forty papers are on the nervous 
system ; they are clear, well expressed, and, as a whole, satisfactorily 
accurate ; the plentiful introduction of pen and ink drawings ilhistrate the 
facility attained in this mode of expression by an American child. Each 
paper contains a verbal sketch, illustrated, of the cerebro-spinal and 
sympathetic nervous systems, and highly creditable drawings of the under 
surface of the brain, showing the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla 
oblongata ; each paper concludes with the hygienic applications to be 
made of the knowledge gained, couched in evidently original language : — 
It is the worry in many cases that causes nervous sickness." " To keep 
our body in health also tends to keep the nervous system in health, as the 
blood which nourishes the nervous system must be pure and good. . . . The 
nervous system can be easily abused, sitting up late at night, over tiring the 
body, reading cheap novels and going to the theatre too much all tire the 
brain." The following extract from one of the best papers illustrates the 
danger, to which reference has been made as so liable to arise from well 
meant efforts to simplify a complex, and, as yet, incompletely understood 
subject ; though the general tenour is excellent some of the daring asser- 
tions on the part of the pupil are inaccurate and misleading. " The use of 
narcotics, strong drink and opium all tend to weaken the nervous system. 
The alcohol gets into the blood, takes away all the healthful parts of the 
blood and it gets into the nerve tissue which is very watery, and the 
alcohol dries up the water and takes its place, and when the alcohol is once 
in the nerve tissue it is very hard to get out, so for this and other reasons, 
alcohol should be avoided by every sensible person. Opium and all other 
drugs should be equally avoided, the craving is very hard to get rid of and 
will often be inherited by the victim's innocent children. The opium has 
a deadening effect that is very dangerous, often resulting in death ; all the 
patent medicines and cough cures often have a form of opium in them, and 
they should be avoided as a household remedy, as the effect on children 
especially is very dangerous." 

Even more striking is another set of papers from the 
same school for the variety in verbal expression of identical 
facts and the really beautiful pen and nik drawings of the 
structure of the ear, including separate illustrations of its parts. 
The evident grasp of the theory of sound, in addition to the fitness 
of the human ear for the transmission of sound waves, is most 
apparent, and the remarks on the care of the ear are simple, 
rational, common sense. A third set of papers deals with the eye 
and also merits high praise. Sketches enter even more fully 
into these notes, and are used with great effect to illustrate and 
assist to shorten written descriptions. It is evident that the 
hygienic applications have been well impressed, though a number 
of the writers wisely omit any notes on the effects of alcohol and 
tobacco on the eye, which are reported by others in words 
similar in substance to the following extract from one paper : — 

" Effect of Alcohol on the Eye.— It in a general way dulls or weakens 
the nerve. Alcohol is known to produce congestion of eyes. It irritates 
the delicate linings of the eyelids and lessens the acuteness of vision. 



Hygiene Courses. 



11 



*' Effect of Tobacco on the Eye.- Tobacco smoke irritates the eyes. It 
causes sharp pain of the eyeball. Smokers often have confused and feeble 
vision due to partial paralysis of the optic nerve." 

These papers are home-work on an assigned subject which 
had been previously studied in class, and rank as " Composi- 
tions ; " the sketches are allowed to be copied from diagrams or 
objects. The execution of these careful drawings has various 
values, in addition to the inevitable mental impression received 
of relation of parts, of form and of structure ; accurate observa- 
tion, neatness, precision, manual dexterity, reliance upon means 
other than verbal for expression, the employment of facility 
gained in another branch of study, are all called into play. The 
method appears in general use. I have specimens of similar, 
though less advanced, notes collected in the course of a visit to 
some schools at Providence, Rhode Island, where pencil illustra- 
tion rather than verbal description is relied upon. Bone 
structure, the mechanism of a joint, the shape and arrangement 
of the teeth, the position of the organs in the thorax and 
abdomen are drawn ; and usually six or seven written lines are 
considered to supply the necessary letterpress. 

Good papier-mache models and anatom^ical charts are provided IlliLstrative 
under some Boards of Education, but a majority of those teachers Methods, 
whose previous training or post-graduate courses enable them to 
approach the whole topic from its practical side, confirmed my 
own opinion that one illustration from life or a familiar object, 
one demonstration on animal tissues, such as the leg of a rabbit 
or the eye of an ox, is worth more as a means to convey a true 
conception, to arouse active interest, or to stimulate subsequent 
observation than the free use of costly models. The extent to 
which this " better " way is followed depends upon the attitude 
of the Supervisors or school principal, and the capacity and en- 
thusiasm of the teacher. The same spirit which has prompted 
the rapid introduction of the " laboratory method" into high 
schools and colleges is permeating the whole world of education, 
with a promise of good things to come for this as for other suit- 
able subjects. 

Special lessons upon the care of young children are not The Care of 
usual in the public schools, though exceptions to the rule exist Young 
in New York City, Washington, and very probably elsewhere. Children. 
In respect of sensible clothing, England can learn with advan- 
tage from the United States where babies, from birth, have 
necks, arms, and legs completely and continuously protected. 
The artificial feeding of infants is chiefly in the hands of 
physicians, who write individual prescriptions to be " made up " 
at milk laboratories instead of at chemists' shops ; and this cus- 
tom was, in my experience, a reason frequently advanced for not 
giving instruction on the subject of " bottle fed " babies in 
schools. At Buffalo the use of tube bottles is forbidden by 
law. I do not know whether such enactments have been made 
elsewhere, but in this city the residt within a comparatively 
short time was to reduce the rate of infantile mortality by one- 
half At the New York cookery centres the girls Iciirn how to 



72 



U.S. A. —State High Schools. 



sterilise and pasteurise milk ; how to modify cow's milk to meet 
the needs of infants at different age periods ; how much food to 
give and how often to feed; what are and what are not the 
right shapes for feeding bottles. They also learn how to make- 
barley water and foods suitable when the child begins to require 
other than milk diet. " What Baby must not have,'' needs to 
be well impressed in the poorest quarters of that city as well as 
in our own towns. Regular instruction is not given at Washing- 
ton, but Mrs. 1. G. Myers occasionally takes the elder girls alone, 
at one or other school, for personal instruction in nursery 
hygiene as well as in the wise care of their own health. 

B. — High Schools. 
To confine the following remarks to the teaching of the 
Domestic Sciences and Arts, and Hygiene in the public high 
schools is to omit, for the present, reference to some excellent 
examples of secondary school courses supported by private en- 
dowment, e.g. — those at the Pratt and Lewis Institutes, which 
will be treated in Part II. Nevertheless, adherence to the 
division of educational institutions into the two groups oi* 
those maintained by State funds or from private resources will, 
it is hoped, enable those unfamiliar with the intricacies conse- 
quent upon this parallel dual system to assign to each its just 
relative proportion to the mass of good work accomplished 
by both. 

Curricula. Domestic Science is classified, almost without exception, as 
Manual Training under all Boards of Education into whose 
high schools it has been introduced. The reason for this is 
found substantially in the system of co-education. If the girls 
of a division devote so much time per week to a subject from 
which boys are excluded, their occupation during these " periods " 
must be of a character inapplicable to girls. Manual training is 
widely recognised as desirable for both sexes and is therefore 
conveniently, if not quite accurately, extended to cover cooking, 
sewing, laundry and table service, as well as its more legitimate 
subjects, work with clay, card, wood, or metal. It must always be 
borne in mind that a proportion of authorities maintain the 
" training " value of all these occupations to be equal. In large 
cities which support several high schools, one of these is usually 
set apart for the express purpose of offering special facilities in 
manual training to both sexes, and is so denominated ; not that 
all Manual Training High Schools necessarily include domestic 
subjects in their curricula, but they do so in many cities, and, I 
believe, to an annually increasing extent. At Providence (Rhode 
Island), at Ann Arbor (Mich.), and in the early days at 
Philadelphia, cookery and even sewing, appeared in the tim .) 
tables of high schools before adoption into the grammar schools : 
but Brookline, (Mass.), offers an illustration of the more 
general tendency, viz., to include an introductory course in both 
subjects in the elementary schools, and to encourage further 
study and practice in the high schools. 

As a rule, high schools provide a choice of courses for their 
students, usually from five to eight in number; these 



Scope and Value of Domestic Science Courses. 

are described as General, Classical, Scientific, Latin-German, 
English preparatory. Commercial, Manual, etc. The base of 
most of them is very similar during the first two out of the four 
years of high school life, by which means differentiation or 
specialisation is postponed until about 16, and premature 
specialisation avoided at 14 years of age. Domestic Science 
may constitute a required subject in the General, Technical, 
or Manual Training courses, as it does, e.g., at Brookline 
(Mass.), or it may be an " elective," open to all girl students, 
as at Ann Arbor and Muskegon. When house sanitation plays a 
prominent part this section of the course is occasionally thrown 
open to boys, as is the case at the Toledo Polytechnic School. 

The scope of the whole course is often very comprehensive, as Scopo and 
the arts are included to an extent not usual in this country Value ot 
(considerable time being devoted to the practice of design, clay g^JJ^^^^^^^ 
modelling, drawing, and to some study of^ colour), while it would Courses, 
be hard to find one scheme which does not require, or include 
in itself, a study of general chemistry, elementary physics, and 
an introduction to the first principles of bacteriology; some 
suggestions on economic and sociological problems are also 
brought forward, with a view to widen the girls' horizons and to 
prepare them for their future positions and obligations. It is 
evident, therefore, that valuable opportunities await those who 
approach such courses in the attitude of mind anticipated by 
the experts responsible for their formulation. During her four 
years' study an intelligent girl devotes time to theoretical and 
experimental work in chemistry, physics and biology, usually 
with special reference to their practical household applications, 
which she at once proceeds to test in her cookery, lavmdry and 
cleaning practice. Her hands and eyes are trained in the studio, 
so that she may bring skilful manipulation, habitual accuracy, 
and an eye for form and colour to her classes in sewing, dress- 
making and millinery. She is called upon to make personal 
observations on sanitary house construction, and then to repro- 
duce, or to originate, the plans for a healthy dwelling ; here she 
is required to have good reasons for all her details and to be as 
practical in her knowledge of plumbing possibilities and risks as 
she is in her scheme of colour decoration for the rooms. Cal- 
culation of cost must be carried out with care and the economics 
of family life studied. She is trained to realise that mere 
provision of food and clothing does not fulfil the housewife's 
duty ; meals at reasonable cost must furnish requisite nutriment 
in Avholesome, varied forms, with the details of which she should 
be familiar ; clothing must fulfil many more requirements than 
mere surface show — how to ensure these constitutes a part of 
her study. She perceives how responsible is the woman for the 
expenditure of a household, and gets her first glimpse by this 
means into the sociological problems of to-day. Time has to be 
found for gaining an insight into the special care essential for 
infants and invalids ; while, most wisely, the study of literature, 
and, if possible, of one or two modern languages, maintains, 
throughout, the neccssaiy connection with the wide world of 



74 



U.S.A. — State High Schools. 



experience, thought and culture, of which each home reflects a 
part. 

Needless to say, the realisation by the pupils of all these ideals 
is not as yet contemplated in every high school ; but, where the 
effort is made, there is already warranty of eventual attainment. 
At this age period, more than at that of any other, the mental 
attitude of teachers is quickly observed by scholars, who are 
impressionable in a high degree to standards of thought set up 
by those under whose influence they spend a third of their time. 
The fact that highly qualified professors of both sexes manifest 
an unfeigned interest in the right conduct of homes and give 
cordial attention to studies which bear on the scientific and 
artistic regulation of domestic life carries great weight with 
boys as well as girls in the high schools where these courses 
have reached their best development. It is believed that this 
fact impresses a wider circle than the students alone, and will 
bear good fruit among parents by its contribution to the dignity 
of home life ; in any case its influence is active at the moment, 
when the unrest of adolescence is prone to manifest itself in a 
contempt for familiar surroundings and in impatience with the 
claims of the family circle. Further, such a course serves the 
useful purpose of revealing their vocations to girls who are dis- 
couraged by their distaste or want of capacity for literary, 
artistic, or purely scientific studies, in which their companion^ 
already display a promise of future proficiency, or from their 
inability to reach an accepted standard in other lines of school 
work. The combination of scientific theory with its prompt 
application to familiar processes ; the union of mental with 
manual activity ; the school links constantly forged with home 
interests ; the sense of power acquired in the performance of 
daily duties, hitherto complicated by the rule of thumb system, 
accompanied by its irritatmg and uncertain element of chance ; 
all appeal with an often unsuspected force to the undeveloped 
Marthas of the school world, who find here an outlet for their 
latent capacities, and whose jDcrpetuation — no longer " careful 
and troubled about many things " — through knowledge thus 
attained, will be of unmixed benefit to the human race. 

In contrast to such comprehensive courses (details of three Ox 
which are included), it is quite possible to find high schools 
where the term Domestic Science is confined to practice classes 
in cooking or sewing, and where no direct inter-relation between 
scientific principles and domestic methods is worked out. Of 
these, that at Ann Arbor (Mich.), is an average specimen. Or 
there may be a sort of compromise between the educational and 
the utilitarian methods, of which the courses at some of the 
private high schools afford illustrations. Significant of the 
awakening appreciation of the possibilities and claims of the 
subject is the following extract from the 21st Annual Report of 
the Superintendent of Public Schools of the City of Boston, 
dated March, 1901 ; its tenour has aroused considerable hope 
among those in the city who have desired for some years past to 
see a course established in Household Economics, and who regret 



Typical Domestic Science Courses. 



75 



that the 3,000 girls in attendance at the half dozen high schools 
have hitherto had no officially recognised opportunity for in- 
struction under this head, at an age when they are able to bring- 
to it an interest and intelligence more developed than that 
possessed by pupils in the grammar grades : " The next piece of 
legislation relative to high school studies that may suggest itself 
is the establishment of courses in Household and Industrial 
Science and Arts for girls. Whether such courses would better 
be provided for in a separate high school or in connection with 
existing high schools is a debatable question, but either method 
would be feasible. In former reports 1 have advocated the es- 
tablishment of a separate high school, which should be for girls 
what the Mechanic Arts High School is for boys. At the same 
time I am persuaded that, if good courses in Household and 
Industrial Science and Arts were offered as ' electives ' in the 
existing high schools, the same practical results could be secured. 
The addition of such ' electives ' would be an easy matter if the 
general system of elective studies which I now advocate should 
be adopted." It is possible that the activity of private enterprise 
in this direction in Boston may in part account for the delay in 
providing courses similar to those so well supported in other 
cities. Further on in the same interesting document Superintend- 
ent Seaver points out that the choice of studies under the elective 
system can be scarcely too wide, as chemistry, physics, drawing 
etc., " do not always furnish the best training for all minds ; 
there are always excellent pupils who would do better to omit one 
or other of these subjects and give the time to studies better suited 
to their capacities, thus leaving school with some real scholarship." 

As in the grammar grades. Personal and Domestic Hygiene 
are most usually, if not invariably, treated as a definite school study 
under the title of Physiology, in which both sexes share. The 
subject is obligatory in only a minority of the States, but often 
finds a place in high schools where much attention is given to biol- 
ogy, of which it forms an appropriate and valuable development. 

The course of Domestic Science study at the Brookline (Mass.) Typical 
High School is detailed in this Report for two reasons : first,. Domestic 
because the whole school system in that city has attained so ^cience 
high a level of excellence (largely due to its late superintendent, {J)^Brooic^ 
Professor Samuel Dutton, now Superintendent of the Horace line, Mass. 
Mann School, Teachers College, New York City), that if a subject Tables X 
appears in its school programmes, the educational value and 
practical possibilities of that study are, virtually, guaranteed. In 
the next place, its schedule demonstrates the feasibility 
of finding an honourable place in an undeniably liberal 
scheme of secondary education for subjects whose absence 
from the time tables of corresponding schools in this countrj^ is 
excused or condoned on the plea of want of time, want of educa- 
tional value, or want of attraction to parents and pupils. 

The educational history of the town of Brookline has been a 
source of satisfaction to its inhabitants for the past ten years : 
School Committee, Superintendent, and teachers have worked 
freely, and few restraints have been placed on a reasonable display 



7G 



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of individuality and inventiveness. Nature study has been in- (a) Brook- 
troduced, manual training and the domestic arts have been line, Mass 
developed and made more educational; new school buildings 
have been erected with modern appliances for comfort and 
sanitation, and the old ones have been enlarged and improved. 
Free kindergartens, increased provision for public health and 
hygiene, improved teaement houses, the exclusion of children 
from work in mills and shops, with additional public support of 
such " culture forces " as libraries, museums, music, lectures, etc., 
these, and other social developments, have all supplemented and 
supported school influences. The High school is a source of special 
pride to the community, and it is earnestly desired that its 
curriculum should be a good example of the avowed aim of tho5?e 
responsible for its initiation, viz., not so much the acquisition of 
knowledge as the development of power and the building of 
character. "While knowledge is not the end it is still recog- 
nised as a powerful means, and if only partial success has been 
attained it is rather because of the incompleteness of its adoption 
and appHcation than of any fault in the aim." 

The curriculum of this school is broad and flexible ; certain 
subjects are required, others are elective ; there are four courses 
of study in all. The " constants " occurring in each, although 
in varying proportions, are English, history, mathematics, the 
natural sciences, art, and physical training. Three courses, the 
clctssical, sub-classical, and technical, furnish a good preparation 
for all who wish to enter college, scientific or technical schools, and 
candidates select these according to the requirements of the institu- 
tion which they expect to enter ; the general course, in which there 
is a greater range of " electives," provides for those who complete 
their education in the high school. Manual training and 
domestic science and art, for boys and girls respectively, appear 
in each year of the technical and general courses ; they are obliga- 
tory in the technical, and elective in the general course ; zoology, 
physics, chemistry and physiology are also "elective" subjects. 

The work in Domestic Science is largely an application of 
other sciences to daily life; the ultimate object of its pro- 
moters is, while training the pupil in scientific method and in 
;ui appreciation of economic values, to give the home its legiti- 
mate position among our social institutions, to arouse interest in 
the familiar processes and environment of home life, and to show 
that home making is a worthy occupation for the most gifted. 

The food problem, as approached by the cook and as exempli- 
fied in the kitchen, is selected for the first year's work, because 
experience shows the average girl of 14 or 15 to be more interested 
in this department of the subject than in any other ; but, as a 
knowledge of general chemistry is essential to an even superficinl 
understanding of every-day processes, the second year is devoted 
to this subject and its applications. The third year is concerned 
chiefly with a study of the house itself, its construction, its 
sanitary arrangements and their care, its furnishing and 
decoration. An excellent opportunity is given, and improved, 
for correLiting the work ot this year with that of the Art 



78 U.S.A.— State High Schools. 



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department. Other of tlie topics, such as ventilation and Brook- 
heating, involve principles of physics, and here also the effort is line, Mass 
made to apply work already done in that department, and to —continued. 
bring to students without that training the knowledge of some 
of its elementary principles. The fourth year is largely given to 
the applications of biology to every-day life. As this compre- 
hends an elementary study of bacteriology, the theory of disease 
causation is naturally introduced, and the practice includes some 
simple home nursing and emergency work. A short subsequent 
course in invalid cookery gives opportunity for a review of the 
principles learned in the first year. The latter part of this, the 
last year, is spent in the discussion of problems of home making 
rather than of housekeeping, many of which are looked at from 
the economic and social as well as from the domestic standpoint. 
For example, the following selected topics belong both to Political 
Economy and to Domestic Science — the consumption of wealth ; 
food, in its relation to labour power ; the housing of the poor 
and its relation to good citizenship ; municipal sanitary regula- 
tions ; expenditure versus saving ; domestic service (as a part of 
the general labour problem) ; the work of superintending a home 
compared with other economic occupations; child labour, etc. 
Evidence of the thoughtful inter-relation of studies, for which 
this school is notable, is also apparent in the following selection 
from some of the topics suggested for theme work in the English 
department — the life and work of Count Rumford ; the influence 
of Pasteur on modern science ; yeast fermentation in its relation 
to bread-making ; the manufacture of flour ; experiments with 
albumen, dust, bacteria and butter-making ; the Brookline water 
supply ; the system of ventilation in the Brookline High School ; 
an ideal room. This method serves at least three ends ; facility 
of verbal expression is acquired in respect of subjects studied 
chiefly in the laboratory or by observation ; girls are stimulated 
to study the history and development of existing domestic 
customs ; and intelligent application of principles acquired in 
one department is demanded in another. Physiology, chemistry, 
physics and economics are also closely affiliated by cross-work 
reference throughout the course. Miss Smith, who is in charge 
of the present promising class, spares no pains to secure the co- 
operation of her colleagues in order to maintain continuity in 
theory and practice, and finds an ample reward for her efforts in 
the increasing interests and greater womanliness of those who 
include Domestic Science in their studies. Throughout the 
course visits to well-planned houses, steam laundries, chocolate 
works and other factories connected with food and clothing 
processes, are made whenever practicable or desirable , in order 
to broaden the outlook of the students and to impress on their 
minds the points under discussion. 

I subjoin a concise synopsis of the ground covered and a few suggestions 
of the methods adopted in the courses in chemistry, physics, geology and 
art; the course in general household cookery is a somewhat extended 
treatment of the grade school syllabus. 



80 



U.S.A. — State High ScJtools. 



(a)Brookline, The General Gheniistiy includes : A study of tlie air and its gases. 
jViass — Chemistry of respiration. Water : its composition, distillation, sol- 
continued. vent power. Hard and soft water. Hydrogen. Acids, bases, salts. 

The halogens and their compounds. Sulphur and phosphorus. Carbon 
and the chemistry of combustion. Fuels and illuminants. Dyeing of 
cloth. Starch, sugar, albumen, fats. Chemistry of fermentation and of 
digestion. Study of the metals. Action of acids and alkalies upon the 
common metals and their compounds. Simple qualitative analysis. 
To this succeeds the " Household Applicatioiis " previously mentioned. 
"The General Physics Course is governed by three permanent aims: — 
(1) that which it has in common with the general chemistry, viz., to 
develop in the pupils steady, persistent, logical thinking ; (2) to make 
them fairly intelligent in reference to their own scientific environment ; 
(3) to teach them to apply the elements of algebra and geometry to the 
problems of daily life. Incidentally it is anticipated that the sense of 
appreciation will be aroused for all that modern science has done and is 
doing for the comfort and convenience of the race." As the average 
manual offers few opportunities for any original independent thinking, and 
contains so little of anything like a practical application of physics to the 
phenomena of daily life, the head of the department substitutes s])ecial 
notes of his own — still in manuscript form — in which students are told as 
little as possible directly, but are given, practically, a series of original 
exercises in mechanics, optics and electricity, to work out by the aid of a 
set of simple apparatus, their mathematical instincts and their own brains ; 
the intention is that these shall then be applied to the affairs of daily life in 
continuous sequence, suggested by questions, problems and references. 
This thoroughly practical aim takes the form, for instance, in hydraulics, of 
directing attention to the water-meter, the simple motor, and the turbine, 
rather than to the lifting pump, the ram and the breast wheel, as the 
average man is more likely to see and use the former than the latier 
series. In optics again, the camera, the opera-glass, and the spy-glass are 
dealt with more fully than the telescope and the compound ndcroscope, for 
the same reason. Throughout, continual reference is made to the current 
literature of the day and to the features of Boston and its vicinity. The 
work in ])hysics is distributed somewhat as follows : — September, ()ctober, 
November — mechanics, including hydrostatics and pneumatics. December, 
January, February — optics. March, April, May —electricity. June — 
review. Towards the close of the school year special topics are suggested 
for more exhaustive treatment than is jjossible in the regular classroom 
work. Each pupil is expected to choose one or more of such topics and to 
present an illustrated paper upon the subject selected, at the end of the 
year. Among the topics recently suggested may be mentioned the 
following :— mechanics of the clock ; the bicycle ; the sewing-machine. 
Consumption of gas, water and electricity in the household. Testing a 
water-meter. The fire-alarm system of Brookline. School -room ventila- 
tion. The long-distance telephone. The gas-engine. The horse-power of 
an electric motor. 

These courses, each of which extends over an entire year, are required of 
the Sub-classical, the Scientific and the Manual training pupils. The time 
is equally divided between laboratory and lecture-room work, to both of 
which two periods per week must be devoted beside the usual preparation. 
Complete notes are kept by the pupils of the laboratory and lecture work, 
which are inspected from time to time by the instructor. 

The course in Zoology is planned on lines of equal practical value. 
Observation of living animals and a study of their external anatomy, 
expressed by drawings and oral or written descriptions ; constant use of 
the simple microscope and occasional use of the compound ; field trips, 
study of text and reference books, investigation of special topics, the 
making of collections, represent the method of study. x\ll the work is 
carried on in well-lit, airy rooms ; the physics laboratory, 40 feet by 2.3, 
deserves special mention for its well thought out arrangements and 
equipment. 

The same spirit can be traced throughout the Art work, under the 
direction of Miss Irene W eir, who bases her method upon the facts that 



Typical Domestic Science Courses. 



81 



the principles of art form the basis of good taste, and good taste concerns 
itself with every act and duty of daily life. In a recent paper on this 
subject she expressed her view as follows : — " From the economic stand- 
point alone the most important object which any course of art training can 
attain is to establish in the mind of the child principles of good taste ; from 
the standpoint of the child's own well-being, the power to do a thing well, 
which is art, requires the full and complete training of hand and eye and a 
concentration of brain energy scarcely excelled by any other mental j)ro- 
cess. The average child is not going to become either painter or architect, 
but will work in some sort of industrial occupation, or help in the produc- 
tion of marketable goods, or dress in good or bad taste, and make and have 
a home where order and beauty prevail, or where disorder and inartistic 
confusion reign. These things, therefore, are of jirimary value which tend 
to the improvement of the home, the comfort, well-being and harmony of 
the family, the order, security and beauty of the city, and finally, the best 
and happiest life of the individual ; and in good taste is found the broad 
foundation stone upon which these things rest." So her students are first 
trained to comprehend, and then required to apply, the principles of art 
in form, colour, design and composition to " homely " objects and ends, in 
the highest significance of the word. 

The part of the Domestic Science Course at present least 
developed as regards practical work, is that concerned with 
House Sanitation, though time is freely spent on field trips." 
After all, this method offers by far the best practice, especially 
as a course of phj^sics is obligatory the previous year ; pupils are 
thus prepared to make their observations on building construc- 
tion, pipes, water supply, and sanitary fittings, with an intelli- 
gence based on a practical, though elementary, knowledge of 
the subject. Their art training should have already developed 
some ideas as to house plans and room decoration. About 
one-fourth of the whole time is devoted directly to the 
study of Domestic Science during the four years' course ; zoology 
or physiology, physics, chemistry, and art absorb a full third ; the 
remaining hours are devoted to English literature and composi- 
tion, history, mathematics, and one modern language, though, 
in the general course, book-keeping is also an elective subject. 

The four years' course of study in Domestic Science is confined {0) Provi- 
to one of the three High schools in Providence (Rhode Island), yft*'^* 
viz., that devoted to manual training, where it is carried on ^^^^^ 
under the direction of Miss Abby L. Marlatt. At present this 
training is available only for 25 girls a year, at an average 
age of 15 years. Here, again, marked attention is given to the 
correlation of subjects; e.(j. in the Household Arts Course, 
suitable and original designs must be prepared for the dress and 
hat, the making of which forms part of the sewing practice; in 
the study of house construction, the plan and elevation of a 
simple dwelling are demanded of the student, subsequent 
schemes in colour for its internal decoration being duly carried 
out. In mathematics, problems are given for the calculation of the 
cubic capacity of various shaped rooms, of the velocity of enter- 
ing and out-going air in difterent systems of ventilation, and 
of the amount of air provided per hour per person under 
different conditions of atmosphere and propulsion. 



0490, 



82 U.S.A. — State High Schools. 



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A free hand is given to the singularly capable instructor, who (^>) Provi- 
has deservedly gained the confidence of the principal, and who clence 
is responsible for the four years' course of study in Domestic ^oliJiv^ec^ 
Science detailed in Appendix B, which is noteworthy on several ^ 
accounts. In the first place actual manual work is practised in 
three out of the four years ; elementary and advanced carpentry in 
the first and last years ; basket-weaving, modelling in clay and 
wood, and wood-carving in the first, second, and fourth. Book- 
keeping, elementary rhetoric, trigonometry, the elements of 
psychology, and the science of photograj)hy appear as academic 
subjects in conjunction with mathematics, geometry, physical 
geography, and German. General chemistry, physics, botany 
(which includes elementary bacteriology), and civil government, 
are carried on in direct relation with the Domestic Science work, 
and the Art course is well graduated to the same end. That the 
elements of psychology should be included in a course for girls of 
this age (15 to 19) is justified by Professor Huxley's 
strongly expressed conviction that by this means only can a 
properly proportioned introduction be given to a study of the 
laws of Nature which underlie all the processes of life.* 

It is found that the introduction of some practical Emergency 
and First-aid work appeals strongly to girls on coming to the 
High school, so this is introduced in their first year ; but the 
more responsible study of home nursing and the use of domestic 
disinfectants is delayed till the conclusion of the course (the 
fourth year), when it is illustrated practically by demonstrations 
at the Rhode Island Hospital, to which Miss Marlatt conducts 
her class. Reference to the schedule of the course will show that 
the year's work in physics precedes, while that in general 
practical chemistry runs parallel with, the practical cookery 
course. In any case it is believed that this arrangement is the 
best, but here it is of special service as Miss Marlatt is also 
Professor of Chemistry. Hitherto, the girls have come with no 
previous preparation in practice, as cooking is only to be intro- 
duced into the grade schools of Providence this autunni (1902). 
The cooking laboratory is furnished with single tables for each 
student, which are provided with Bunsen burners and stands, 

* Readers will be familiar with the plan of his " Introductory " Science 
Primer, wherein he pointed out that "a definite order obtains among 
mental i^henomena just as among material phenomena. . . . Moreover 
there is a connection of cause and effect between certain material 
phenomena and certain mental phenomena. . . . All the phenomena of 
nature are either material or immaterial, physical or mental ; and there is 
no science except such as consists in the knov/ledge of one or other of 
these groups of natural objects and of the relations which obtain between 
them." (Introductory Science Primer, pp. 93, 94. Macmillan. 1880.) So 
in his own masterly way, even in this elementary outline of the vast field 
of science, he leads his young readers from an observation of material 
objects (mineral bodies and living bodies) to the conception of inmiaterial 
objects as perceptible in mental phenomena ; and, though his great gift for 
expressing the complexities of scientific principles in most simple words is 
given to but few, this should not condone the omission of an integral part 
from a great whole, or discourage those who desire to present it in suitable 
form to intelligent students. 



(3490. 



84 



U.S.A. — State High Schools, 



(h) Provi- drawers to contain the necessary utensils, a sliding seat> and 
dence hooks at the side upon which the pans are hung ; coal and gas 

contiTmed r^^nges as well as Aladdin ovens are provided, and glazed cup- 
boards contain the china and glass. A bench fitted with the 
conveniences for chemical work runs the whole length of one 
side of the room (this enables problems to be dealt with on the 
spot as they arise in cooking practice); the drawers beneath 
provide accommodation for necessary apparatus. A small museum 
contains specimens of food stuffs in the various phases of manu- 
facture and other objects of practical interest, which include a 
complete set of very beautifully mounted common household 
pests, such as the red ant, cockroach, clothes moth, bug, etc. A 
good reference library for the use of the girls also finds a place. 

In the third year the study of food analysis and digestion is 
dealt with at length, and creates a demand for the fourth year 
course in analytical chemistry and bacteriology. In this senior 
year the course also deals with the hygienic and sanitary pro- 
blems illustrated in home and public life ; the sanitation of soils, 
the study of house plans, of plumbing, of heat and ventilation ; 
with considerations of a sanitary food supply, and of the risks 
from food adulteration, or from insects injurious to food ; a study 
of moulds and bacteria then leads on to the causes of disease 
and rules for hygienic care of the sick as well as of the sound. 
This work, though in part experimental, is largely done by means 
of home study of assigned topics ; the details of her " topic " are 
worked out by each pupil from observation, experiments or 
reference books. Miss Marlatt thus aims to foster habits ot 
independent study and independent thought. 

Miss Bowen, a graduate of Pratt Institute, who is responsible 
for the sewing, has her difficulties increased by the fact that the 
girls come to her with little or no knowledge of needlework. 
Time, therefore, only permits, as a rule, of the practice of each 
stitch on small samples of material in the first year ; application, 
in the form of a completed article, is compulsorily limited to the 
making of one blouse, for which the pupils are allowed to use a 
simple pattern of Butterick's ; and of a " raffia " hat, braided, sewn, 
shaped and trimmed by themselves. It will be observed that for 
three out of the four years as much time is given to modelling 
in clay or wood, or to carpentry, as to the use of the needle. In 
the second year a simple cotton dress is made. All the avail- 
able time in the third year is devoted to dressmaking, but 
"advanced" wood-carving and carpentry absorb two- thirds of 
the whole period in the fourth year, leaving but one- third for 
advanced *' dressmaking. I account for this under two heads ; 
(1) the conviction that variety in manual occupations is of much 
value in its development of dexterity and consequent reduction 
of merely mechanical repetition ; (2) the, to me, apparent fact t hat 
young people in the United States are quicker in perception and 
performance than their contenq)oraries in England, and are more 
usually disposed to " give their minds " to what they are called 
upon to do. Much care is given to a clear comprehension 
throughout of the " reason why," and attention is called to the 



Tyjyical Domestic Science Courses. 



85 



keeping of accurate notes, which are illustrated with usually 
excellent drawings. The needlework classes are carried on in a 
spacious, well-lighted room, which measures 28 by 32 by 14 feet, 
and accommodates 45 pupils. The furniture is easily adjustable. 
10 hand-sewing machines are provided, 5 of which are single 
thread Singer's. Each girl has a large and a small box stored in 
a numbered locker in which to keep her work materials and any 
article in the process of completion, as, for instance, hats in the 
millinery course. Large hanging cupboards are provided for 
skirts. There is no better evidence of the genuine interest 
aroused by the course than the emulation which exists among 
the students to complete not only a simple dress during the 
fourth year, but a more elaborate muslin gown in which to 
attend the graduating ceremony — a function of great importance 
in the life of an American student of either sex. The custom of 
making her own dress for this great occasion is habitual in High 
Schools and Technical Institutes among girls who attend sewing 
courses; and even in the grade schools of cities where the subject is 
taught through several years I found a similar ambition present 
among the little " graduates," though, as yet, rarely realised. 

The daily school session is from 9 a.m to 3 p.m. with a half-hour 
recess for lunch, which is served in the building. These hours 
are divided into " periods " of 45 minutes ; all " periods " in manual 
work are double that length. No Domestic Science, as such, is 
taken the first year, but 1 J hours is devoted to Manual Training 
or Household Art on alternate days in this, as in each year of the 
course. Domestic Science claims Ih hours on alternate days 
throughout the remaining 3 years, and to art work 45 minutes 
is assigned daily for the whole period. Thus a liberal half ot 
the school life is left free for academic studies. 

Miss Marlatt subjects the schedule of this course to constant 
revision in the light of her growing experience ; meanwhile it 
embodies some of the best, if not the best. High school work 
accomplished on these lines in the United States. 

It is the intention of those who have the interest of the school Hackley 
most deeply at heart, to frame all the work of the Hackley Table Xllf. 
Manual Training School on a similar educational basis — to present 
all the studies in the way Avhich shall best mould and shape 
character and so further the all-round development of the 
pupils, while the ideal of good health is kept prominently in 
view. When domestic subjects were introduced into the High 
school five years ago, parents as well as children were unfamiliar 
with any branches of manual training. It was felt that to make 
the desired favourable impression, sufficient time must be devoted 
to them, not merely to ensure their presentation on the above 
mentioned educational basis (which the initiators considered the 
only right way), but to be assured of enough practical results to 
interest and please the public generally. It is a still popular 
idea to regard this work largely from the standpoint of utility, 
and ignorantly to taboo educational value of work which does 
not make some practical showing. The growing interest of the 
public at Muskegon is evinced by the increased attendance on 



86 



U.S.A.— State High Schooh 



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Typical Domestic Science Courses. 



87 



visiting and exhibition days, and by hearty parental expressions (c) Hackley 
of appreciation. The figures showing the increase in the numbers —continued. 
of those who elect the long course in Manual Training, which are 
quoted later, are sufficient evidence that so for the experiment 
has met with success. A general system of " electives " has 
lately been arranged, which enables any pupil following a General 
Language, or other course, to substitute manual training subjects 
for certain literary studies in the third and fourth high school 
years ; two hours of manual training work then count as equiva- 
lent to one hour of academic training. In such instances the 
pupils are allowed to select the branches of manual training they 
prefer; hitherto emergencies, home sanitation, home nursing, 
table service and laundry in Domestic Science, and elementary 
and advanced dressmaking in Domestic Art have been the popular 
subjects. Sometimes the girls choose light bench work and 
wood carving in the boys' department, and, occasionally, turning. 

The Domestic Science work has been divided into two courses, 
termed the Long Course and the Short Course. The length of 
each lesson in cookery, sewing, or laundry, is two high school 
" periods " of 45 minutes each ; for lessons in home sanita- 
tion, emergencies and nursing, and drawing and gymnastics, 
one such period. The Short Course consists of two lessons per 
week for an entire year. One half year is devoted to cookery 
and the other half to sewing ; this division is not based entirely 
upon psychological reasons, but is to a certain extent necessary * 
in a school of this size. Theoretically it may seem better to 
give an entire year to each subject, but practically it is found 
to be impossible with the average teachers and average 
equipment. The experiment has been tried of giving one lesson 
per week in each subject during the entire year, or two per week 
on each subject for half a year, and the latter is found to be far 
better. The Short Course also includes two lessons per week in 
draAving and two lessons per week in gymnastics. Two years of 
the Short Course manual training is always required for a pupil to 
be entitled to a High School Diploma, and, in almost all courses, 
three years is required for graduation. 

The Long Course is four double periods per week, for the first 
three years at least; two in Domestic Science, two in Domestic 
Art, three single periods in drawing and two single periods in 
gymnastics. This course is designed for those who have a special 
liking and aptitude for manual training branches, and endeavours 
to cover the ground thoroughly. The pupil who completes this 
course receives,upon graduation,notonly the High School Diploma, 
but a Manual Training School Diploma as well. The work was laid 
out when the High School course covered four years; last year 
this was extended to five ; probably the same amount of 




88 



U.S.A—^tate Hicjii SckooU. 



(c) Hackley o^^' ^'^5 'J^^ty' 1901, only the natural " shrmkage" was 
-^continued, reported, a strong testimony to the growth of interest in the 
subject. 

Reference to the schedule will show the efforts made to 
hring a knowledge of the principles of the Special Sciences to 
bear upon the subjects which involve practical application of 
these principles. Miss Thomas hopes that jnuch closer correlation 
will gradually be effected ; meantime, the training as detailed in 
the following outlines should have a strong influence towards 
the elevation to a new dignity of those branches of manual 
labour with which the woman in the home comes most directly 
in contact. 

Cookery.— First year : short course. First half year : long course ; two 
lessons per week for one half year. This comprises a course in elementary 
cooking of a strictly economical character along lines slightly in advance of 
those followed in grade schools. It opens with a brief study of the chemical 
elements of combustion illustrated by experiments ; the kinds of fuel and 
their comparative costs, based upon the locality, etc. The foods cooked are 
taken up with regard to the food principle which they represent ; and their 
comparative food and market value considered ; the effect of heat and the 
chemical and physical changes which occur are carefully noted ; the use of 
each in the body, their digestion and assimilation. In this manner the 
foods are classified. The value of combining different foods to make a 
complete one is also studied. These food i)rinciples, taken in their natural 
sequence, are illustrated by the cookery of vegetables and cereals ; eggs in 
various ways ; soups ; stewed, broiled, and roasted meats ; fish, both fresh 
and dry ; the use of " left-overs," the connnercial and food value of legumes, 
• and their importance as substitutes for meats. The utility of economy of 

food material, of time, of labour, and of fuel in its preparation, is brought 
before the pupil, as is accuracy of measurement, careful manipulation, 
neatness, method and system in execution. 

Cookery.— Second year : short course. First year, second half : long 
course ; two lessons per week for one half year. 

The preparation oT batters and doughs ; the different methods of making 
them light, and the comparative value of each, illustrate the uses of soda 
and sour milk, soda and cream of tartar, and various kinds of baking- 
powders ; next in order comes the study of the yeast plant, its growth and 
requirements ; experiments with yeast, with tests of the different tempera- 
tures to which it can be submitted, and the conditions most suitable to its 
growth. This is followed by lessons in practical bread making from the 
different varieties of flour, and discussions on the nutritive value and 
digestibility of the different breads. The preparation of a few inexpensive 
cakes and sweet dishes concludes these lessons. 

Cookery. — Second year, first quarter : long course ; two lessons per 
week. 

This course is pursued by juipils who wish to acipire a more technical 
knowledge of cookery, and consists in lessons in jelly making, canning, 
pickling, and preserving ; the preparation of salads and desserts (sweets), 
and other made dishes. 

Laundry. — Third year : long or short course ; two lessons per week 
for one quarter. 

This course is planned to give the student an intelligent 
understanding of the general principles on which cleaning processes are 
based. In addition to the practical laundering of cottons, linens, woollens, 
coloured materials, stiff starched and fine articles of clothing, attention is 
paid to the care of plumbing and the ventilation in a room used for 
laundry purposes, and to the value of all materials used with a view to the 
best varieties and their most economical use. The removal of stains by 
neutralisation and natural bleaching processes ; the advantages of the use 
of soft water ; the composition of soap, the harm which results from the 
use of a strongly alkaline quality, or of a too large (luantity ; and the risks 



Tyi)lcal Boniestic Science Courses. 



89 



wliich accompany the application of inferior blueings, are each shown by Hackley 
experiment. The setting and restoring of colours in the laundry, and the —continued. 
cleaning of embroideries and fine laces are also discussed ; and, in all 
practical Avork, the time element as well as the quality of results obtained 
is considered. 

Table hlEiiviCE.— Third year : short course : fourteen lessons, balance 
of quarter employed in canning and pickling. Long course ; one quarter of 
two lessons per week. 

The clajises who pursue this work take up : (1) The consideration of 
various menus, the food value of the dishes, and the comparative cost and 
nutrition of each ; the combination of various dishes to form a meal, which 
shall be a well balanced one, of both material and labour at the smallest 
expense ; the importance in the variety of meals, and the avoidance of a 
daily routine ; (2) the equipment and care of the dining-room, china closet 
and pantry ; (3) the care of silver, glass, china and steel ware ; (4) the 
arrangement of a table at different meals and the duties of a waitress at 
each. Correlated with the above mentioned work is the practical work of 
cooking and serving meals ; pupils take the places in turn of cook, waitress, 
hostess and guest ; (5) the arrangement and packing of simple and 
nutritious lunches for school children, which are now thought worth very 
careful consideration as a factor in growth and well-being. 

EmerCxENCIES. — Fourth year : short course. Third year : long course ; ^ 
four single periods per week for one quarter. 

This syllabus includes lectures, recitation and practice work, review of 
physiology (especially circulation and the structure of the blood vessels) ; 
the treatment of wounds of varied severity ; improvised bandages, com- 
presses and tourniquets ; the treatment of burns and scalds ; the temporary 
treatment of sprains, dislocations and fractures ; and the methods of 
utilising material at hand for improvised splints, bandages, slings, pads and 
stretchers ; the treatment of unconscious conditions ; practice in the various 
methods of using bandages, both emergency and roller. 

Home Nuksing. — Third year : long course ; four lessons per week for 
one quarter. 

This embraces the usual topics : talks on the best methods of caring for 
patients in their own home ; ventilation of rooms ; precautions against 
draughts ; the necessary care and precautions regarding nursing contagious 
disease, and disinfection of clothing and room ; bed making ; the arrange- 
ment of draw-sheets ; moving of helpless patients ; prevention of bed sores ; 
preparation of fomentations and poultices ; baths of various kinds. 

Invalid Cookery. — Third year : long course ; two lessons per week for 
one quarter. 

The various kinds of liquid diets are here discussed, and their uses in 
different diseases ; koumiss and peptonised milk are prepared, also broths 
and teas ; nutritious, cooling, and stimulating drinks ; convalescent diet ; 
simple and dainty " desserts " suitable for an invalid ; the equipment, arrange- 
ment, and preparation of an invalid's tray are also considered. 

Home Sanitation. — Fourth year : long course; four single periods per 
week for one quarter. 

Under this subject is considered the location of the house ; the condition 
and quality of the soil and its drainage ; the construction of the cellar, 
and the importance of sanitary conditions in cellars ; the evil effects of 
impure air in cellars ; the disposal of house refuse in country, village, and 
city ; house drainage ; the modern system of plumbing ; the defects in 
many systems ; the bad effects of sewer Jiir, and precautions against its 
getting into a house ; the water supply, sources of contamination, sugges- 
tions for improvement. In like manner is discussed the heating, lighting, 
ventilation, and general care of a house from a sanitary standpoint ; also 
the sanitary care of food. 

Dietaries.— This work is planned for the fourth year. The values of 
foods are studied more in detail than in the other courses, and the food 
values of rations at a limited cost are estimated to meet the needs of 
persons of different ages and occupations. 



90 



U.S.A.— State High Schooh. 



Domestic Art. — At present the Needlework course takes up the hand- 
sewing at the point where the pupil left it in the grade schools. 

Hand-Sewing. — First year : short course ; first half year : long course ; 
two lessons per week. 

The sewing lessons are supplemented by talks on the position of the 
body while sewing, and the evil results of incorrect positions ; the manner 
of holding work, and the direction from which light should fall. Special 
attention is paid to practical repairing and mending, to darning of stockings 
and fiannels, patching and piecing, together with the sewing on of buttons 
and the making of button-holes. Correlated with this work are short 
lessons on weaving and the manufacture of the different materials used, as 
thread, thimbles, needles, shears, cotton, silk, and wool. These are 
illustrated by cases of materials which show the different steps in the 
process. 

Machine-Sewing. — Second year : short course. First year, second half : 
long course, two lessons per week for one half year. 

Here the practical application is required of what has been learned in 
the previous sewing course. The use and care of machines is taught, 
and models, illustrative of all kinds of machine work, such as tucking, 
placing ruffles, embroidery, and lace insertions, are made. In this, as in 
all other branches of this work, the time element is considered, and the 
question of saving labour, when not necessarily required, is dwelt upon ; 
thus, a pupil is discouraged from putting several ruffles where one will 
answer, or from making tucks in ruffles, which will be difficult to iron and 
cause unnecessary labour. After this preliminary work, drafting is taught 
by a system of simple measurements, and a white petticoat is drafted and 
made, during the making of which the various uses of the, machine, taught 
in the previous lessons, are put into practice. 

Machine Sewing. — Third year : short course. Second year, first half : 
long course ; two lessons per week for a half year. 

The practice of drafting by a system of measurement is continued. The 
uses of XJatterns are taught, and the changes and variations required by 
the average patterns on the market,; the shrinking and preparation of 
cloth for making is practised ; and a blouse is cut, fitted and made. 

Elementary Dressmaking. — Fourth year : short course. Second year, 
second half : long course ; two lessons per week for a half year. 

In this course simple drafting is continued, and an unlined muslin dress 
is made, previously designed by the pupil. 

Dressmaking. — Third year : long course ; two lessons per week for 
one year. 

A system of dressmaking by a chart is now introduced, and pui)ils 
practise how to measure, draft, cut and fit linings for and to each other ; 
after which, a lined, boned and trimmed dress is made. A study of textiles 
and the material suitable for diff"erent occasions is continued throughout 
the course, and designs arc made for all the garments. 

Millinery.— This is designed to occupy part of the foui tli year in the 
long course, but as yet (1901) no teacher has been employed for the pur- 
pose. 

Drawing. — Two single periods pei' week. First year : freehand, 
nature work, and still life, composition book covers, composition book 
illustrations. Second year : freehand composition, charcoal and water 
colour studies. Third year : charcoal work, historic and antique ornament, 
pen and ink sketches. Fourth year : clay modelling, water colour, advanced 
composition. Throughout all the different lines of work special attention is 
jmid to note-taking. This gives the pupil practice in expressing facts 
briefly, and in logical order, and provides useful material for future reference. 

(d) Toledo. The Toledo Manual Training School was opened in the 
autumn of 1884 in rooms set apart for the purpose m the Central 
High School of the city ; it is now installed in its own imposing, 
finely-situated building. The initial instruction was limited to 
classes in woodw^ork and drawing for boys. In 1887 the 



Typical Domestic Science Courses. 



91 



directors realised the necessity of providing a practical course of ^^^^ Toledo 
instruction for girls also, and the Sewing and Cooking depart- co7itinued. 
ments were established. Four courses of manual training 
instruction are planned for students of high school grade, which 
include Domestic Science and Art for young women ; either of 
these courses may be taken in connection with any regular high 
school academic course of study, in order to train head and 
hands to work together, and thus contribute to the ideal that 
the academic education secured by students in the purely 
literary school may be put to practical use. Though 
the directress is thoroughly imbued with the desire that 
the training shall be educational, not merely technical, she 
has not yet achieved the introduction of such thoroughly 
scientific methods as those which distinguish Miss Marlatt's 
High School course at Providence. The Domestic Science and 
the Art courses are similar in the first two years ; no fees are 
enforced, except a small sum for laboratory requirements. One 
and a half hours a day are devoted to manual training throughout 
the four years' course and are variously apportioned according to 
the demands of the subjects entering into the particular year's 
curriculum. Classes are limited to 20 in number, but, and this 
deserves special note, boys have the opportunity of optional 
attendance at the 10 lectures on House-planning and Sanitation, 
of which some are glad to avail themselves. The result of this 
attendance was shown me in a simple house plan prepared at 
these lectures, which was being executed by the boys in the 
Woodwork Department on a scale of \ inch to 1 foot ; the 
plumbing was to be carried out by the same young artisans in their 
metal work course, and the model will then be available for 
demonstration on house sanitation, being planned to permit of 
convenient division for this purpose. In spite of the large size 
of the building, the class-roonis and studios now suffer from 
overcrowding, and extensive additions were to be made during 
the summer vacation (1901). 

It appeared to me that the " art " side of the domestic training 
is especially Avell thought out in this course, for which reason 
the following details are introduced : freehand drawing, clay 
modelling, and sewing, constitute the work in the first year ; 
the freehand drawing, with the pencil as a medium, takes up 
the subjects of light and shade from still-life groups; clay 
modelling covers work in simple ornament and plaster of paris 
casting. The work in sewing consists in the drafting, fitting, 
and making of linen undergarments, the making of blouses, 
dressing jackets, or plain gowns. In the second year, freehand 
drawing is continued, with charcoal as a medium, working from 
still-life groups, the ornament, and the mask. Considerable time 
is devoted to the study of design. 

In the third year the student is given the choice between a 
Domestic Science or a Domestic Art course. In the Domestic 
Science work, the freehand drawing is continued with the aim 
of developing the student's idea of taste for the beautiful in the 
home. The clay modelling is omitted, and the subjects of 



92 



U.S. A. —State High Schools. 



(d) Toledo— dressmaking and fitting of garments comprise the year's work. 

continued. If \^\^q course be elected, freehand drawing is continued, 
and the subjects of millinery and art needlework receive very 
practical attention. The autumn and spring terms are usually 
devoted to millinery work, while the winter term is occupied in 
the study of decorative art needlework, which consists of work 
in drawn linen and silk embroidery. The fourth year of the Art 
course is devoted to the study of freehand drawing, and water- 
colour from still life and nature ; clay modelling is continued by 
study from life, and the making of glue and wax moulds for 
plaster casting is included. 

The needlework room is well proportioned and abundantly 
supplied with presses, sewing machines, dress stands, and other 
conveniences. The teacher works in close collaboration with 
the director of the art classes, so that as students are led on to 
the use of colour and the selection and graduation of shades, 
application of this knowledge is required in the production of 
simple designs for patterns of materials, hats and dresses, on 
a good bold scale. In the dressmaking course individual 
attention is freely given, and pupils are not required to keep 
abreast of each other. They usually make three dresses of 
different materials and styles in the year ; Storey's system of 
dress-cutting being employed. In the session devoted to plain 
needlework, a corset cover, petticoat of more or less elaboration, 
full drawers, dressing jacket, and dainty nightdress apparently 
represent the work accomplished. 

(The equipment for a typical High School Course in Dress- 
making will be found in Appendix C.) 

The practice is individual throughout the Domestic Science 
work. Knowledge is tested by revisions, periodical demonstra- 
tions by two students to the rest of the class, and occasional 
written "quizzes" by the teacher. The study of household 
economics, the chemistry of cooking, and the care of the home 
form a very important branch of the work in this second year 
of the course, and are based upon a study of elementary biology ; 
it is hoped that physiology will be introduced very shortly. 
The cooking laboratory is a spacious room on the fourth floor 
of the building, in all ways satisfactory except as regards light, 
for the windows are very low. The cooking tables accommodate 
groups of four ; they are of the prevalent type, provided with 
drawers, the basins and pans in most frequent use finding places 
upon the shelves beneath. The sink accommodation is ample, 
and a large coal range is provided in addition to the gas rings 
fitted at each end of the tables. It still happens that some girls 
first enter the course quite disposed to despise it and to 
resent the time expended upon it, but subsequent genuine 
interest is almost invariably developed, and the voluntary 
opinion is often expressed that this class has proved the most 
attractive in the year's work. The keen and growing apprecia- 
tion by the boys of the crumbs of sanitation they are allowed 
to gather from the full meal supplied for the girls, promises two 



Typical Domestic Science Courses. 



93 



results ; first, that a more complete training in the subject will, 
if possible, be organised for those who desire it ; second, that the 
girls become at once more alive to the advantages of the course. 

In illustration of a method but little followed, brief reference {e) Ann 
is made to the Ann Arbor High School, where Domestic Science Arbor, 
is practically confined to the narrow limits assigned to it in 
many Grade schools. At Ann Arbor, sewing is taken in the 
fourth, fifth, and sixth grammar grades, and cooking in the 
seventh and eighth, where both subjects are classed as " manual 
work," which is meantime actually carried on by the boys during 
the parallel five years in the form of card, knife, and subsequently 
bench work. A short time ago voluntary classes were formed 
in the High School, in bench work for boys and in cooking for 
girls ; these are planned to build on the foundation that has thus 
been laid, and to continue the work so far as the facilities of the 
school and the needs of the pupils may indicate to be wise. The 
work is " elective," but, once entered upon, must be continued 
through the term, unless a re-classification is granted. The 
cooking equipment is sufficient for a class of 24, but the accom- 
modation provided in a cramped, dark, questionably ventilated 
basement room does not offer attractions to young girls of 16 or 
17, especially as the adjacent manual training room for boys is 
in every way superior. Opportunity is given in the third year 
of each of the six alternative courses of study to lay a scientific 
foundation in Household Economics by the inclusion of biology, 
physics and chemistry in each curriculum, but there were no 
evident indications that the indispensable correlation is demon- 
strated. A conveniently-arranged and Avell-lighted biological 
laboratory is provided for individual work ; its equipment in- 
cludes compound and dissecting microscopes, paraffin heater, 
tank for aquatic plants, air-tight chests for preserving specimens, 
and a good provision of glass ware, chemical reagents, etc. The 
physical and chemical laboratories are in every respect up-to-date, 
and secure to each pupil the advantages of actual experimenta- 
tion, so that the " willing mind " alone is required to organise a 
satisfactory course in Domestic Science here as elsewhere. 

The detailed accounts of these selected High school courses Summary, 
will have indicated their usual scope : plain household cooking, 
housewifery (which includes the chemistry of cleaning, the pui-- 
chase of household commodities, the intelligent calculation of 
nutritive food values, the arnmgement of family meals, the 
plan, structure, and sanitation of a dAvelliiig-house), needlework, 
dressmaking, millinery, a short course in laundry work, some 
knowledge of home nursing, the preparation of invalid food, and 
last, but by no means least, an introduction to the science of 
economics, in order that, as Avomen, these girls may be fit for the 
responsibility of intelligent, just expenditure of the faniilv in- 
come. Housewifery may be, and is often, subdivided, so that 
sanitation assumes its rightful position of a distinct and impor- 
tant subject ; but, as in the granmiar grades, personal hygiene 
(the structure and care of the body) does not enter mU) these 
Household or Domestip Science or Art courses. Tt must be sought 



94 



U.S.A. — State High Schools. 



under the shelter of biology or physiology, where, as in the more 
elementary schools, it is studied together by the mixed classes 
and well nigh without exception, by the laboratory method. 
Physiology Physiology and hygiene are obligatory in the High schools of 
and Hygiene very few States ; it is their value, as lit developments of, and 
ourbes. conclusions to, a course in biology which usually accounts for 
their presence; the opportunities aftbrded, by hygiene especi- 
ally, as a field for the application of observations in economics 
and civics, as well as for the theories and principles acquired in 
the study of chemistry and physics, also gives them a position in 
some of the leading High schools, which is of good omen for their 
more general adoption eventually. It suffices to mention 
New York City, Cleveland (Ohio), and Detroit, (Mich.), to support 
the statement that an honourable place is found by the highest 
educational authorities for these studies in their High schools. 
They may appear as " elective " in the second year of two out of 
the six courses (modern languages and English) as at the Detroit 
Central High School; or in the last year of four out of the six courses 
(Business, Scientific (three in number), Latin-English, German,) 
as at Cleveland, or they may be obligatory for all first year students 
as in the Peter Cooper High School, New York City. The time 
allotted to their study, and their position with respect to the other 
sciences is also variable. The time may be daily periods for five 
months or bi-weekly periods for one year (nine months). At 
the Cleveland High schools physics must, and biology may, be 
taken the previous year ; civics and chemistry run concurrently 
with physiology when " elected ; " the preceding course in biology 
is of special excellence and completeness. At Detroit, botany, 
and usually zoology, precede physiology, to which chemistry, 
physics, and economics succeed. In New York City three 
periods of 50 minutes a week are assigned to botany and 
zoology during the year and two such weekly periods are 
allotted to physiology. Here physics and chemistry again suc- 
ceed the biological course. Without exception, individual labo- 
ratory work plays a prominent part in the method pursued. In 
consequence of my visit to the United States taking place in the 
late spring and early summer, most laboratory work in physiology 
was concluded for the year, but I was fortunate in finding some 
(a) Detroit, still in progress at the Central High School, Detroit. Here a 
Table XIV. student of physiology gives one or two hours respectively on 
alternate days to botany and physiology. Latin, rhetoric, 
algebra, and history constitute the companion studies which 
may complete a typical weekly programme, though this depends 
on the special course elected. Professor Louis Murbach is 
responsible for the biology at this school, and has the advantage 
of a spacious, well-lit, well-equipped laboratory for his classes in 
botany, zoology, and physiology. Here he is able to demonstrate 
his conviction (well expressed in an article on " Physiology in 
the High School," published in The Physician and the Surgeon, 
December, 1900), " that schools should institute exact mental 
discipline, therefore, when instruction is given in physiology, it 
should not, and need not, be mere teaching to avoid bad habits, 



Physiology/ and Hygiene Courses. 



95 



to shun disease, or to acquire a (dangerous) smattering of medical ((t)Detroit- 
knowledge, it should take its place as a part of natural science ; continued. 
for, if properly taught, it inculcates scientific methods of investi- 
gation, and is of real value in mental development." Professor 
Murbach illustrates in his class-room " what is generally known 
as the strength of the laboratory method, which lies in the 
student's contact with the material studied, and his independence, 
forced, if necessary, in getting his knowledge from the material, 
in its classification, and in building up principles therefrom." 
Questions are set which the pupil must answer from experiment 
or specimen ; " all text books whose head-lines embody the 
conclusions of their experiments are strictly banished, otherwise 
the chief aim of biological studies and their value in science 
training is defeated." Necessary information is gained through 
discussion of experimental and observational work, and consulta- 
tion of indicated authorities in the excellent library. A strong 
point of this practical course lies in the inexpensive equipment 
with Avhich the excellent results are accomplished. " When the 
course was initiated," writes Professor Murbach " one alcohol lamp, 
six test tubes, a microscope, a skeleton, and some reagents con- 
stituted the stock in trade ; at its existing state of evolution the 
following is found sufficient : a compound microscope, dissecting 
lenses, one for each student, a skeleton, a thermometer, a lacto- 
meter, retort stands, forceps, needles, Bunsen burners or alcohol 
lamps, test'tubes, porcelain crucible, evaporating dishes, glass and 
rubber tubing, glass and porcelain dishes, models of eye, ear, and 
heart, gelatine for culture, and reagents such as nitric acid, am- 
monia, caustic potash, copper sulphate, formaline, pepsin, pan- 
creatin, rennin, peptone, and beef extract." With his other 
attainments Professor Murbach combines an exceptional 
facility for the devising of simple apparatus and the ingenious 
employment of " makeshifts," which he places at the disposal 
of science teachers less fortunately equipped than himself ; 
of even greater value is the resourceful atmosphere he developes 
in his laboratory and the spirit of self-help he arouses in his 
students. I wish that space permitted me to give more than 
the following brief synopsis of this course, for though its scope 
can be indicated, it is in the method that the training lies, 
with its subsequent influence on action in the form of good 
habits, for continued emphasis is laid upon hygienic applica- 
tion along the wholesome lines of sound common sense. 

"The organs of the body actually studied in the laboratory 
are the following : the kinds of bones in the body — long, short, 
flat, correlated with their functions, kinds of joints, places ot 
attachment of muscles ; the lever functions of long bones, 
with some simple problems of lifting weights, support of the 
body's weight in walking; the heart, from models and specimens ; 
the circulation as seen in a frog's foot or mesentery; finally, 
the general appearance and position of the internal organs in 
a freshly killed frog or guinea pig. The latter may be in 
form of demonstration to groups of pupils. The car, from 
model and discussion ; the eye from models ; specimens also 



96 U.S.A.— State High Schools. 



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Physiology and Hygiene Courses. 



97 



are brought into the laboratory work if time permits ; this study 
is either followed or preceded by a few experiments on skin 
sensation. Besides these laboratory exercises, the following 
subjects are included : respiration (with some experiments), 
circulation, excretion, bacterial origin of diseases, immunisation, 
isolation, disinfection, antiseptics, hygiene, emergencies, and 
what may be done before the physician arrives." 

To those already familiar with Professor J. E. Peabody's {b.) New 
suggestive " Laboratory Manual for Practical Physiology York City. 
Classes " it will appear self evident that the course for which Table XV. 
he is responsible at the Peter Cooper High School, New York 
City, should be a model of its kind. The following remarks 
will be couched chiefly in his OAvn w^ords (recorded in an 
article contributed to the "Journal of Applied Microscopy," 
III., No. 7), as, in consequence of the short time at my 
disposal, I was unable to visit the school, though I received 
much reliable testimony as to the high character and utility 
of the work carried out under Professor Peabody's supervision ; 
and have had the advantage of subsequent correspondence with, 
and much kind assistance from him. The principal aims of 
this course are these: (1) to give to each pupil some knowledge 
of the normal functions of the organs in his own body; (2), 
to make him so familiar with the structure of his organs and 
tissues that he will get this understanding of their function 
(anatomy is therefore subordinated to physiology); (3) to 
acquaint the pupil, so for as time allows, with the general 
biological principles involved in nutrition, growth, relations 
of animals and plants, and evolution. . . . 

The number of boys and girls in each division is usually 
about 35. The physiological laboratory is situated in the 
north-east corner of the school building. Its dimensions are 
21 by 27 feet, and it is lighted on two sides by large windows. 
The greater part of the floor room is required for the ten 
laboratory tables, each designed for the use of four pupils. 
The tables are made of white wood, the lower portion being 
finished with shellac. The top is soaked successively in 
solutions of logwood and of iron, and melted paraffin is tlieii 
rubbed into the wood with a hot iron. This treatment gives 
a dull black finish that is not affected by acids, alcohol or 
stains. Unlike varnished desk-tops, these do not reflect light 
into the eyes of the pupils. The desks are arranged in the 
room so that the pupil faces the north windows Avhen doing 
laboratory work. He therefore has the best possible light for 
the microscope and for the object he is studying. Revolving 
chairs are used, which can be easily raised or lowered according 
to the needs of each pupil. When recitations are held or class 
demonstrations given, the boys and girls turn their chairs to 
face the instructor, and since the desks in this position are 
on the right side of the pupil, notes can be taken easily. By 
this arrangement it is possible to convert the laboratory into 
a recitation room Avithoiit any loss of time. Half of a fifty 
minute recitation period may be devoted to microscopic w^ork, 

0490. (j 



98 



U.S.A. — State High Schools. 



\^ \^r- ^^^^^ specimens may be pushed aside and the attention 
^L^^^^^I..7 the class directed to recitation. The seven teachers of 

C0ni/t7lU€U/. 1 • t • .1 . 1 I'll' 

biology use, m coimnon, the apparatus and supplies belonging 
to the Department, a partial list of which follows : thirty-six 
compound microscopes, each provided with rack and pinion, 
fine adjustment, double nose-piece, iris diaphragm, two eye- 
pieces, and a two-thirds inch and a one-sixth inch objectives; 
magnifiers and dissecting microscopes; steam sterilizer, hot 
air sterilizer, and Petri dishes for bacteriological work ; fourteen 
specially prepared wall charts, twenty-five prints of photo- 
micrographs from each of forty-five negatives, skeletons and 
dissected preparations, glass ware, chemicals, reference books. 

The pupil begins the study of each topic with laboratory 
work, considering Avhen possible the organs and tissues of 
his own body. In studying the mouth cavity, for example, 
he writes in his note book the answers to questions found in the 
Laboratory Manual used by the classes. Some of the laboratory 
work is done at home, the written reports being discussed at 
the following recitation. Text-book lessons in Martin's " Human 
Body " supplement the facts gained by laboratory work. In the 
study of the different organs, continual reference is made to 
the structure and functions of other animals ; for example, 
after the consideration of the bones and teeth of man and of 
the animals in the school museum, the classes are taken to the 
American Museum of Natural History to study other mammalian 
skeletons. Groups of eight to ten pupils gather round the 
different specimens, each pupil answering in his note book 
the questions, of which a specimen is given below. The facts 
gained from this observation are discussed at the museum, 
and the boys and girls hand in at the next recitation a 
written account of some of the animals studied. 

Comparative study of the Mammalian Skeleton. 
A. — Spinal cord. 

1. How many vertebra3 are found in the neck (cervical) region ? 

2. How many vertebrae bear ribs (dorsal vertebraj) 1 

3. How many vertebrte in the lumbar regions ? 

4. Can you determine how many vertebra3 have united to form the 
sacrum ? 

5. How many vertebrae in the tail (caudal vertebrae) ? 

6. In what region of the spinal column are curves noticeable ? How do 
they differ from the curves in the human skeleton 1 

7. Are spinous processes specially developed in any region 1 Can you 
suggest any reason for this ? 

"Repeated demonstrations from the wall charts by the pupils 
help to fix in their minds the relative position in the human 
body of the various organs of digestion, circidation and excretion 
which they are studying. Considerable microscopic work is 
done during the laboratory periods. Some of the photomicro- 
graphs are then distributed and the discussion of the pictured 
serves to make clearer to the students the structures they have 
been examining." 

The outline of the course opens with some introductory 
lessons on the chemistry of air, of the human body, an'd a study 



Physiology and Hygiene Courses. 99 

of acid and alkaline reactions; the study of livinfif substances W New 
(protoplasm) folio ws-then that of foods and of digestion. To 
this succeeds lessons on the blood, skeleton, muscles, heart and ^'^^^ 
circulation, respiration, excretion and the nervous system (from 
which the special senses are omitted), while a few concluding 
hours are giv^en to a study of yeasts and bacteria. 

A general idea of the method of study may be gained from 
the following specimen extract from the syllabus : — • 
" Study of respiration. 

(1) Laboratory w(»rk. 

{(t) Drawing of lungs, wind-pipe, and larynx of calf 
(h ) Demonstration of action of lungs from model. 

(2) Text-book. 

(a) Structure and function of {a) lungs, (b) diaphragm, 
(c) larynx. 

(3) Applications. 

{a) Principles underlying ventilation. 
{h) Relation of clothing to respiration, 
(c) Hygienic habits of breathing." 

Laboratory work first; the consultation of text-books next; 
hygienic applications to daily habits and the details of community 
life in conclusion : these are the main lines for work and guidance, 
and this is the method of which the sound value is testified to 
equally in Detroit as in this New York City High School by the 
visible interest of the girls and lads, the results on conduct, the 
evidence afforded of mental discipline, and by the manual 
dexterity acquired. 

Among the most practical parts of the whole course are the 
eight lessons devoted to the study of bacteria. 

Culture dishes of nutrient gelatine are exposed to the air, others are 
exposed to the city water, while a certain number of the dishes are kept 
closed. After several days the dishes are distributed among the pupils, 
and the colonies of mould and bacteria are studied and figures made. 
Home work on the growth of bacteria in milk is one of the applications 
of the subject to everyday life. After experiments in methods of steriliza- 
tion, the hoys and girls are asked such questions as the follow^ing : — 

1. From all your experiments, state (a) what conditions seem to favour 
the growth of bacteria ; {!>) what conditions seem to hinder the growth of 
bacteria ? 

2. Why should fruits be cooked before canning ? 

3. Why are foods kei)t iu the refrigerator iu suuuner time ? — - ...... 

4. Why should the prohibition against spitting in public places be rigidly 
enforced '{ 

5. Why should sweeping be done as far as possible without raising a dust ? 

6. Why should the teeth be brushed often ? 

7. Why should the refuse be removed from the streets every morning 
early, especially in summer time ■? 

8. Why should wounds be carefully cleansed and dressed at once? ' ' 

9. In what ways do bacteria prove to be of benefit to man ? " ' 
10.. In what ways do bacteria prove to be " man's invisible foe V 

6490. g2 * 



100 



U.S.A.—State Colleges. 



A course in general biology is to be put into operation next year, which 
will combine much of the work now done in the separate courses in botany, 
zoology, and physiology. 

Five periods a week are to be devoted to this subject, the main outlines 
of which are planned as follows : " Introductory experiments in chemistry 
and physics will give the pupils some first hand knowledge of chemical 
elements and compounds, the process of oxidation, and the principles of 
capillary attraction and evaporation. The remainder of the first half year 
will be devoted to the study of botany, emphasis being laid on the physio- 
logical functions carried on in seeds, seedlings, roots, stems, leaves, flowers 
and fruits. In the second half year the basis of the work is to be the 
physiology of the human body. Each function will, however, be con- 
sidered from the comparative standpoint. For example, in studying the 
subject of respiration the following topics will be considered in addition to 
those now included : — 

" 1. Study of (a) skin of earthworm ; (b) gills of fishes ; (c) lungs of frogs, 
reptiles, birds and mammals. 

" 2. Comparison of respiration in animals living (a) in water, (b) in moist 
places ; (c) in the air." 

This proposal meets with my entire approval, for it is by thus 
placing man in his relation to less highly developed forms of life 
that a most desirable admiration for the marvellous beauty of 
the human body is aroused, and the equally essential senses of 
self-respect and personal dignity are developed. The value of 
such High school courses as these at Detroit and New York, 
followed by lads and girls of 15 to 17 years of age, appears 
to me to be incalculable in its future influence for good 
on the homes of a great city and a great nation, and no visitor 
to the class-rooms could fail to be impressed Avith the unaffected 
and practical interest of the young people. Placed, as the 
subject is, in its natural setting as a part of the great study of 
life in its many manifestations, and turned to account as it also 
is as a field for the application of the laws of natural and moral 
science (physics chemistry, psychology, economics, civics), no 
opening is afforded for morbid introspective employment of the 
physiological facts acquired in the laboratory. A thoroughly 
wholesome tone pervades the class-rooms, and the most notice- 
able influence on the personality of the students is stated to be a 
more intelligent recognition of the needs of the body, and a 
greater disposition to give the necessary attention to its right 
performance of vital functions. 

How " time " can be legitimately found for this invaluable 
study by both sexes, during high school life is apparent from 
the particulars of the five alternative courses at the Peter Cooper 
High School.* 

C— Colleges. 

Before entering upon a review of the College Courses in 
Household Science and Hygiene, it seems advisable to refer 
somewhat fully to the history and aims of these institutions. 
History and In his exhaustive paper on the "American College" (No. 5 
Develop- Monographs on Education in the United States, edited by 
men . Murray Butler), Professor Andrew Fleming West opens 

his subject by telling his readers that the American College has 
150 exact counterpart in the educational system of any other 



See Table XV. 



History and Development. 



101 



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102 



U.S.A.— Shite Colle(/(^. 



History and country. " The elements which compose it are derived, it is true, 
Develop- from European systems, and in particular from Great Britain ; 
^--^ntinued ' ^^^^ ^^^^ form under which these elements have been finally 
compounded is a form suggested, and almost compelled, by the 
needs of our national life . . . notably different from the old world 
schools." He then traces the history and progress of this 
important factor in the national system of free education, 
concluding this portion of his paper as follows : " Still, in order 
to understand the precise nature and unique influence of the 
college in American education, it is not necessary here to trace 
step by stop the story of its development, for in its various forms 
of present organisation it reveals not only the normal type which 
has been evolved, but also survivals of past stages of development, 
instances of variation and even of degeneration from the type, and 
interesting present experiments, which may to some extent 
foreshadow the future.'" 

On a later page Professor West draws attention to the fact thn t 
" the American College, as contrasted with European schools, is 
a composite thing — partly secondary and partly higher in its 
organisation. It consists regularly of a four-year course of study 
leading to the Bachelor's degree. Up to the close of the Civil 
War (1861-1865), it was mainly an institution of secondary 
education, with some anticipations of university studies toward 
the end of the coiu'se. But even these embryonic university 
studies were usually taught as rounding out the course of 
disciplinary education, rather than as subjects of free investiga- 
tion. Boys entered college when they were 15 or 16 years of age. 
The average age of graduation did not exceed 20 years . . . With 
but few and unimportant exceptions, the four-year course 
consisted of prescribed studies. They were English literature 
and rhetoric, Latin, Greek, mathematics, natural philosophy, and 
political economy, and often a little psychology and metaphysics. 
Perhaps some ancient or general history was added. French and 
German were sometimes taught, but not to an important degree. 
At graduation the student received the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts, and then entered on the study of law, medicine, or theology 
at some professional school, or went into business or into teaching 
in the primary or secondary schools. Such was, in barest outline, 
the scheme of college education a generation ago. At the present 
time things are very different. With the vast growth of the 
country in wealth and population since the Civil War there has 
come a manifold development. The old four-year course, 
consisting entirely of a single set of prescribed studies leading to 
the one degree of Bachelor of Arts, has grown and branched in 
many ways. It has been modified from below, from above and 
from within. The better preparation now given in thousands of 
schools has enabled colleges to ask for somewhat higher entrance 
requirements, and, what is more important, to exact them with 
greater firmness. The age of entrance has increased, until at the 
older and stronger colleges the average is now about 18i 
years. A four-year course leading to a Bachelor's degree 
remains, although in some quarters the increasing age of the 



History (tnd Development. 



108 



students is creating a tendency to shorten the course to three 
years, in order that young men may not be kept back too long 
trom entering upon their professional studies . . The four-year 
course, however, no longer leads solely to the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts, nor has this old degree itself remained unmodified." 

" With the foundation of schools of science which aimed to give 
a modern form of liberal education based mainly on the physical 
and natural sciences, and yet only too often gave, under this 
name, a technological course, or a somewhat incongruous mixture 
of technical and liberal studies, the degree of Bachelor of Science 
came into use as a college degree. . . . Still other degrees of lesser 
importance also came into vogue and obtained a footing here 
and there to mark the completion of a four years' college course. 
. . . The organisation of such courses was naturally embarrassed 
by grave difficulties which are as yet only partially overcome. . . , 
The present drift, however, of opinion and action in colleges 
which offer more than one Bachelor's degree is more reassuring 
than it was some twenty years ago. There is a noticeable 
tendency, growing stronger each year, to draw a sharp line 
between liberal and technical education, and to retain under- 
graduate college education in liberal studies as the best founda- 
tion for technical studies, thus elevating the latter to a profes- 
sional dignity comparable with law, medicine, and divinity . . . 
and if this happy result can be considered assured, then the 
undergraduate college course, the sole guarantee of American 
liberal culture, will have a good chance to organise itself in 
accordance with its own high ideals, however imperfectly it may 
have realised these ideals in the past. Another hopeful tendency 
which is gradually gathering strength is to give the various 
Bachelor's degrees more definite significance by making them 
stand for distinct types of liberal or semi-liberal education. . . . 
Three such types are now slowly evolving out of the mass of 
studies with increasing logical consistency. . . . First comes the 
historical academic course, attempting to realise the idea of a 
general liberal education, and consisting of the classical and 
modern literatures, mathematics and science, with historical, 
political and philosophical studies added, and leading to the 
Bachelor of Arts degree. The second is the course which aims to 
represent a strictly modern culture, predominantly scientific 
in character, and culminating in the degree of Bachelor of Science. 
As this course originated in the demand for knowledge of the 
applied sciences in the arts and industries of modern life, the 
ideal of a purely modern liberal culture, predominantly scientific 
was not easy to maintain. . . . Conscious of this difficulty, many 
schools of science have been giving larger place in the curri- 
culum to some of the more available humanistic studies. Fuller 
courses in French and German have been provided for, and the 
study of English has been insisted upon with sharper emphasis 
Economics, modern history, and even the elements of philosophy, 
have found a place. . . . The college of to-day provides a four 
years' course, consisting generally of a mixture of prescribed and 
elective studies in widely varying proportions . . . and, at the 



104 



U.S.A.— State Colleger 



;Methods of end of the course, there is a multiform instead of a uniform 
Instruction. Bachelor's degree, or, in some instances, a " simple Bachelor's 
degree of multiform meaning," while the average age of the 
students has increased at least two years." 

In Section VII., which deals with Modes ot Instruction, 
Professor Fleming West records that " Instruction is still mainly 
conducted by recitation and lecture, the recitation finding its 
chief place in the earlier, and the lecture in the later, part of the 
course." But other forms of instruction are included". . . " In all 
except the elementary courses in science, the laboratory plays a 
most important part, and even in the lectures in the introductory 
courses in physics, chemistry or biology, full experimental illus- 
tration is the rule. Then, too, the library serves as a sort of 
laboratory for the humanistic studies. Students are encouraged 
to learn the use of the college library as auxiliary to the regular 
exercises of the curriculum. Certain books are appointed as 
collateral reading, and the written examination at the end of the 
term often takes account of this outside reading." The combina- 
tion of these three methods seems to exercise a stimulating effect 
on the eager students, and acts, I was told, as a spur to the 
indolent ; it also offers just what is desirable in the treatment of 
Household Science with advanced students. 
Form of " The form of government is simple. A college corporation, 

Govern- l^ally considered, consists of a body of men who have o])tained 
ment. charter and who hold and administer the property. Where 

a particular State has established a college or even a university, 
which regularly includes a college, the members of the corpora- 
tion are commonly styled regents, and are appointed by the 
State to hold office for a limited term of years. But most colleges 
have been established as private corporations. In this case the 
title is vested in a board of trustees, sometimes composed of 
members who hold office for life, or else composed of these as- 
sociated with others who are elected for a term of years. . . . 
The president and professors usually hold office for life. In some 
places provision is beginning to be made for the retirement of 
professors on pensions as they grow old. Instructors and some- 
times assistant professors are appointed for a limited time, such 
appointments being subject to renewal or promotion. In the 
larger colleges the president is assisted in his administrative 
work by one or more deans. By immemorial tradition the presi- 
dent and faculty are charged with the conduct of the entire 
instruction and discipline. They have the power to admit and 
dismiss students. The conferring of degrees belongs to the 
corporation, but this power is almost invariably exercised in 
Sources of accordance with recommendations made by the faculty. ... In 
Income. State colleges the income is derived from taxation, in others 
from endowments, often supplemented by annual subscriptions 
for special purposes. . . . State colleges receive few private gifts. 
But the private colleges are cut off from dependence on the 
State, and have to rely on these (private gifts). This stream of 
Students' private liberality flows almost unceasingly. . . . The expenses of 
Expenses, individual students vary greatly. In some places there is no 



Province of Household Science. 



105 



charge for tuition; in others they must pay as much as $100 or 
$150. In httle country colleges the total cost for a year often 
falls Avithin $300; in the larger old eastern colleges, drawing 
patronage from all parts of the land, the student who must pay 
all his bills, and receives no aid in the form of a scholarship, can 
hardly get along with less than $600 or $700, exclusive of 
his expenses in the summer vacation. . . . Moreover, many 
colleges possess scholarships which are open to able students who 
need temporary pecuniary help. The young American of narrow 
means, if he be of fair ability and industry, can almost always 
manage to find his way through college." 

iVccording to the last available Report of the United States Commis- 
sioner of Education (1890-1900), there are now 480 Universities and 
Colleges (excluding those for women only) ; though it must be borne in 
mind that a considerable number of these are independent of State endow- 
ment or control. About 72"5 per cent, of the total number are co-educa- 
tional ; in fourteen over 1,000 students are enrolled. 

Of the State imiversities, or colleges, as they are variously Province 
described, about thirty have already initiated courses in House- and^ History 
hold Science, the subject being based upon a course of study 9^ ^^^^^^ 
which qualifies for a Bachelor of Science degree ; and as many more jj^j^ 
have introduced some more or less organised form of this work into Science, 
their curricula. The Household Science department is usually 
housed in the college of agricultiu*e, but its students follow general 
courses in science, art, literature, languages, and so forth, with 
the students in the other colleges. The idea that domestic 
subjects have any claims to associate on terms of equality with 
the studies carried on by college undergraduates savours of sus- 
picious novelty and questionable stability to English minds, so 
that the statement that their claims to post-graduate study have 
sufficed to gain them honourable recognition in universities of 
such standing as Columbia and Chicago will be suggestive of a 
degree of unconventionality, possible only in a new world un- 
trammelled by age-long traditions. That the movement is not 
merely an evanescent outcome of a passing fad, or the product 
of inexperienced or unbalanced womanhood is indicated by the 
fact that, without exception, it has received the cordial, active 
support of the other faculties in colleges where it has been in- 
augurated. Professors of chemistry, biology, geology, art, 
architecture, psychology, economics and sociology, voluntarily 
devote time, ability, and influence to further the initiation and 
success of these courses, not in one, but in all the imiversities 
where the subject has been introduced. 

Its claims for consideration and for organisation as a college study have 
been briefly recorded by Miss Isabel J3evier, Professor of Household Science 
at the Illinois State University, in an address given a few months ago ; and 
no woman is better qualitied to " state a case," for, under her highly qualified 
organisation, what promises to be a model university course is being 
gradually evolved. J>efore transcribing her remarks I would remind my 
readers of Professor Fleming West's opinion (pioted above, that a sharper 
line is being drawn annually in college science courses between liberal and 
technical education, and that liberal studies are emphasised in under- 
graduate college education as the best fodndation for technical studies, in 



106 



U.S.A. — State Colleges . 



Province order to eievace tne latter to a high standard of professional dignity, 
and History Bearing this in mind it becomes conceivable, and to some thinkers apparent, 
of Courses ^^at to institute a university course in Household Science does not threaten 
in House- lower the college in which it is pursued to the humbler footing of a 
hold Science cooking school ; on the contrary, it raises the whole complex question of 
— continued. right nutrition of the human race to its legitimate status in the king- 
dom of science. Miss Bevier was invited to answer the inquiry, " What do 
you mean by Household Science, and what is its province in a State 
University ? " The following extracts embody the gist of her reply : . . . 
" It has been said that Household Science includes the study of the agents, 
the materials, and the phenomena of the household. One needs to pause 
a moment and repeat the words toappreciate the largeness of the subject— the 
agents, heat, light, sound, electricity, colour ; the materials, the air we breathe, 
the food we eat, the water we drink, the houses we live in — who will com- 
plete the list ? It is well to remember that principles are universal, while 
their applications are special and peculiar. The general laws of heat are as 
true for the modern range as for the steam engine. The painter, the decorator 
and the dyer have each a technical interest in colour, but the woman who 
would give beauty and personality to her home by a harmonious blending of 
colour cannot disregard these same principles. By Household Science we mean 
very largely api^lied science. Justat this point it seems to me is the weak spot, 
])erhaps it were better to say the uncultivated field', in the education of 
woman. Our colleges for men long since recognised the value of science 
and its application. This fact is illustrated by the increase of our 
technical schools until they number over sixty, and the students in 
technical courses of college grade number over 20,000 young men. Women 
have been rather slow to recognise the close relation science sustains to 
the affairs of the home, and by some strange oversight provision has not 
been made for them to apply their science in a kingdom peculiarly their 
own. Is there any good reason why the girl should not apply her know- 
ledge of chemistry to bread, and of bacteriology to the processes of fer- 
mentation ? I am co-educational enough to believe, generally speaking, 
that the system which proves most successful in the training of boys will 
have a similar result with their sisters. I believe it is our privilege to 
profit by their experiments. They have tested successively the classical 
school, the manual training school, the technical school ; and our 
universities stand to-day because men have felt that the highest develop- 
ment, the truest unfolding of the human spirit, was to be accomplished not 
by any one kind of school, but by the correlation of the best elements of 
each. This brings us directly to our topic — the province of Household 
Science in a State University. I answer : — to provide a place and an 
opportunity for the correlation and application of the arts and sciences to 
the home. I know of no one place which afi'ords so many opportunities for 
' the application of science. Neither do I know of a place more fateful for good 

or evil in the life of the individual or the nation, than the home. As the 
equipment and advantages of the university greatly exceed those of a single 
college, so are the opportunities of the Household Science department 
greatly multiplied. In no other institution to my knowledge can the de- 
partment have the inspiration and help of expert workers in so many 
different lines, as well as the advantage of illustrative material of so many 
different kinds. The college of science can reveal to the students some of 
the mysteries of the laws of life. The college of liberal arts can give them 
a truer conception of their own place and work in the world by a study of 
the history and literature of other peoples and tongues. The eye can be 
trained to recognise beauty of colour and outline and the hand to express 
it, by the work of art and design. The architect and decorator can show 
how to construct and adorn ' the house beautiful.' A wise selection and 
correlation of work in these various lines, with the special work of the 
Household Science department, affords an unusual opportunity for that 
symmetrical development so greatly to be desired in educational training." 

The fact that an annual increase takes place in the number of 
girls willing to devote four years to these courses speaks for the 
growing recognition of their educational equally with their social 



Typical Courses in HouseJioId Science. 



107 



value ; for the American girl of 18 is eager to learn, she desires 
" culture," and would not forego its anticipated attainment for 
the most " useful " course in the world. Show her the possibilities 
and advantages of a combination of the two, and the practical side of 
her character welcomes the opportunity to increase her command 
of the tools she is called upon to wield throughout her daily life, 
and to thereby lighten and brighten her tale of work ; her social 
instincts are stimulated by the increased worth and happiness 
she can add to human existence, and her intellectual abilities 
find satisfaction in the scope afforded for their profitable exercise. 
The innate mechanical instincts characteristic of the American 
of to-day furnish an " energy " for application far more con- 
spicuous than is the case with the descendants of older 
civilisations. 

The first college course in the subject was organised in 1875 
by Miss Lou. C. Allen, in what was then described as the 
" Industrial " University at Champaign (111.), now the Univer- 
sity of Illinois. Her object was to place instruction in household 
arts for young women upon a level with instruction in agricul- 
ture, horticulture, and the mechanic arts for young men. Miss 
Allen was made Professor of Household Science, constituted a 
member of the Faculty, and carried on the classes for several 
years. The department was only abandoned after this period 
of good work, because, on Miss Allen's marriage, no suitable 
person could be found to take her place. Some work in 
Domestic Science was started in the Kansas State Agricultural 
College the same year (1875) ; at first in the form of lectures only, 
but, later, practical work was introduced, and in 1878, Mrs. May 
B. Welch, the wife of the President of the Agricultural College, 
induced the trustees to open a definite Household Arts Depart- 
ment, which for some years she herself conducted. The con- 
tinuity of this course has been uninterrupted : at the present time 
one year's study of the subject is obligatory on all female 
students, while a complete four-years course is open to those who 
desire to avail themselves of such opportunities. Thus, tenta- 
tively, the movement began ; and its present phase of hopeful 
development is the outcome of quiet perseverance, strenuous 
eftbrt, and assured conviction on the part of the college women 
who have pioneered its passage into the universities. To them 
is now accorded the well-earned encouragement of increasing 
support from the public, from the press, and from their male 
colleagues. This is accorded on the grounds of the value of a com- 
prehensive, practical knowledge of household economics as a factor 
in the promotion of national efficiency, of the home happiness and 
stability which must underlie such efficiency, and for its recently 
recognised worth as a focus for the application of the sciences and 
arts. 

Three specimen college courses have been selected for reference Typical 
in this Report as typical of the leading features which distinguish Courses in 
those at present organised. That at the State University of Household 
Illinois is framed to prove that, as to laboratory work and methods 
generally, the subject is of an equal educational value with other 



108 



U.S.A.— State Colleges. 



branches of science and art, capable of holding its own with any 
course of advanced study. The second, at the Ohio State Uni- 
versity, is an illustration of the methods followed when the 
course approximates more closely to that of a high class 
Technical institute : and the third, at the Michigan State Agri- 
cultural College, is frankly technical in character. Did space 
permit, much suggestive material could be gathered from a close 
study of other excellent courses, those, for mstance, at the State 
Agricultural Colleges of Colorado and Kansas, or at the State 
Universities of Minnesota and Missouri, all of which are con- 
ducted by women of ability and good qualifications, with the 
assistance of the leading professors of their respective colleges 
and universities. 

The broad features have a certain similarity in all those of 
which I have secured particulars. The full course occupies four 
years: the scope of subjects is wide, made purposely compre- 
hensive to introduce general culture studies : the aim is to show 
the foundations of science and art upon which domestic economy 
is well and truly laid : the method is that known as the " labora- 
tory," which constitutes a valuable mental training in addition 
to its scientific value. The anticipated results are the elevation 
to its true dignity of home life and its constituent parts ; a 
gradual repression of the sins against sanitation which are 
mimical to the perfect development of the individual and an 
economic tax on the community; a substantial gain to the 
nation at large in the increased efficiency, physical, mental, and 
moral, of its units. 

The variety in detail is wide ; a two or one year's course may 
be obligatory, and is almost invariabl}^ optional, for young women 
whose tastes or time do not allow the full four years' course to 
be undertaken ; or short winter courses are available which aim 
to impart a certain amount of definite information in the limited 
time at the students' disposal. In these, scientific must give place 
to more utilitarian methods, but the worker learns better ways 
of doing, and forms a centre for the subsequent formation of a 
more enlightened " public opinion." 

The scope of the full courses is usually on the following lines : — 

Sciences. — Obligatory : chemistry, physics, biology, physiology, 
sanitation ; with geology, meteorology, bacteriology and psycho- 
logy as " electives." 

Arts. — Obligatory: drawing, design, architecture, cooking, 
sewing, dress cutting and fitting ; with music, painting, millinery, 
etc., as " electives." 

General Culture Studies. — Obligatory : English literature, 
history, modern languages, botany and physical culture ; of which 
one modern language and botany would be " electives." 

The laboratory method is invariably emphasised, but the 
actual manipulation of foods or of materials is, by some authori- 
ties reduced to a minimum, because of the belief that, with brain 
trained to habitual observation, accuracy and reflection, with 
hand skilled through brush, pencil and laboratory work to give 



Typical Courses in Household Science. 



109 



quick and reliable response to mental suggestion, with muscles 
strengthened and co-ordinated by intelligent physical culture 
under careful supervision, principles acquired and based upon 
sound reasoning can be applied with a precision and certainty 
which should ensure rapid success. The home life of the student 
should afltbrd abundant opportunity for repeated practice, 
when circumstances have probably removed her from the 
chances of other scientific or artistic training for which she has 
peculiar facilities in her college days. 

In respect ot these courses, the Western colleges preceded 
those in the Eastern States, where the State authorities for 
higher education seem, as yet, hardly awake to the importance 
or possibilities of the subject. I am partly inclined to attribute 
this apparent inattention to its claims for recognition in State 
colleges, at least in New York State, Pennsylvania and Massa- 
chusetts, to the excellent courses available at the Pratt and 
Drexel Technical Institutes, and to other similar outside oppor- 
tunities for advanced study, such as that offered at the Simmons 
Technical College for Women at Boston (Mass.), which meet the 
existing demand. 

The University of Illinois is situated in the eastern central part of the {a) State 
State between the cities of Champaign and Urbana, 128 miles south of University 
Chicago ; the country round is a rich and prosperous agricultural region, of Illinois, 
while the combined population of the cities is about 15,000. The Uni- Table XVI. 
versity was opened March 2, 1868, with some 50 students. During the 
first term the number increased to 77, all young men, but, in March, 
1870, the trustees admitted women as students, and during the year 
1870-71, 24 availed themselves of the privilege. Since that time they 
have constituted from one-sixth to one-fifth of the total number. Ap- 
plicants for admission to the freshman class must be at least 16 years 
of age. Entrance may be made at any time, provided the candidate is 
competent to take up the work of the classes then in progress, but all 
are advised to enter in September. Admission to the freshman class of 
the University may be obtained in one of three ways : {a) by certificate 
from a fully accredited high school ; (/>) by examination ; (c) by transfer of 
credits from some other college or university. Persons over 21 years 
of age, not candidates for a degree, may be admitted to classes, after 
satisfying the president and the professor in charge of the department in 
which such classes are taught, that they possess the requisite information 
and ability to pursue profitably, as special students, the chosen subjects. 
Such students are not matriculated ; they pay the tuition fee of ^7*50 
a term, in addition to the regular incidental fee of $12. 

The government of the University is vested by the trustees primarily in 
the President of the University, in the Faculty, in the Council of Administra- 
tion and in the Deans. The President is the executive head of the Uni 
versity. The University is divided into 11 interdependent colleges and 
schools. For some years past one scholarship from each county has been 
awarded annually, upon competitive examination, to males throughout the 
State, and considerable satisfaction was experienced in the spring of 1901 
when the Board of Tiustees granted to the daughters of farmers a 
privilege similar to that previously enjoyed only by their sons. The fees 
for matriculation, laboratory work, etc., are very small, and a tuition fee of 
$7"o0 only, a term, is demanded. The University does not furnish board, 
but there is a dining hall in the basement of the University Hall, under 
university supervision, where good meals may be obtained at reasonable 
rates. The immediate control of this dining hall is entrusted to the skilled 
management of a graduate of the Boston Sehool of Housekeeping (now in- 
corporated in the Simmons Technical College), who ensures that the food is 
not only varied, but nutritious, wholesome, and proportioned to the require- 



110 



U.S.A.— State Colleges. 



(a) State ments of normal diets ; indeed, the food provided must meet with the 
University approval of the Professor of Household Science, Miss Isabel Bevier, whose 
of Illinois dietary studies in connection with Professor Atwater's work have been 
— continued, published among the United States Food Bulletins. The charge for 
table board in this dining hall is fixed at f3"50 (about 14s.) a week, for which 
three full meals daily, including Sunday, are supplied. "Fraternity" or 
"Sorority" houses are a popular form of lodging among students; in 
the case of girls, 9 to 14 often select a chaperon and equip one house 
between them ; they almost invariably perform personally all domestic 
duties, which, however, owing to the arrangement just described, do not 
include cooking. 

All the courses are open to all the students, though it is necessary that 
the professor in charge be satisfied concerning the fitness of the applicant 
to profit by his selection. A full course equals 5 " credits," each of which 
is the equivalent of one hour's recitation and two hours' preparation (this 
may be laboratory work), for 5 days in the week ; this works out at about 
15 to 19 hours a week. All physical training is extra, though it is accepted 
for "credit" by some of the professors. Students graduate ^vith the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Literature, ifec, according to the line of study 
they elect to follow. 

The course in Household Science* is followed in the College of 
Agriculture, a large, well-planned building, opened in May 1901. 
The department occupies the entire second floor of the north 
wing, and is well supplied with laboratories, apparatus, and a 
mass of illustrative material, such as charts, specimens of various 
kinds of building material, and exhibits illustrating the chemical 
composition and products obtained in the manufacture of certain 
foods. The students have access also to the museum of the 
Architectural department, as well as the benefit of close associa- 
tion with the Art department. A chemical laboratory is attached 
to the kitchen for the immediate application of science to home 
problems in chemistry or bacteriology. Adjoining this is a room 
which will gradually acquire the appearance of a museum, con- 
sequent upon the accumulation of a large collection of specimen 
foods, utensils, apparatus, etc., connected with the course. One 
room is devoted to the study of Household Art : here are found 
full-sized illustrations of window decoration, of wall-papers, 
parqueterie flooring, etc., which atitbrd materials for colour study 
in drapery and room decoration, and for the cultivation of a 
taste too often conspicuous by its absence among a large section 
of the community. A small collection of artistic tiles and 
sample vases, selected for grace of form as w^ell as for beauty of 
workmanship, is also being made, with a view to training the 
mind and eyes of students who bring only the crudest ideas of 
art from their remote rural homes. No limit is set to reasonable 
and Avise expenditure in the equipment of this or other minor 
departments essential to the completeness of the whole scheme. 

The studies peculiar to the Household Science course can be 
taken in two years, given adequate previous preparation, but a full 
four years is requisite to gain the degree of Bachelor of Science. 
Forty female students entered the Household Science department on 
its initiation in September, 1900, one male student also followed it 
throughout, while others of his sex were so much interested that 
there is a prospective demand for a course in Sanitation planned to 

~ r~ ' ^ *'^See Table XVI. 



Typical Courses in Household Science. 



Ill 



meet masculine needs. Meanwhile, Miss Bevier has worked to meet (a) State 
the needs of two classes of students; (a) those who specialise in University 
other lines of work, but who desire a knowledge of the general ^ Illinois 
principles and facts of household science; (6) those who wish to make 
a speciality of household science by a comprehensive study of the 
affairs of the home, together with the arts and sciences whose appli- 
cations are directly connectedwith its management and care. 

Though still in its infancy, this course promises to be of great value in 
the opportunity it offers for combining a liberal education with a basis of 
pure and applied science. By the judicious correlation of the distinctive 
household science subjects with some of the regular courses given in other 
colleges of the University, excellent facilities are provided for a study of 
their applications to the affairs of the household, while the oneness and 
interdependence of all knowledge is accentuated. "Woman's education 
here seems to me to have swung to one extreme and to be now coming 
back to a more normal and sensible ideal," writes Miss Bevier, in a reply to 
a request on my part for further particulars of her guiding principles when 
she framed this course ; "in my own college days we were just feeling that 
the one thing to do was to share the privileges enjoyed by the men : to 
study and do everything they did. So, in the course in trigonometry, as 
the men had surveying, we girls diligently walked along too, sighted, 
measured — the boys being gallant enough to carry the chain and various 
other impedimenta. I think we might have gone to the studio with much 
greater advantage and learned something about form and colour in those 
hours. If Harvard can devise a scheme, as it has done, by which their men 
who wish to enter a professional course after their college course, can finish 
the studies of the college course in three years, I believe it is entirely 
possible to give to girls in two years the sciences that must form the basis 
of any intelligent study of the home problems, together with a little appli- 
cation in those first years and a great deal of application in the third year. 
A fourth year student should then be ready and competent to do some 
investigation worthy of the name, while she is also at liberty to enlarge her 
horizon by a study of economics, education or psychology." 

The required studies are household science, botany, bacterio- 
logy, zoology, physiology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, art 
and design, domestic architecture, elementary decoration, Ger- 
man and physical training ; the " electives " are English, French, 
economics, history, psychology and education. No laundry 
work is included, no practice work in housewifery, no needle- 
work or dress cutting, as it is Miss Bevier's creed that it is a 
study of the principles of these home industries, rather than 
their technical application, which belong to a university course. 
In botany, zoology, and physics, the general regular courses for 
all students are folio wed. In chemistry, after the first elementary 
and experimental course, qualitative and quantitative analysis 
is taken up, with the elements of organic chemistry, to which a 
course on household chemistry forms the conclusion. In this, 
analyses, planned on special lines for these students, of baking 
powders, vinegars, syrups, sugars, soaps, Avall-papers, etc., are 
carried out ; an examination is also made of materials used in 
the household ; individual work is demanded throughout. 
In bacteriology, the general introductory course is followed, 




112 



U.S.A.— State Colleges. 



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Typical Courses in Household Science. 



113 



mount and investigate them microscopically. Dean Ricker, of 
the Department of Architecture, has taken much interest in the 
preparation of a special and suitable course in house planning, 
sanitary construction, and history of architecture, which is use- 
fully supplemented by his unusual collection of illustrative 
lantern slides and by the number of models and specimens of 
stones, bricks, fixtures and fittings, arranged in the architectural 
museum. Professor Frank Frederick, who is responsible for the 
art course, requires his students to devote their first term to the 
acquirement of facility in accurate drawing, freehand, perspective, 
cast outlines, etc. Lectures on colour and design, with accom- 
panying exercises, form a portion of the course, while shading, 
wash and charcoal sketches and rapid drawing from life, con- 
stitute the second part of the art studies. Students are advised 
throughout to consult books of reference rather than to confine 
their reading to any single text-book ; bibliographies bearing on 
the work of a given term, month, or week, are prepared by Miss 
Bevier for their use, in which references to articles in current 
journals and reviews find a place among those to standard 
authorities. Every facility for the necessary reading is provided 
in the Library, which is quite the most imposing building in its 
architectural featiu-es among the group on the extensive campus ; 
within also it is interesting on account of its fine proportions 
and the beauty of its colour scheme and fresco decorations. 

The class of women from which this Household Science 
Department draws its students is largely agricultural; the 
daughters of Illinois farmers constitute the greater proportion 
of those who come under Miss Bevier's influence and super- 
vision; so far she finds that, though her demands necessitate 
very hard work on the part of her students, it is not over 
severe or impossible of accomplishment. The year which has 
elapsed since my visit has given promise of increased vitality, 
and the cordial co-operation of the other professors concerned 
has been not only sustained but strengthened. 

The Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College was established l)y law in {b.) Ohio 
1870, but was not opened until 1873 for the reception of students. Five State Uni- 
years later the Legislature passed an Act which, amongst other changes, versity. 
provided that the institution should be subsequently designated as " The Table XVll. 
Ohio State University." Up to this time but one ajjpropriation had been 
made by the State for its support ; with the reorganisation came a larger 
and broader view of the State's relation to public education, and since that 
time the Ohio State University has shared with other public educational 
institutions a more generous support by the State. The governing body 
of the Institution is a Board of Trustees, appointed by the Governor of the 
State and confirmed by the Senate, for terms of seven years, as provided 
in the law organising the University. The original endowment has been 
supplemented, and the objects of the University promoted, by a permanent 
annual grant from the United States, under an Act of 1890 ; by special 
appropriations of the General Assembly ; and, in 1891, by a permanent 
annual grant from the State, which grant was doubled by the legislature 
of 1896. In accordance with the spirit of the law under which it was 
organised, the University aims to furnish ample facilities for education in 
the liberal and industrial arts, sciences and languages, and for the 
thorough technical and professional study of agriculture, engineering in its 
various departments, veterinary medicine, pharmacy and law. Through 



H 



114 



U.S. A. —State Colleges. 



(h) Ohio the aid which has been received from the United States and from the 
State State, it is enabled to offer its opportunities with a sHght charge for 

University incidental expenses, to all persons of either sex who are qualified for 

continued, admission. The University has now over one hundred instructors, and 

38 departments of study. Six of its 30 courses are offered by the 
College of Agriculture and Domestic Science and lead to the degrees 
of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, Bachelor of Science in Horticulture 
and Forestry, and Bachelor of Science in Domestic Science. There are 
two free scholarships from each of the 88 counties of the State, in 
Agriculture, Domestic Science, and Veterinary Science. 

The former President of the University, Dr. James Canfield, 
now librarian of the Columbia University, New York City, did 
excellent pioneer work in his ardent advocacy of the necessity 
for a general teaching of hygiene and household economics ; 
it was to him that this course owed its initiation in 1896, and 
through him that Miss Perla Bowman (now Mrs. W. Gibb) was 
selected to organise it. The results justified his choice; Miss 
Bowman worked unremittingly to frame suchacoiu'sc of study as 
should exemplify the connection of history, science and art with 
home life ; her object was the production of Y>^ell balanced, cultured 
women, endowed with the power of facing and solving home 
life problems. Experience showed her that at first girls must be 
taught to appreciate the value of life, and then only can they bo 
stimulated to acquire the knowledge how to maintain life at 
its best. In accordance with her advice two courses are offered 
in Domestic Science ; the shorter (two years) is planned for those 
who can give but a limited time to university training, and the 
longer (four years) is of a more exhaustive character ; it 
requires a more advanced standing for entrance, and leads to 
the degree of Bachelor of Science in Domestic Science. A 
certificate of attendance is given for the two years' course, which 
includes the same practical work as does the four years', but 
demands fewer allied subjects and less general culture. Experience 
shows that this short course appeals especially to country girls 
who have had the equivalent ot two years' high school work. 
The minimum time spent in class-room work is 15 hours a 
week ; this represents at least 30 hours' work, exclusive of 4 
hours a week physical training during the whole two years, for 
each " credit " hour presupposes 2 hours actual work. From 50 
to 60 students have completed this course, their ages varying 
from 18 to 21 years. The com.plete four years' Domestic Science 
curriculum includes domestic art, botany, zoology, chemistry, 
physiology, bacteriology, drawing (freehand, architectural, and 
plan drawing), horticulture, psyclaology, economics, physical 
culture, history, and English literature ; French and German are 
optional. The actual work in Domestic Economy absorbs a 
little less than one-third of a student's time. It consists of 
sound and advanced training in cookery, under first-class 
instructors, with great stress laid upon the comparative nutri- 
tive value of foods, the effect of cooking upon their digestibility, 
and the construction of economical, nutritious and varied diets. 
The accompanying study of household economics comprises 
laundry work in addition to the study of much that pertains to 



Typical Courses in Household Science. 



115 



the planning and sanitary care of a house ; disinfection, home (h) Ohio 
nursing, and emergency work are also included, as well as a State ^ 
practical knowledge of domestic accounts. The scheme _^^J^i{^^c[ 
Domestic Art embraces studies and practice in colour schemes 
and all forms of household decoration ; there is constant prac- 
tice, under competent instruction, of plain sewing, dressmaking 
and millinery, with much drafting and cutting of patterns ; 
while attention is consistently directed to the production and 
manufacture of materials, equally with their choice and treat- 
ment ; the study of line, form, colour and texture runs parallel 
with the whole practical course. The schedule (Table XVII.) 
shows the scope, plan and aim of the whole scheme. 

The subject of bacteriology is first taken up generally, in its relation to 
man and his immediate surroundings, students are taught to make nutrient 
media, and to work reliably with the microscope : in the laboratory they 
learn the isolation of pure cultures, h(3w to distinguish the various bacteria 
met with in food and water, and the mechanical examination of water, 
milk and air. Food adulteration is somewhat fully treated by Professor 
Weber, who gained his experience as State Inspector and Food Analyst, 
and who has an extensive and most interesting collection of specimens of 
artificial and adulterated foods. Professor Kellermann endeavours through 
the method he pursues in his course on botany to train students to exercise 
their refiective powers, and to employ individual efibrt, rather than to rely 
on their teacher or text book ; he seems to possess the gift of stimulating 
them to work out their own applications, economic and artistic, and spoke 
to me of good thesis work done by his Domestic Science students, especially 
in connection with fungi and moulds ; in fact he had selected the writer of 
one of these to act as his assistant for the year. Professor Gordy, then in 
charge of the departm.ent of Psychology and Pedagogy, took special interest 
in his share in tne promotion of the course, from his firm conviction of the 
paramount infiuence of the home upon national life and character ; and I 
learnt from him Avith interest that their introduction to these subjects 
seems to open up a new world to many of the students. 

The marriage of Miss Bowman at the completion of the first four years 
of the course, which necessitated the election of a successor, may probably 
somewhat infiuence the methods ; but the foundation for future develop- 
ment seemed firmly laid. The majority of students who have hitherto 
entered this department come from quite rural districts ; they are often 
ignorant of conventions too common for their existence to be recognised 
among a town population, though quickly attracting attention if omitted 
from the conduct of daily life, so the course had to be planned to develop 
social refinements and amenities, as well as to impart a knowledge of 
scientific and artistic principles, and to aff"ord opportunity for the acquire- 
ment of manual dexterity. I was furnished with many instances of the 
good work already accomplished ; that increased contentment with home 
life which apparently accompanies ability to modify its conditions, and the 
development of a new spirit in the pursuit of philanthropic ends, were two 
forms reported to be especially evident. At the date of my visit (June, 
1901), all the Domestic Science graduates had either married or returned to 
home life, with the exception of one who had gained a Fellowship in botany 
in the university over the heads of several candidates from the College of 
Science. 

The character of the work done, and the progress made, have been 
tested up to the present by the professor in charge of each depart- 
ment, at intervals left to his discretion, but the graduation thesis of 
each student must be accepted by the general Faculty, and the 
time for the final examination is fixed by the executive clerk, 
usually at the end of the term. Miss Bowman employed the 

()490. 11 2 



116 



U.S.A. — State Colleges. 



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Typical Courses in Household Science. 117 

usual method of giving oral or written " quizzes " to her students {b) Ohio 

at varying^ intervals. State 

^ University 

The following "quiz" in bacteriology was furnished me as a typical — continued. 
example, and serves to indicate the lines followed : — 

1. What can you say of the importance of food preservation 1 

2. Why in the study of food preservation should we consider bacteria ? 
Will any other agent cause food to spoil 1 

3. Classify bacteria as regards appearance. How do micro-organisms 
reproduce % 

4. Give a definition for yeast ; for a ferment ; for a mould. What are 
the fungi ? 

5. Are fermentation and putrefaction synonymous terms 1 Are bacteria 
animals or plants % Support your statement. 

6. Give the six divisions of bacteria, as distinguished by their varying 
properties. 

7. What do you understand by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria "? What 
kinds of substances would furnish the best food for each class 1 

8. What elements are needed by bacteria ? What conditions particularly 
affect germ life 1 

9. What are spores 1 How do they develop ? What may be said con- 
cerning the rapidity of germ multiplication 1 

10. How may fermentation be checked 

11. How is this principle of excess of bacterial produce being harmful to 
the germ applied in inoculation 1 

12. Name the principal organised and unorganised ferments. 

13. In what class of substances may yeast fermentation take place 1 

14. Give the names of the active agents, and the successive steps in the 
reduction of cellulose to cane sugar in a plant. . 

15. Do the same, giving reactions, in reduction of starch to grape sugar 
in the body. 

16. Give the reaction when sugar is fermented by yeast ; lactic acid is 
changed to butyric acid ; when stearine is acted upon by steapsiii and 
changed to glycerine and stearic acid. Give reaction when lactose is 
attacked by lactic acid ferment. 

17. On what mediums are ferments most active ? How does this answer 
affect the keeping properties of sour fruits ? 

18. What is meant by amylolytic ferment ? What is meant by proteolytic 
ferment 1 Name the principal ones of each class. 

19. Suppose that a green pear hangs on a tree ; trace the chemical 
changes which would occur during its ripening and decay, if it were un- 
molested. 

20. Name the different methods by which foods have been preserved. 

21. To what man are we particularly indebted for our knowledge of 
food preservation? What is the difference between pasteurisation and 
sterilisation ? 

22. What is the action of a rich syrup in preserving food ? 

23. What is the active principle in jelly making 1 Why do not over ripe 
or over cooked fruits make good jelly? 

24. How do you explain the preservatives of vinegar, salt, bright hot 
sun, smoke, cold, heat, antiseptic substances ? 

25. What are the most common preservatives used ? 

26. Do you recommend their use 1 If not, why ? 

27. What can you say of the relative food and money values of canned 
and fresh foods 1 

28. What are the arguments in favour of home canning and preserving ? 

29. What do you know of the food laws with regard to canned or pre- 
served fruits ? 

An evidence of the interest excited among the students by this study is? 
found in the fact that, among the subjects selected for their graduation 
theses last year were : — The Edible Fungi of Ohio, the Study of .Mould in 
Preserving, and the Baoteriological Exau\i nation of Water. 



118 



U.S.A.— State Colleges. 



The department is situated in Hayes Hall where there is a 
spacious cooking laboratory with a dining-room adjoining, each 
fitted with good appliances, $1,000 having been recently ex- 
pended to make the department thoroughly efficient. The aim 
of the equipment is to duplicate home conditions, while, at the 
same time, suggesting better arrangements. To this end great 
care and attention has been expended on the dining-room, its 
furnishing, use, maintenance, and so forth. The science laboratory 
accommodation has been latterly somewhat cramped, owing to the 
rapid increase of numbers, which has resulted in overcrowded 
classes, but the erection of two new buildings. Physics and Law, 
will shortly relieve this congestion. Individual practice work is 
the rule throughout the course, except that the dissections in 
the general physiology course are carried out by the professors. 
This is in part due to the specially crowded conditions of these 
classes. Physiology is required in all the agricultural, veterinary, 
horticultural, and domestic economy courses ; it is elective in all 
arts and science courses. 

Dr. Thompson, who succeeded Dr. Canfield as President of the 
University, anticipates still further developments in the near 
future. It was proposed some months ago, and the resolution 
was at once adopted by three out of the six Faculties, that a 
course in public sanitation be organised, open to students of 
both sexes, to meet a growing demand for opportunities of study 
on the part of general students who desire to secure a sounder 
acquaintance with the questions of sanitary reform, and to equip 
themselves to play a more intelligent part in philanthropic 
undertakings. President Thompson is in full sympathy with 
the proposal, and expressed the hope that this year may see the 
resolution adopted by the remaining Faculties, 
(c) Michigan The courses in Domestic Science and the Domestic Arts at 
State ^YiQ Michigan Agricultural College may be taken as typical of the 

Coffege ^^^^ otfered in a high grade Technical college. A broad, general 
education in English, mathematics and science is provided for its 
students, in addition to which, it gives a thorough technical 
training in agriculture and related sciences to students in the 
agricultural course ; in shop work and mechanical engineering to 
students in the mechanical courses ; and in cookery and domestic 
economy to students in the women's course. Wherever possible 
the laboratory method is followed. 

There are four full courses. Three of these — the agricultural 
course and the four years' mechanical course for men and the 
domestic economy course for women — require four years for 
graduation ; and one — the mechanical course for men not 
qualified to pass the examinations for entrance to the four years' 
mechanical course — requires five years. Each full course leads 
to the degree of Bachelor of Science. Besides these the college 
offers seven special short courses of from four to eight weeks, in 
dairy husbandry, creamery, cheese making, live stock husbandry, 
fruit culture, floriculture and winter vegetable gardening, and 
sugar production. 



Typical Courses in Household Science. 



119 



The aim in the long courses is to take the student from the (c) Michigan 
high school, or from the end of the 8th grade school year, and 
to carry him or her through four years of general and technical College— 
training, making science the main feature of the college work, continued. 
and applying it to practical use at the earliest possible moment 
along the lines of technical training essential to each course. 
General culture studies are introduced to develop " poise," self 
control and patriotism, and to enlarge and dignify life in all its 
aspects. In the special winter courses the object is to impart 
in the shortest possible time a certain amount of definite informa- 
tion ; they are designed chiefly for adults. General culture is not 
attempted, but efforts are concentrated on the teaching of 
methods of procedure which can be applied at once to bread- 
winning. The women's course is designed to give a thorough 
practical education with special reference to home-making. 

Its duration is four years, and it embraces the following subjects : 
English, mathematics, literature, history, modern languages, botany, 
chemistry, physics, physiology, entomology, drawing, graphic art, history 
of art, cooking, domestic science, sewing, cutting and fitting, laundry, 
physical culture, music, painting, millinery, floriculture, fruit culture, 
bacteriology ; zoology, history, economics and political science, geology, 
meteorology,physics, and psychology are "electives." The course is considered 
suitable also for young women who desire to prepare for teaching 
technical or advanced courses in high and other schools. Candidates for 
admission must not be less than 15 years of age, and entrance examina- 
tions in elementary subjects are required. Candidates over 18 years of 
age may be admitted without examination, provided that they make 
arrangements to pass the entrance examination within one year. The 
average expenses per annum are $136. The college owns four hand- 
some dormitories, one for women and three for men ; lodging can also be 
had in the neighbouring town of Lansing. Board at the college is in the 
hands of the Students' Club Boarding Association, and is managed by the 
students. There are six clubs, and each club fixes its own rate of living. 
The cost varies from $2 to $2.60 per week for young men, and from 
$1*60 to $210 per week for young women. An independent boarding 
club is run for young men at an expense of about $1'50 per week. 

In the Domestic Science course the common facts are correlated 
in their bearing on household matters ; the various occupations 
and methods necessary to conduct the home in comfort and 
health are discussed, and stress is laid on practical demonstration. 
Considerable time is devoted to laboratory work in general, 
advanced and invalid cookery ; a waitress's course, and lectures 
on household economy are included. The opportunities for 
practice work are unusually extensive. Students are encouraged 
to act as waitresses in the large dining-room of the women's build- 
ing until they acquire the necessary proficiency to direct the serving 
of dinners of several courses, while those specially interested in 
catering for large numbers of persons are permitted to make use 
of the facilities provided by the kitchen attached to the women's 
dormitory. The kitchen laboratory provides accommodation for 
the work of 20 students at one time; four tables are sub- 
divided into five compartments, each of which is provided with 
the usual fittings : conveniences for cooking by electricity, as 
well as by other mediums, are installed; a private dining- 
room and the necessary offices are attached. The large laundiy 



120 



U.S.A. — State Colleges. 



(c) Michigan is furnished with a dryer, wringer, ironing tables, and 18 
State porcelain-lined stationary tubs, each of which has hot and cold 

Colle e— water laid on. The equipment bears evidence throughout of 
continued, the study of a wise economy in strength and time. 

• The Domestic Science students have also two courses in 

household bacteriology : the object of the first is to open various 
subjects to an examination which should yield a better under- 
standing of the questions involved. The function of yeast in 
bread making, a careful survey of milk and its products with a 
view to a com;prehensive knowledge of their bacteriological and 
hygienic signihcance, the fermentations which occur in vinegar 
and canned foods, are leading features of the course. Food pre- 
servation in its various forms is also studied from the bacterio- 
logical side. A second course is planned to permit of a more 
detailed and careful study of the various features of hygienic 
work: it includes a study of the causal agents of the more 
common infectious diseases, as well as of the action and mode of 
application of antiseptics ; while further consideration is 
devoted to the hygiene of water, milk, and soil, and some 
practical aspects of sewerage and drainage, light and ventilation 
are dwelt upon and studied. Three hours a week are devoted 
to human physiology and anatomy by the agricultural and 
women students during two terms : part of this time is spent in 
actual dissection and in the study of the histology of the 
tissues ; these lessons are supplemented by lectures covering the 
principles of hygiene and sanitary science, and of the restriction 
and prevention of disease : the department is well equipped with 
microscopes and dissecting apparatus. The course in Domestic 
Art is carried on in a specially fitted, well equipped and well lit 
apartment : it includes sewing in all its branches, dressmaking, 
art needlework, and millinery ; courses in modelling and manual 
training in woodwork also find a place. Drawing is introduced 
at an early stage, as it has proved to be a most excellent means 
of developing and sharpening the faculty of observation, especi- 
ally where this has been previously neglected. Some of the 
numerous mediums employed in graphic arts are next studied, 
such as charcoal drawing, black and white work, pen and ink 
work, oil and Avater colour. A series of lectures on the history of 
art, (considered under the three heads of architecture, sculpture, 
and painting), conclude the year's work. The study of economics 
and political science is elective ; in this course, the training of 
citizens, industrial reforms, and problems of population, receive 
careful examination, and are correlated with the study ol hygiene. 

The short Household Economic course, which is confined to one year, 
comprises sanitary science, emergencies and home-nursing, household 
accounts, and the principles of everyday art applied to the furnishings of 
a house and the treatment of floors, walls and ceilings. A special course 
of laboratory exercises and lectures in domestic physics is provided for all 
women students in their second year ; it includes determinations as to the 
specific heat of various substances, the heat of vaporisation and liquefac- 
tion, tests of various forms of thermometers, and a series of comparative 
tests as to the efficiency and economy of gasoline, kerosene, alcohol, and 
electric heaters,^ for household use ; a previous study of elementary ancj 
general physics is imperative. 



Courses in Hygiene. 



121 



The Household Science courses in the State universities of Reference 
Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Utah, and to Courses 
twelve or fourteen similar institutions in other States exemplify jj^j^ g^^-^" 
variations of the three above detailed. In each case the health inysLrvms^^ 
and well-being of the nation appears to have been the root cause State 
for the initiation of the course. The proper care of humanity Universities, 
is recognised as a study possessing dignity and worth, and 
though the interdependence of mind and soul upon physical 
conditions is appreciated by but a minority of either the 
students or the public from which they are drawn, yet the 
leaven is at work which assigns a high place among the sciences of 
the day to Household Economics, and which also recognises that, 
by means of this instruction young women are trained to be more 
healthful, more economic, broader and more appreciative home 
makers. Influenced as are the details in each college course by 
the mental attitude of the organiser, by the needs of the students, 
the sources from which they are drawn, and by the special 
characteristics of the college (that is to say whether university, 
technical or utilitarian methods be pursued), there is one broad 
guiding principle to be traced throughout, viz., that institutions 
for the higher education of women must offer training adequate 
for the responsibilities of life, as most women ought to meet 
them, and sooner or later must meet them ; a training which 
shall be broad, which shall supplement established prmciples, 
which shall send women to their work cultivated in the fullest 
significance of the term, and prepared to make life fuller, 
brighter and better for all with whom they come in contact. 
For which reasons the very variety presented is, in my opinion, 
advantageous ; the scientific course offered at the University of 
Illinois, the more utilitarian methods pursued at the University 
of Ohio, the purely technical training at the Michigan Agricul- 
tural College, are each creating, or responding to, the demands 
of different sections of the community. The last course, which 
was first established, met and meets the needs of its clientele ; 
the desire to co-ordinate the science and art of home making 
with other work of a university grade is realised with some 
completeness in the newly organised course at Urbana ; the 
cruder conditions of public opinion did not permit of this when 
the sister course at Columbus was inaugurated but four years 
previously. It is the opinion of the best informed that it is the 
highest type which will prevail and gradually draw the others up 
to its level ; if this be the case it will be largely due to the un- 
remitting efforts and example of certain members of the 
Association of College Alumna?, to whom great credit is due. 

In college life, as during the period of elementary education. Courses in 
the advantages of a study of personal hygiene, and to a certain ^y^*®"®- 
extent also of domestic sanitation, are shared by the two sexes ; 
though, in this case, the motive is other than that of a desire to 
promote a distaste for the use of stimulants and narcotics. 
Emphasis is laid in most, if not in all, college courses, upon the 
absolute necessity of maintaining (or, if necessary, of developing) 
sound health, by moaris of a judicious regulation of the hours 



122 



U.S.A.— State Colleges. 



Courses in devoted to study, recreation, exercise and rest. The great 
Hygiene educational advantages to be derived from a good physical 
—continued, development and a highly trained muscular system are presented 
to each year's freshmen ; and the custom of requiring a definite 
amount of physical culture from all students, preceded by a 
carefully conducted physical examination, seems quite the 
general college rule. This examination is repeated annually and 
the results recorded ; the measurements are outlined on specially 
prepared charts, and are accompanied by other desirable data 
bearing upon family and personal history, habits (such as 
condition of the digestive organs, hours of sleep, etc.), the 
standard of the sense organs as to sight, hearing, and so forth ; 
naturally these charts are accessible only to the professor in 
charge of the gymnasium, and to the individual whom they 
concern. The examination and records are framed, in part, to 
arouse an intelligent interest among the students in the improve- 
ment of their own physique and to stimulate them to a careful 
performance of any remedial exercises recommended ; in part to 
facilitate the accumulation of reliable statistical material, upon 
which, in due time, necessary reforms can be based. It is realised, 
however, that an intelligent being should be possessed of good 
" reasons for the faith that is in him," and for the practice which 
should spring from that faith ; consequently lectures on personal 
hygiene, given by the professor of physical culture, constitute an 
integral part of these gymnastic courses (to which more detailed 
reference is made in my Report to the Council of The Sanitary 
Institute on the " Teaching of Hygiene in the schools and colleges 
of the United States of America "). By both these means, theory, 
as given by lectures, and practice, as carried out in the gymnasium, 
the attention of the greater part of the college population is 
directed to the right care and development of the body, to its 
dependence on good habits and environment for the fulfilment of 
its functions, and to the duty laid upon each to cultivate 
symmetry, mental and physical, for personal advancement and 
for the welfare of the community. If safeguarded by discretion 
and pursued with perseverance and accuracy the results should 
be far reaching, for this method of introducing the subject 
extends to every student on the register, not merely to those 
following this or that course. It is true, the instruction on 
personal hygiene is theoretical, in the sense that it is given in pure 
lecture form ; but the young people are called upon to make 
their own observations and applications, not in the more or less 
artificial atmosphere of the gymnasium, but in the conduct of 
their daily life, which, in the case of some colleges, is subjected to 
advisory suggestion on the part of their instructor. This may be the 
survival of the " strong paternal anxiety and oversight " exercised 
formerly over students by college Faculties, to which Professor 
Fleming West refers in his previously quoted monograph. 

At present, a more definite course in general hygiene is not 
usually available for college students, though signs oi a growing 
demand are perceptible. This made itself felt six years since at 
Michigan State University, at Chicago University, and in one or 



Courses in Hygiene. 



123 



two other instances. To the general course in Sanitary Science 
at Chicago University reference will be made in Part II. of the 
Keport ; particulars of that at the Michigan State University are 
here detailed. 

The University is a part of the public educational system, (a) Michi- 
governed by a Board of Regents, who are popularly elected for gan State 
terms of eight years' service. There are seven departments, each ^^^f^f ^^^^^* 
with its own special Faculty. The only fees are for matricula- xvill. 
tion, incidental expenses, and diplomas. Courses on hygiene, 
physiological chemistry and bacteriology are provided for 
medical students, but until the course on Hygiene and Household 
Economics was initiated by Dr. Eliza Mosher (Dean of Women) in 
the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, only these 
specialised and extensive courses were offered. This general 
course receives a satisfactory amount of support from the 
students, about one-third of the attendance consisting of young 
men ; the total number is considerably influenced by the hour 
appointed for the lectures, as the subject is " elective " and must 
give way in the time schedule to those which are obligatory 
or imperative. Up till last year the lectures were illustrated 
only by demonstration, but Dr. Eliza Mosher anticipated the 
early appointment of an assistant professor, who would conduct 
and superintend individual practical work in a suitably equipped 
laboratory. The first term is devoted to a study of (a) Personal 
Hygiene; this includes the structure of the body; the 
phenomena of nutrition ; the influences which favour or retard 
body metabolism; foods and their adulteration; and to (b) 
Household Economics, into which enter house construction, 
furnishing, decoration and cleansing. The second half of the 
course deals with (c) Domestic, and (d) Municipal hygiene. Under 
(c) a study is made of the chemical constituents, nutritive values 
and comparative costs of foods, together with practice in the 
consideration of dietaries for the sick, as well as for the sound ; 
in (c^) school sanitation finds a place. Personal observation 
showed the unquestionable interest aroused by this course, 
carried on, as it is, by a woman of strong personality and wide 
experience ; one, too, who is able to completely dissociate her sub- 
ject from its pathological aspect, and to present it from the stand- 
point of perfect, not defective, physical development. A perceptible 
effect on the opinions and habits of the young people is reported as 
the course continues to exercise its good influence. At the con- 
clusion of each year Dr. Mosher conducts an examination of her 
students by means of written papers and viva voce " quizzes." 

I was unfortunately unable to visit the State University of state 
Indiana, at Bloomington, where a valuable and suggestive short University- 
pioneer course in hygiene is given to women, each spring, by Dr. of Indiana. 
Rebecca Rogers George ; the keynote of the whole is stated to 
be the elevation of home life, and of all its contributing factors, to 
a more scientific and higher moral basis. The ten lectures 
concern themselves with the following topics : — 

(a) The chemistry of food stuff's, their proper proportions 
and combinations. 



124 



U.S.A. — State Normal Schools, 



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Framingham Normal School Course in Household Arts, 125 



(b) The physiology of digestion. 

(c) The channels and means for promoting elimination from 

the body. 

(d) Eespiration and ventilation. 

(e) The anatomy and physiology of the reproductive organs 

and their purpose in the scheme of creation. 
(/) The pathology of the female reproductive organs, with 
such means of relief as lie within the reach of all. 

(g) The social relation of the sexes. 

(h) The profession of motherhood. 

This course is " elective," but each girl who takes it and passes a 
successful examination is given a " credit," as for any other course. 

Dr. Rebecca George writes, that " believing the present system of educa- 
tion tends towards the production of teachers rather than of home-makers, 
these lectures have been given for the past four years to offset, in a way, 
present educational tendencies, and to impress upon girls the dignity of 
household science and the sacredness of wifehood and motherhood." The 
results thus far have been most gratifying ; " eager interest without a sign 
of vulgar curiosity has been the rule during each of the four years' work, 
and not a few have testified to the value of the knowledge so obtained two 
and three years after their student life has closed." Few can dispute that, 
through the judicious introduction by skilled hands of such suitable pre- 
paration for the highest duties to which girls are called lies the right road 
of escape from much needless, costly suffering among women, much ignorant 
maiming of child life, many saddened homes, much social evil. The trans- 
mission of the highest manifestation of life, in so perfect a form as may be, 
lies at the root of all hygiene ; and at the right time, in the right way, 
it should surely be assigned a dignified and carefully safe-guarded position 
in the study of the right conduct of life. (See "Training of the Young in 
Laws of Sex," Hon. and Rev. Canon Lyttelton ; Longman, Green & Co.) 



D. — Normal Schools. 

Normal courses of training in domestic subjects are almost 
invariably post-graduate ; they are followed, to a great extent, in ^g^j^ State 
private Technical Institutes, to a small degree in those State Normal 
Universities in which Household Economics have been adopted School 
on educational lines ; in the future it is probable that the Course in 
proportion of students in each class of institution will be fairly ^^^g^^ 
balanced, since the college courses are now making rapid growth Xabl'e XTX. 
in quality and quantity. 

The excellent two years' course at the State Normal School at 
Framingham (Mass.), holds an almost unique position, 
and the history of its development is not without interest. It 
originated in the establishment in Boston of a department for 
the study of household arts, under the name of Boston Normal 
School of Cookery, by the late Mrs. Mary Hemenway, in 1887. 
Its graduates so easily found positions as teachers in public and 
private schools, as well as in public and philanthropic institu- 
tions, that its usefulness was rapidly proved. In June, 1898, 
the trustees of the Mary Hemenway estate offered the school to 
the State Board of Education, with the very generous proposal 
that, if the offer were accepted, Mr. Augustus Hemenw\ay, her 
son, would thoroughly furnish and equip such a department, as 
a memorial of his mother, in which project he was joined by his 



126 



U.S.A. — State Normal Schools. 



Framing- 
ham State 
Normal 
School 
Course in 
Household 
Arts— 
continued. 



sisters, Mrs. Louis Cabot and Mrs. Wm. E. C. Eustis. The Board 
was quick to appreciate the worth of such a gift, together with 
its far-reaching beneficence. The Normal School at Framingham 
was selected as that best fitted to receive it, on account of its 
proximity to Boston, its two boarding halls, which attract 
students from a distance, and the many grammar schools in the 
town, from which pupils could be drawn for its practice school ; 
for the object always in view has been to provide for the 
adequate training of teachers of the various household arts, 
especially of cookery in its different forms. Existing arrange- 
ments enable any pupil who graduates from the regular Normal 
course to take the course in Household Arts in one year ; or 
any graduate of the two years course in Household Arts can take 
the Normal course in one year ; thus the usual term of training 
is, in either case, lengthened by one year ; those students who 
qualify in Household Arts only complete the course in two years. 

The wise aim of the instruction in all branches is to teach the 
students intelligent, thoughtful self-reliance; for, to those re- 
sponsible for the instruction given, it appears obvious that the 
equipment of actual knowledge which a student takes with her 
from any school such as this can be but limited ; therefore, they 
feel that judicious training in accurate thinking and working 
must be the main object of the teacher, if the student is to reap 
the highest benefit from her stay in the school. The courses in 
chemistry are particularly well adapted to give this training, 
since a large part of the two years of study is spent in actual 
work in laboratories, where the student discovers for herself the 
absolute dependence of results on the character of her work and 
on the methods she has employed ; as disciplinary work alone 
the value of such study cannot be overrated, but it also has a 
direct and permanent practical value in the Household Arts. 
These courses form a progressive series, and are intended to 
prepare the students in a systematic way for an intelligent com- 
prehension of the underlying principles of cookery, of laundry 
work, of dyeing, of cleaning, etc., as well as of those involved in 
the management of foods, fires, fuels, illuminants, ventilation, 
and the like. 

Considerable time during the first year is devoted to the study of 
general chemistry, in which the fundamental principles of the science are 
taught by means of experimental lectures, 60 in number, and by class- 
room recitations. In connection with this course, the student has 120 
hours of practical work in the laboratory. Systematic and extended 
instruction in qualitative analysis is given in the second half of 
the first year, so that by the end of this year students are prepared to begin 
the more exact discipline of quantitative work. The Avork in quantitative 
analysis consists of a brief course in volumetric analysis and in gravimetric . 
analysis ; both of these courses include class-room as well as laboratory 
work. An elementary course is given, in conclusion, in organic chemistry ; 
this deals with the structure of carbon compounds, and with the interactions 
between the diflferent classes of those compounds which are most frequently 
used. Not so much time is given to physics as to some other studies, yet 
it has a definite place in the curriculum. 

The instruction consists of lectures, recitations, and demonstra- 
tidns upon the fundamental principles of matter and energy, 



Framingham Normal School Course in Household Arts. 127 
mechanics, hydraulics, and the elementary forces — heat, light, and 



allotted as is believed to be absolutely required to furnish a 
sound basis for physiology, hygiene, and bacteriology ; the course 
consists of lectures, recitations, and laboratory work. 

The beginner is introduced to the use of the microscope, and learns to 
examine plant and animal bodies, and to resolve them into elementary 
organs, tissues, and cells. Constant practice in drawing is required, and 
such subjects are dealt with as the structure of living things ; the elementary 
living stuff (cytoplasm) ; first principles of nutrition, digestion, foods, and 
feeding ; the sources of starch, sugar, etc ; and the interdependence and 
interrelation of the organic and inorganic world. 

The chief interest of the class in the study of physiology 
centres naturally in nutrition and related subjects. Somewhat 
more than half the time is therefore devoted to such questions, 
while the remaining heads are treated in less detail. 

Some time is given to the quantitative side of metabolism. This becomes 
a very practical matter, as it throws light upon the value of the different 
food stuffs, the extent to which one may replace another, and the relation 
of the diet to tissue building, muscular work and heat production ; finally, 
the usefulness of the condiments, stimulants and mineral matter in the 
food is discussed. The concluding lectures deal with the central nervous 
system, the sense organs and the principles of personal hygiene. Miss 
Clark, who is responsible for this course, emphasises throughout the 
hygienic aspect of physiology ; she attaches comparatively little value to 
the use of models or diagrams, but prefers to rely on fresh specimens ; the 
use of the microscope also is required to a moderate degree only, in order 
to stimulate careful observation of natural objects with the naked eye, 
and to prepare students for good work in schools where equipment is per- 
haps compulsorily limited ; the cultivation of great facility with black- 
board illustration is very carefully encouraged. The text books in use 
are " Physiology for High Schools," by Macy Norris, Blaisdell's Series of 
Physiology Manuals, and Thornston's " Human Physiology." The ordinary 
Normal student receives three lessons a week for twelve weeks, the 
Domestic Art student has the advantage of two weekly lessons for one 
year. 

Bacteriology and the study of micro-organisms,and of fermenta- 
tion, especially of yeasts, constitute a prominent feature in the 
final year. The students learn how to make their own culture 
media, how to examine milk, water, air, ice, dust, etc., and how 
to test the efificiency of filters, sterilizers, and germicides. 

The Course is arranged as follows :— - 

Bacteriology and micro-organisms of fermentation. 

Classification of micro-organisms. 

General biology of bacteria. 

General physiology of bacteria. 

Bacteriology of water and ice. 

Bacteriology of air. 

Bacteriology of earth and dust. 

Bacteriology of drainage. 

Bacteriology of milk. 

Bacteria concerned in vinegar making. 

Bacteria concerned in lactic acid production 

Bacteria concerned in dairying. 

Bacteria concerned in nitrification. 

Testing of domestic filters. 

Testing of disinfectants for household use. 

Bacteriology of food preservation. 




only so much time is 



128 



U.S.A. — State Normal Schools, 



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Framingham Normal School Course in Household Arts. 



129 



Bacteriology of Pasteurising. 

Bacteriology of canning. 

Bacteriology of pickling, etc. 

Yeast, general biology and physiology. 

Yeast, cause of fermentation of bread and drinks. 

Yeast, compressed. 

Yeast, wild. 

Yeast, fungi related to. 

Moulds, general biology. 

Moulds, structure and physiology. 

Moulds, fermentations caused by. 

Moulds in relation to food substances. 

General phenomena of putrefaction and decay. 

Relation of bacteria to infectious disease. 

Epidemics, etc. 

The subjects which have thus far been described have had to 
deal with the scientific side of the subject; their practical 
application finds a place pre-eminently in the Household Arts 
laboratory. The work is arranged to be educational as well as 
technical, and therefore includes both the theoretical and 
practical aspects of the subjects. 

To illustrate the character of this instruction, the following 
outline of courses in the Principles and Practice of Cookery and 
Laundry work is given : 

The practical work of cookery is presented in four courses on the following 
lines : — 

(1) . Household or plain cookery. 

(2) . Advanced cookery, including preserving, canning, and the making of 
jellies, jams, and marmalades. 

(3) . High-class cookery. 

(4) . Special cookery for those very ill (therapeutic cookery), and its applica- 
tion for hospital nurses in training schools. 

In the first course the five "food principles" or "nutrients" are 
carefully considered, viz., water, mineral matter, carbohydrates, proteids or 
albuminous fluids, and fats. The principles of the science and art of 
cookery are developed by general rules and formulae, so far as practicable, 
and special attention is given to their application by individual practice. 
The subjects of the course are developed as follows : — 

Fuels. — Principles of combustion, conditions for sustaining ; use and 
costs of the ordinary fuels. 

Construction of both gas and coal ranges, with practice in the use of 
such apparatus, and in the building, regulation, and care of coal fires. 
Principles and experimental work relating to the Aladdin oven. The chafing 
dish. 

Food-Stuffs. — Introductory. General composition of the human body. 
Classification of nutrients needed, and a study of the different food-stutfs 
as the source of supply. 

Milk as a Type.— Experiments to illustrate its constituents and 
properties. 

Watek. — Considered as a cooking medium, with experiments. Ther- 
mometers are standardized, and used in the boiling of water and the 
cookery of starch, sugar, albumen and fats. 

Mineral Matter.— The various salts of food materials. 

Carbohydrates.— Sources : {a) Starch— composition ; experiments ; 
cooking temperature. Practical application to cookery of starchy food-stuffs, 
as corn, fiour, rice, tapioca, sago, macaroni, etc. ; the cooking of such 
starchy foods as grains, vegetables ; the use of cornflour and flour in the 



6490. 



I 



130 



U.S.A. — State Normal Schools. 



making of sauces and thickening of soups, (b) Sugars — compositions 
the cooking of cane sugar ; the use of thermometer ; the degrees of heat 
required for different results, as in soft and hard caramel (for colouring 
soups and sauces) ; also for soft and hard sweets, as in French cream candies 
or fondant and glace fruits. Practical tests for the same. Practical appli- 
cations, including the preparation of dishes containing starch, sugar and 
fruits in various combinations, are then made. 

Proteids or albuminous foods. Albumen— sources ; type, white of egg. 
This subject is studied and experimentally developed by the same general 
methods as the cookery of starch, and the principles of its cookery are 
applied to the making of various dishes, as soft and hard cooked eggs ; 
poached and baked ; combined with milk in other forms, as in creamy eggs, 
and soft and baked custards of different kinds ; the combination of milk, 
starchy and albuminous food materials in dishes for breakfast, luncheon or 
dessert ; the cookery of albumen, as applied to the cooking of fish, poultry 
and meat ; methods of their cookery ; objective fjoints ; heat transferred. 
In connection with meat cookery, the albuminoids are considered. 

Albuminoids. — Sources ; gelatine, prepared in the form of food stocks, 
brown and white. 

Principles and Kules for Clearing STocK—Soups : stock and veget- 
able ; milk and cream. Gelatine dishes : commercial gelatine, kinds, costs and 
uses ; plain jellies ; jellies with egg or egg and cream in different combina- 
tions, as used in the making of wholesome puddings. 

Fats.— Sources ; constitution ; effects of heat ; use and importance of 
the dietary. 

Batter and Dough Mixtures. — (1) Expansion by air and moisture; 
as effected by heat, to make porous. (2) The application of these prin- 
ciples to the preparation of popovers and Yorkshire pudding, wheat and 
gluten wafers, cream and sponge cake. (3) Expansion of batters and 
doughs by use of chemicals, as cream of tartar and soda, or other acids, or 
acid salts with the alkaline salt, soda, in combination. Objective points: 
principles and properties ; experiments ; application to the preparation of 
breakfast bread-stuffs, gingerbread desserts and cake. (4) Baking powders : 
general composition of standard powders ; chemical reactions and products, 
with applied principles of chemistry ; formula?, with practical applications 
to the preparation of bread-stuffs, cakes and sweets. 

Fermentation. — Fermentation by yeast, and its application to the 
preparation of bread, rolls, and biscuit, also for breakfast muffins and 
gems. Experimental work with flour of different kinds. 

Frozen Dishes.— Principles ; general rules; sherbets; ice-creams (1) 
plain ; (2) fancy, with simple and richer combinations. 

Practical Laundry Work.— The course consists in the examination of 
fabrics, as cotton, linen, woollen, and silk ; effect of hot and cold water. 

The Use of Chemicals as cleansing agents ; namely — soaps, washing- 
powders, soda, ammonia, and borax. 

Removal of Stains, as fruit, tea and coffee, iron-rust, etc. 

Household Linen.— Preparation for the kundry ; cleansing, drying, 
and starching, hot and cold processes ; folding, ironing ; special : em- 
broideries and laces ; blueings : kinds, composition (tests with experiments), 
and use. 

In addition to the foregoing outline of instruction, the pupils 
are trained in the preparation of dietaries at given prices for 
varying numbers of persons, how to judge of meats and how to 
buy them, by visits to meat shops, where the butcher cuts up 
the meat before the class, at the same time giving practical 
instruction. Students are also required to visit grocery 
establishments and meat markets, and to make themselves 



Framiwjham Normal School Course in Household Arts. 131 

familiar with the supply and demand of staples and their prices. 
Each pupil, by conference with the superintendent of the 
boarding halls, learns how to prepare the menu for a large 
family, according to market supplies and prices. She is also 
expected to take her turn in presiding at the dinner table in 
one or other of the boarding halls, and to carve the joints. As 
the boarding halls offer ample facilities for demonstration of 
the science of Household Arts in daily living, the pupils, though 
not required to do household work in the ordinary sense of the 
term, are expected to qualify themselves as future teachers of 
Household Arts or as superintendents in institutions by availing 
themselves of all such opportunities for practical work as the 
Principal can from time to time provide for them. 

Sanitary science, including home sanitation, is carefully 
studied during the second year, during which a course in the study 
of psychology, conducted by the Principal, Mr. H. Whittemore, 
is included m the curriculum. A course of practical instruction 
is also given in home and school emergencies, and in the 
detection and recognition of common school diseases, especially 
those which are considered contagious. The practice classes 
consist of girls in the eighth and ninth grades of the 
Framingham schools, who come for weekly lessons to the 
Normal school. These pupils are divided into a number 
of classes, under the care of, and taught by, the Household Arts 
department students. Each senior has charge of one class 
during a whole year, and has thus ample opportunity to make 
a practical application of her own acquirements and to learn 
how to instruct others. The junior students are required to act 
as assistants to the seniors when they are teaching ; and to aid 
in the instruction and general management ; in this way they 
have a year's observation to prepare them for the more responsible 
work of teaching in the senior year. 

That the intention of the course to excite thought and to 
demand the exercise of individual mental powers is fulfilled is 
quite evident to the observer ; and it is easily credible that 
considerable development of character follows upon such train- 
ing ; special stress was laid, in the course of conversation, upon 
the noticeably broadening influence it exercises on the tempera- 
ment of the majority of the students. No doubt this is partly due 
to the excellent aims and good influence of Mr. Whittemore, a 
liberal-minded and experienced man, who has held the position 
of Principal of the Normal School since the department of 
Household Arts was taken over by the State in 1898. A pleasantly 
refined and cultivated home atmosphere is perceptible in his own 
house, where students eagerly avail themselves of boarding vacancies. 

All the rooms, residential and scholastic, are light and large, 
except the laundry, which, on the occasion of my visit, was im- 
provised in the basement of the Principal's house ; thanks to the 
mgenuity exercised, the work was adequately carried on; but, by 
now it has doubtless been transferred to suitable quarters. 
The Hemenway Memorial kitchen is planned on a princely 
scale, replete with unusual conveniences, and actually adorned 



12 



132 



U.S.A. — State Normal Schools. 



by the tine specimens of plumber's work which enter into the 
equipment. The pipes for hot and cold water for heating 
purposes and for gas are all in bright metal, in every case 
" exposed " ; fortunately, in the dry, clear air of New England, 
they need polishing but twice a year, and are rapidly dusted at 
daily intervals. Each cooking table is fitted for eight students, 
but in actual practice four is the usual number by whom they 
are used. Drawers contain the usual fittings, including, in this 
instance, a spatula and rubber moulds for candies ; the pans are 
chiefly steel agate ware ; there are the usual shelves with knead- 
ing and pastry boards, and, of course, sliding seats. Four stoves 
are fitted for coal, wood, gas and gasoline respectively. The 
glazed earthenware sinks have hinged drainers which can be 
closed, flush with the wall, when not in use. Two Aladdin 
ovens are employed in the baking of bread and cakes or in the 
preparation of soups. There is a large Pasteuriser for milk and 
an incubator for bacteriological tests, an " Eddy " ice box, a 
Chamberlen steam cooker, and an ample provision of glazed 
cupboards and drawers, all in perfect order. The very spacious 
room has one end fitted for the children's practice lessons, the 
other is set apart for the use of the normal students : there is 
also abundant spac^e for a dining table and lecturer's desk. No 
expense was spared in any particular in the ecjuipment of this 
memorial kitchen, and the workmanship is so good that, at the 
time of my visit, not a cent had l)een spent on repairs of any 
kind during the three and a half years the kitchen had been in 
use. The necessity for equipping a kitchen on simpler lines, as 
a useful adjunct to a complete training, will be realised by 
practical teachers, and I believe this has now been provided. 

The students are requiied to dress in white for kitchen work, 
large blue overalls being worn in the laundry. The personal 
equation of each student is closely studied throughout the 
course, and although the staff* usually arrange monthly tests of 
various kinds to ascertain progress, actually more importance is 
attached to daily observation of conduct. An instance of this was 
given to me by Miss Nicholas, directress of the course, where 
failure to graduate was due, not to technical shortcomings, but to 
faults of disposition, which, in the opinion of the professors, 
rendered this student unfit for the teaching profession. Her 
attention had been privately, tactfully, and repeatedly drawn to 
certain shortcomings, but as either the will or the power to 
amend or control were absent, the sense of responsibility towards 
her future pupils left no alternative to those who were entrusted 
with the issue of the desired certificate but to refuse to confer it. 

Thirty-two normal students were taking this course in 1901, 
twenty-two of whom were entered in 1900 ; a smaller 
number is considered preferable in order that careful individual 
attention may be bestowed and the thoughtful observation of 
character be carried on, to which reference has just been made. 
Twelve is considered a satisfactory number for each year's enter- 
ing class, but the excellence of the course brings its own penalty 
in the eager demand for admission. 



Framingham Normal School Course in Household Arts. 133 

The following paragraph from the "School Circular and Report" seems to 
me a fair statement of the value and of the high estimate formed of its 
graduates, whose services are in immediate request. 

" Many of the alumnae of the school are employed in the Boston public 
schools, others are instructors in Normal and High schools, at the Armour 
and Drexel Institutes, superintendents at the Johns Hopkins and other 
hospitals and asylums, or else in training schools from Boston to Kansas, 
Denver and California. All over the country they are scattered, wherever 
education has sufficiently advanced to recognise that Household Arts is 
scientific. Such women have graduated from something more than cooking 
classes, or from schools in Domestic Science. They have won diplomas from 
the point of view of education, rather than from that of self-support. They 
have taken the word arts as the resultant term in the application of science 
to industry. They have gone forth to teach and direct, until in time it will 
be realised that proficiency in Household Arts is to be examined, rated, and 
certificated as is now literature, and mathematics." 

As I have said, four courses are open to candidates for admis- 
sion to this Normal school : a general two years' course; a three 
years' course for those who wish to broaden the work offered 
in the regular course ; a special course in one year for experienced 
teachers and college graduates ; and this two years' course in 
Household Arts. All the requirements for admission to the 
Normal school in regard to examinations, written and oral, 
tuition, testimonials, and other regulations are enforced equally 
in this department (Household Arts) ; the written examination 
consists of papers upon certain groups of study. 

The science group includes and requires an elementary knowledge (1) of 
physical geography, i.e., the mastery of the elements of this subject as pre- 
sented in the study of geography in a good Grammar school, (2) physiology 
and hygiene, the chief elementary facts of anatomy, the general 
functions of the various organs, the more obvious rules of health, and the 
more striking effects of alcoholic drinks, narcotics and stimulants upon those 
addicted to their use, (3) physics, chemistry and botany, the elementary 
principles of these subjects so far as they may be presented in the courses 
usually devoted to them in High schools. 

Candidates for admission must be 16 years of age, and must 
present certificates of good moral character and of the 
equivalent of a good High school education. To persons who 
live in Massachusetts tuition is free, but to those from other 
States an annual charge of $50 is made. Text-books and 
reference books are furnished free; the only expense is for 
stationery and such books as drawing books, that are destroyed 
in use. From time to time pupils are advised to buy some book 
which is thought by the teacher to be indispensable as a part of 
their outfit for the work in the schoolroom, upon which they are 
soon to enter ; all such books are furnished at cost price. 

The Normal school, with its surrounding residences for 
students, is beautifully situated on a wooded hillside, surrounded 
by a considerable amount of land used for various forms of 
recreation and commanding a view over rolling wood-clad hills, 
broken by the vast reservoir from which the Boston water 
supply is drawn. The copses round provide materials for nature 
study under most favourable conditions, while golf, tennis and 
basket ball arc enjoyed in the ample grounds. There are two 



134 



U.S.A. — State Normal Schools. 



boarding halls, Crocker Hall and Normal Hall, which are made 
as homelike as possible. They are thoroughly warmed by 
hot water, lighted by electricity, and furnished with the best 
sanitary and lavatory arrangements of hot and cold water. Each 
hall has two rooms set apart for the use of the students, one as a 
reception room for friends who call, the other for their sole 
use. The students' rooms have each a piano; and there 
is also a small library. The cost of board is $80 (,£16) per 
term, $160 (£32) a year; this is inclusive. Incases of illness 
or other unavoidable absence, the expense of board is shared 
between the State and the boarder. These rates are made on 
the basis that two students occupy one room ; an extra charge 
is made when a student has a room to herself. 

Provision is made for a physical examination of all candidates 
for admission to Normal schools in the State of Massachusetts, 
and a student may be subjected to a re-examination at any time 
during the course should his or her physical condition suggest 
the need ; the same precaution in the interests of all con- 
cerned is to be found to an increasing extent elsewhere, though the 
praiseworthy custom is not yet generally adopted. All students, 
unless specially excused, are required to devote a specified period 
to exercise in the gymnasium throughout the entire course, for 
which purpose a suitable costume must be worn; attention is 
also paid to the out-door life of the students, each of whom is 
expected to take a certain amount of out-door exercise daily. 
Special arrangements are made for the lunches of day students ; 
hot soup, cocoa, rolls and fruit are supplied at cost price in a 
pleasantly fitted room. very where there is evidence that 
honest efforts are made to give the most favourable conditions, 
opportunities and assistance to students who desire to equip 
themselves to become teachers ; the rest may be truthfully said in 
the words of the school catalogue, "to rest with the student herself." 
Sewing and Occasionally courses in sewing and cooking form a part of the 
Cooking manual traininjj courses which enter into the curriculum of, I 
Courses. believe, the majority of State Normal schools ; of these I may 
cite that at Worcester (Mass.), as an example; the results are 
stated to have been satisfactory, although but one lesson a week 
is given in each subject. Foi* this two reasons are advanced : 
(1) that the nature of the work admits of home practice, which 
is consistently encouraged, so that the actual time of study is 
much extended : (2) that as these household arts are studied in the 
senior year the maturity of the pupils is a probable factor in 
their interest and progress, in spite of the limited mmiber of 
lessons. Whether, with the more general introduction of 
needlework into the Grade schools, instruction in methods of 
teaching sewing will enter into the training of all women 
teachers, or whether the subject will continue to be assigned 
to specialists, does not yet appear. I incline to the latter 
opinion, because needlework is more generally classed as 
manual training than as an ordinary school subject. With 
the exception <jf physiology, hygiene and some emergency 
work, therefore, the Normal student in the United States must 



Sewing d- CooJcing Courses ; Physiology & Hygiene Courses. 135 

seek her domestic science training (outside New England) at a 
State University (where even a four years' college course will 
scarcely give time to combine it with other studies if general 
teaching be her ambition), or in the form of a post-graduate 
course, either at one of these colleges or at a Technical Institute 
of high standing. 

The emphasis laid of recent years upon the study of psychology Physiology 
by Normal students, Avith special reference to child lite, together and Hygiene 
with the obligatory requirements as to the teaching of physiolog}^ Courses, 
in grade schools to which detailed reference has been made, have 
indirectly acted as a stimulus to the study of hygiene — the 
sciences depending one upon the other for application and prac- 
tice. Consequently, in those States to which my observations 
were confined, I gathered the impression that this important 
subject is likely, by degrees, to assume its rightful position in 
the equipment of teachers. The attention devoted to biology and 
physical culture is contributing to the same end, whether Normal 
students resort to State Universities or to their special schools for 
the necessary training. A marked feature in the ten State 
Normal schools in Massachusetts is the care centred, not only on 
the physical well-being of the pupils, but on the instruction by 
which they will be enabled to deal practically with questions of 
hygiene, as they present themselves in daily life. For instance, 
in addition to the entrance requirement which demands a 
medical certificate of good health, no pupil is allowed to remain 
whose physical condition is considered unequal to the exactions 
of the work. Efforts are made to counteract any tendency to 
ovei'Avork, over-excitement or hurry ; careful oversight is 
exercised, and in numerous cases individual advice is given. 
Thus in addition to the theoretical instruction in the conditions 
essential to a healthful life, students are trained and assisted to 
realise these by personal practice. 

The position, construction, lighting, heating, ventilation and i^-) Salem, 
equipment of many Normal schools can be described only by one •^^^fg xX 
word — magnificent. That at Salem, for example, stands in a 
splendid position on an open, elevated spot, from which its 
numerous lofty windows command views over a wide expanse of 
country and an arm of the Massachusetts Bay. This new build- 
ing was completed in 1896 ; it has three stories and a basement ; 
its frontage of ](S0 feet is balanced by two wings, each 140 
feet, running from north to south. The interior finish through- 
out is of oak, and the wide, handsome corridors are adorned by 
many good pictures and other artistic decorations provided by 
the State, by past and present students and teachers, or by the 
generosity of private individuals. Model schools (for 300 child- 
ren), gymnasium, lunch and dressing-rooms, library, class, and 
assembly-rooms, offices and laboratories, all gave me an invigor- 
ating sensation of light, air, space and fitness. Two years spent in 
such environment must exercise beneficial effects on the 225 
students and, thanks to the influence of the staff, these should 
" action" in good linbits. 



136 



U.S.A. — State Normal Schools, 



(a) Salem, The third floor is devoted chiefly to the various depart - 
Mass.— ments of science — physics, chemistry (elementary and acl- 
contmued. yanced), botany, geography, mineralogy, zoology, etc. All 
students must devote three 40-minute periods a week to 
zoology and physiology in their second year ; to botany two 
w^eekly periods are assigned during the first year. Here, as 
elsewhere, it is found of great advantage to lay this preliminary 
foundation in practical biology ; the dissection and comparison 
of the various forms of animal life contribute to a so much better 
understanding of human physiology. Fifteen students carry 
on individual laboratory work at the same time. Each has 
separate equipment, Avhich includes both compound and dissect- 
ing microscopes. Specimens of the lower orders of life, such as 
hydras, star-fish, clams, fish-frogs, etc., are furnished to each 
student, and at the close of the 20 weeks' work in zoology, which 
is the threshold of the course in human physiology, a dissection 
of a cat is made for each section (i.e. 15 students) of the class. 
There is a liberal supply of Auzeau models, and the Auzeau life- 
sized mannikin is taken repeatedly to pieces for demonstration 
purposes throughout the physiology course. The " recitation " 
method is largely employed for the theoretical work : topics for 
study are allotted to groups of students, and then discussed. 
Miss Alice Warren, Professor of Biology and Physiology, is un- 
questionably successful in her power of eliciting individual 
opinions, impressions and proposed applications; "to help 
practice " is a prominent object in her theoretical instruction. 
Martin's " Human Body "(advanced edition) and Colton's "Experi- 
mental Physiology" are recommended text-books ; but the free 
consultation of authorities, to be found in the excellent library, 
is encouraged here as in most other institutions for higher 
education. The students have access also to the Peabody 
Academy of Science, one of the finest collections of its kind in 
the country. 

As many living forms as possible are kept in the class-room. 
By this means, those Avho are to become teachers are instructed 
as to what creatures may be provided, and how they should be 
cared for. In the spring, opportunities are given for the pupils 
to become familiar with the common birds and their songs, as 
one aim of the course is to prepare the students so to instruct 
children, as to foster in them a greater love and sympathy for 
animals, a consciousness of what we owe to them, and an in- 
creasing interest in observing their habits, their uses and their 
intelligence ; in no better way can they be brought into a close 
relation with out-door life. The course in physiology is con- 
ducted throughout as a continuation of the previous biological 
work. 

The course is intended to fit teachers to secure and preserve 
a sound body for themselves, through an intelligent appreciation 
of the structure, arrangement and function of the different 
systems and organs, and to enable them to train children under 
their care to form habits which will conduce to a healthy, free 
action of their own bodies. For this purpose special stress is 



Physiology and Hygiene Courses. 

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138 



U.S.A. — State Normal Schools. 



laid on hygiene. The subjects of food, clothing, bathing and 
]*est are considered, as well as the effect of muscular action upon 
the organism as a, whole and upon the special organs. At 
intervals the pupils prepare lessons suitable for the grammar 
and primary grades, and conduct them in class. Miss Warren 
requires constant examples of application to the needs of 
children and to the formation of good habits ; and she told me 
she is already, after five or six years, able to perceive results which 
prove that her efforts are productive of good. Graduates from 
her classes, now employed in primary or granunar schools, are 
noticeable for the hygienic influence and practice they have 
brought with them to their work. In conjunction with other 
members of the staff, Miss Warren exerts herself to secure, 
so far as possible, correlation between the various branches 
of study, and to adhere throughout to true pedagogical lines. 
At Salem, as at Framingham, I Avas impressed with the pains 
taken to form a just estimate of the personal fitness of each 
student for the selected vocation ; in both colleges, a similar 
sentiment obtains, viz., that intellectual acquirements constitute 
but a part of the capacity to act as a teachei', for which each 
certificate granted a(;ts as a guarantee. 
(b) Hyannis, Very similar methods for the study of physiology and hygiene 
Mass. are employed at the State Normal School at Hyannis, (Mass.), 

where these subjects are included in the science group both of 
the two and the four years' course ; the good provision of biological, 
])hysical, and chemical laboratories permits of eminently satis- 
factory work. The natural science course includes geology and 
geography in addition to chemistry, physics, biology, and hygiene, 
and is siippleiuented by a study of psychology, pedagogy, school 
organisation, and methods of tejiching English, mathematics, 
drawing, and vocal music. 

Six months in tJie first year are devoted to elienjistrv and ]>hysk's 
i esi)ectively ; zoology precedes ])liysioIogy in a similar way in the second 
year ; four hours a week, of which two houi's are laboratory work, are 
devoted in turn to each of these subjects. The laboratory equipment 
includes a drawer with instruments for each student, also a glazed stone- 
ware sink and a bunsen and batswing gas burner ; eight or nine compound 
microscopes are provided. Each student makes any models he desires to 
employ in practical woi-k for himself as part of the manual training. 
Nearly all si>ecimens are worked at individually. The Professor of 
iiiology ajid Mathematics, Miss j^ertha M. Brown, a graduate of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is unusually interested in the 
hygienic treatment of ]>hysiology in schools of all grades, and encourages 
a very free introduction of experimental and ]>ractical illustrations by her 
students jn the PJementary Hygiene whi(;h they teach in the Practice 
School.' The outline of each lesson is submitted to her before it is given, 
and the proposed method of handling the topic is discussed. Six weeks' 
observation work, and fifteen weeks of teaching are required of each 
student in the regular two-year course. She told me that most gratifying 
results follow the methods she has adopted with her students as regards 
influence on the character of the young people, the ])erception by them 
of personal possibilities and responsibilities in respect of health i)roniotion, 
and the awakening of a desire on their part to imi»art such hygienic 
information to their own little pupils, as shall in turn arouse the children's 
interest, and stimulate them to right action. 



See Table VL, p. 51) above. 



Physiolocjy and Hygiene. 



139 



I was informed on reliable authority that the Boards of Attitude of 
Education in some of the most prominent cities are no Boards of 
longer satisfied with proofs of a theoretical acquaintance 
with hygiene from the members of their teaching staff, but hold Training of 
them severally responsible for the maintenance of wholesome Teachers in 
conditions in their class-rooms, require of them intelligent co- Hygiene, 
operation with the medical inspectors in safeguarding the health 
of the children, and call upon them to inculcate good habits in 
those committed to their daily charge ; when with these duties 
is combined that of the definite instruction of their pupils in 
hygiene and physiolog}^ it is readily conceivable that facilities 
must be afforded to Normal students for a thorough practical 
grounding in these subjects. Hence the few theoretical lectures 
on School Hygiene hitherto provided in most Normal schools no 
longer suffice to meet the demands on teachers which arise from 
this broader conception of the significance of that hard worked, 
much-misunderstood word Education. I received repeated 
assurances that the admirable courses and methods for training- 
teachers in hygiene and physiology which I visited and observed 
in different centres in Massachusetts and Ohio, were not confined 
to certain favoured cities, but may be truthfully considered 
typical of a perceptible movement towards the general introduc- 
tion of similar practical teaching into all Normal colleges. For 
this indication of progress various reasons are advanced ; perhaps 
the two of most weight are : (1) that the training is rendered 
compulsory by that wider view of the scope of school education 
to which I have just referred ; and (2) a keener realisation of the 
fact that the State owes it to her children that they shall grow 
uj) to maturity sound and well developed in body as well as in 
mind. Besides these I may also mention the gradual develop- 
ment of a more intimate popular interest in school conditions, 
evidenced by the attractive and valuable co-operation which 
exists in some cities between parents and teachers ; the percep- 
tion by authorities that precious time and money are lost when, 
owing to the teacher being ignorant or hampered in the exercise 
of his discretion, children carry on their studies under insanitary 
conditions ; and a growing appreciation of the educational ad- 
vantages offered to pupils of all ages by the study of practical 
hygiene which constitute it one of the most, if not the most, 
generally valuable subject in the time-table. 

The ])rofound belief in education which permeates the great Conclusion 
American people must be witnessed to be realised. 1 1 is to *^ P'^^t I. 
education that they look to weld their man\ millions into one 
coherent whole, of which the units shall be sturdy, resourceful, 
well-balanced citizens, to whose hands the honour and prestige 
of a great nation can be safely confided. In this ambition to be 
in the forefront of the world's nations may be found, in my 
opinion, one powerful motive for the initiation of the whole move- 
ment recorded in these pages. The well-being of a nation hinges 
on the physical, mental, and moral status of its people ; while to 
each state and city is entrusted the responsibility of protecting 
its inhabitants from moral or physical ills, and of developing 



140 



U.S.A. — Conclusion to Part I. 



their mental powers. It is a commonplace to add that, unless 
State efforts be aided and supplemented by individual support, 
they are futile. Authorities recognise, therefore, that in 
educational institutions for all ages, provision must be made 
to train children in an intelligent and practical knowledge of 
health rules, to be applied in private and in public duties, i.e., in 
every relation of life. It will have been noted that the obligation 
to acquire an elementary knowledge of personal and public 
hygiene is at present laid upon both sexes in all State schools 
and in most State colleges, while for girls the opportunities of 
gaining a useful working knowledge of domestic science promise 
to become abundant. But what seem to me of equal, if not 
of greater, promise in this connection, are the ediicationally 
organised courses in the public High schools and the recogni- 
tion of the social and national importance of Household 
Economics by its installation among other subjects of uni- 
versity rank in State universities. By the High school courses 
the young people are imbued at a most impressionable age with 
a conception, hitherto often absent, of the dignity and worth of 
Home, and will, it is believed learn to appreciate its claims ; they 
are intelligently familiarised with the world in which they must 
shortly play a part of greater or less influence, and their scien- 
tific, artistic, literary and manual training studies are usefully 
and attractively associated with daily duties and social interests. 
By means of the college courses it is anticipated that, in addition to 
the general advantages just enumerated, the resources of modern 
science and art will in future be more utilised for the improve- 
ment of home life ; trained intelligences will be brought to bear 
upon vexed domestic problems, upon diet, expenditure, and 
service, so that in years to come a complete and harmonious 
system will be evolved from the present faulty and discordant 
methods. It has been well said by Dr. Mary E. Green, late 
President of the National Household Economic Association, that 
" Household Economics once properly understood by the women 
of the country will make possible to each individual the health, 
happiness and development which are his due." The United 
States now offers to its women of all ages, free of charge, the 
opportunities essential to the gaining of this understanding. 



141 



PART 11. 
Private Institutions. 

Side by side with the State system of education in the United Introductory. 
States there exists a parallel system of schools and of institutions 
for higher education; these are supported entirely from pri- 
vate sources (fees and endowments), unrestricted l)y State 
legal regulations. The governors or directors of these private 
institutions are thus independent of any popular or outside 
control ; free to initiate new departures and at liberty to 
test original theories by practical experiment. As a rule, this 
power and independence are not abused ; the standard of instruc- 
tion is such that graduates from private High Schools or Colleges 
take equal rank with those under State control ; while it suffices 
to mention the names of Columbia University or of some of the 
best-known Technical Schools, such as Pratt, Drexel, Armour or 
Lewis, to indicate the leading position occupied by institutions 
which owe their existence to the lavish generosity of individuals. 
The vast sums with which many of these private schools and 
colleges are endowed enable them, indeed, to set a desirable standard 
in respect of buildings, equipment, and staff ; the freedom to 
express many new ideas in practice serves as an outlet for the rapid 
flow of original conceptions characteristic of the present stage of 
national development ; and, though it may be permitted to ques- 
tion the immediate result to the juvenile subjects of some few 
scholastic experiments, the cause of education will probaljly derive 
eventual benefit from efforts which are invariably well intentioned, 
though occasionally eccentric in expression. This is not the place 
in which to attempt to detail the causes which have led to the 
gradual growth of this dual system of schools in the United States, 
it must suffice to say that both are complete throughout, from 
Kindergarten, Primary and Grammar Grades to High School, 
Technical Institute, College and University. In a large number of 
instances, the curriculum of the private Grade and High schools 
is identical with that sanctioned by the official Boards of Educa- 
tion in the various States and cities ; but, as has been stated, 
certain others are prominent in the public eye on account of the 
originality of their practice and the suggestiveness or efficiency of 
their methods. Deviations from accepted canons are less obvious in 
private Colleges ; on the contrary, these and the great Technical 
Schools often set the pace " for State-aided institutions by the 
high standard they attain in systems tested by experience. 

The several grades of these private institutions and their recog- 
nition and treatment of the various subjects upon whicii I was 
commissioned to inquire will now be dealt with in practically the 



142 U.S.A. — Private Kindergarten, Primary and Grammar Schools. 



same order as in Part I., with a view to facilitate reference and to 
preserve similarity of arrangement : — 

(A.) Kindergartens, Primary, and Grammar Schools. 

(B.) High Schools. 

(C.) Technical Institutes. 

(D.) Women's Colleges. 

(E.) Universities. 



Growth of 
Kinder- 
garten 
Movement. 



Connection 
of Domestic 
Science 
with Home 
and Social 
Interests. 



A. — Kindergartens, Primary, and Grammar Schools. 

No allusion was made to Kindergartens in Part I. of this 
Report because, so far as I could learn, the methods of teach- 
ing Domestic Science subjects which obtain in certain experi- 
mental school kindergartens, with the primary object of 
strengthening home affections while training social instincts, 
have not yet been introduced into those under State Boards of 
Education ; it is to the former I now ])ropose to refer. The 
Monograph on Kindergarten Education," by Miss Susan E. 
Blow* records the growth of the movement in favour of their 
establishment, with all it owes to Dr. W. T. Harris, National 
Commissioner of Education ; and reveals the existence of fully- 
developed systems of public kindergartens in 189 prominent cities 
and 15 States. " The liistory of the Kindergarten in America," 
writes Miss Blow, " is the record of four sharply-defined movements ; 
the pioneer movement whose point of dejmrture was the city of 
Boston ; the philanthropic movement, whose initial effort was made 
in the village of Florence, Massachusetts ; the national movement 
which emanated fi-om St. Louis ; and the great maternal movement 
which, radiating from Chicago, is now spreadkjg throughout the 
United States, evolving a more enlightened and consecrated mother- 
hood, and thereby strengthening the foundations and elevating 
the ideals of American family life." In these concluding words 
are found the key-notes with which those in charge of the Kinder- 
garten and Primary classes at the two experimental schools 
attached to Chicago University endeavour to harmonise the methods 
they advocate. They believe that by taking advantage of a little 
child's strong affections and instinctively pei'sonal standpoint he 
may, through his social interests, be made intelhgently acquainted 
with the world in which he lives ; family ties may be strengthened 
in the process, and home life dignified : while such a desire to 
know the " reason why " for daily facts is awakened, that, in its 
gratification, real scientific habits of mind are acquired. 

Thirty years ago Dr. W. T. Harris drew attention to the fact 
that " at the age of three years the child begins to emerge from 
the circumscribed life of the family and to acquire an interest 
in the life of society and a proclivity to form relationship with it. 
This, increases until the school Hfe period begins at his seventh 

* No. 2, " Monographs on Education in the United States," edited by 
Professor N. Mnrray Butler. 



Domestic Science at the University of Chicago Experimerital Schools. 14:'d 



year. The fourth, fifth, and sixth years of transition are not well 
provided for either by family or by social life in the United States/' 
It is upon the training and development of this social instinct in 
childhood, upon the provision of suitable educational opportunities 
during this transition period, that great stress has been laid through- 
out their school programmes by two of the leading educationalists of 
recent years. By written and spoken word, Dr. John J3ewey and 
the late Colonel Francis W. Parker have asserted their con\'ietion 
that all school work should connect on the social side with the 
life without ; and that this connection can be fitly and profitably 
made by means of suitable occupations carried on throughout the 
period of school life. " By occupation," writes Dr. Dewey, is 
not meant any kind of ' busy work ' or exercises that, may be 
given to a child to keep him out of mischief or idleness when seated 
at his desk. By occupation I mean a mode of activit}^ on the part 
of the child ^\'hich reproduces or runs pai'allel to some form of 
work carried on in social life."* In the Chicago University Domestic 
Elementary School these occupations are represented by the Science and 
workshop with wood and tools, by cooking and sewing and by ^J^? t'J^® 
textile work. To those to whom this conception is unfamiliar, a of Chicago 
careful perusal of Dr. Dewey's book The School and Society," Exfjeri- 
and of his article on the " Psychology of Occupation " in the g^^^^^j^. 
Elementary School Record " will result in a better comprehension ^ ^* 
of his thesis. The limits of space forbid more than the most concise 
references to Dr. Dewey's writings, or to Colonel Parker's ideals 
and methods. Careful aljstracts of a year's work in the schools 
where the views and methods of these leaders of educational 
thought are subjected to the test of practice, are furnished in 
Tables XXI. and XXII. They are included in this portion of 
my Report as aft'ording the best illustrations I can offer of the 
means by which the domestic, equally with other sciences and 
arts, may be educationally employed to make schools for our 
children of all ages a " genuine form of active community life, 
instead of places set apart to learn lessons." 

Dr. Dewey's opinion, shared, I believe, by the late Cok)nel 
Parker, must be lx)rne in mind while studying these school 
programmes, viz., that "those subjects and that material develoj) 
the young intelligence of the child which (1) forge social links 
between school and home ; (2) can be acquired largely in the 
first instance through the exercise of the bodily activities ; (3) 
are so interwoven with family life as to apj^eal to the limited, 
familiar experience of a young child ; and (4) demand thought, 
yet by their simplicity permit that thought to function in actions, 
habitual or suitably acquired at the special period of life at 
which the lesson requires them." Dr. Dewey also maintains that 
the educational material should stimulate efforts directed to 

* " Psychology of Occupations." The Elementary School Record. A 
series of nine Monographs, })ul)lished by tlie University of Cliicago Press. 
' The School and Society," John Dewey, University of Chicago Press. 



144 U.S.A. — Private Kindergarten, Primary and Grammar Schools. 



the acquirement of technique, even though at considerable 
personal cost, and that each subject must possess inherent con- 
tinuity in itself, adapting it for progressive development, 
consistent with the several periods of child growth. Further, both 
authorities agree that veritable correlation of each subject with 
the whole school i)rogramme is an essential qualification, not 
" through devices of instruction which the teacher employs in 
tying together things in themselves disconnected," but through 
wise selection, ]3y which real, organic continuity of subject matter 
is ensured. 

(a) Elemen- In the University Elementary School at Chicago, therefore, the 
T^^Ki ^YYT^ Domestic Sciences and Arts a]:>pear throughout among the Occu- 
lable XXi. potions for all groups included in the Time-Table, from which 
it is Dr. Dewey's oljject to secure the absence of mere mechanical 
routine repetition, and to ensure the presence of conscious, in- 
telligent action and habits of reflection. 

* " Occupations, so considered," he writes, *' furnish the ideal 
occasions for both sense-training and discipline in thought. The 
weakness of ordinary lessons in observation, calculated to train 
the senses, is that they have no outlet beyond themselves, and 
hence no necessary motive. Now, in the natural life of the in- 
dividual and the race there is always a reason for sense-observa- 
tion. There Is always some need, coming from an end to be 
reached, that makes one look about to discover and dLscriminate 

whatever will assist it The same principle applies in 

normal thinking. It also does not occur for its own sake, nor 
?A\d in itself. It arises from the need of meeting some difficulty ; 
in reflecting upon the best way of overcoming it ; and thus leads to 
planning, to projecting mentally, the result to be reached, and de- 
ciding upon the steps necessary and their serial order. This concrete 
logic of action long precedes the logic of pure speculation or abstract 
investigation, and through the mental habits that it forms is the best 
of preparations for the latter. . . . Now, there can be no doubt 
that occupation work possesses a strong interest for the child. A 
glance at any school where such work is carried on will give sufficient 
evidence of this fact. Outside of the school, a large portion of the 
children's plays are simply more or less miniature and haphazard 
attempts at reproducing social occupations. There are certain reasons 
for believing that the type of interest which springs up along with 
these occupations is of a thoroughly healthy, permanent, and really 
educative sort ; and that by giving a larger place to occupations we 
should secure an excellent, perhaps the very best, way of making an 
appeal to the child's spontaneous interest, and yet ha^e, at the same 
time, some guarantee that we are not dealing with what is merely 
pleasure-giving, exciting, or transient. In the first place every interest 
grows out of some instinct or some habit that in turn is finally based 
upon an original instinct. It does not follow that all instincts are of 
equal value, or that we do not inherit many instincts which need 
transformation, rather than satisfaction, in order to be useful in life. 
But the instincts which find their conscious outlet and expression in 
occupation are hound to l)e of an exceedingly fundamental and per- 
manent type. The activities of life are of necessity directed to bringing 
the materials and forces of nature under the control of our purposes ; 



* " The I'svcholo^'y of Occupations," Elementary School Record, 
Dm "Tsi V ' I Chicat^o 1' > 



Domestic Scimce cU the Vniversity of Chicago Exferimental Schools. 146 

of making them tributary to ends of life. Men have had to work in (a) Elemen- 
order to Hve. In and through their work they have mastered nature, tary School 
they have protected and enriched the conditions of their own hfe, —continued. 
they have been awakened to the sense of theh own powers, have been 
led to invent, to plan and to rejoice in the acquisition of skilh In a 
rough v/ay, all occupations may be classified as gathering about man's 
fundamental relation to the world in which he lives ; through getting 
food to maintain hfe ; securing clothing and shelter to protect and 
ornament it ; and thus, finally, to provide a permanent home in which 
all the higher and more spiritual interests may centre. It is hardly 
unreasonable to suppose that interests which have such a history behind 
them must be of the worthy sort. However, these interests as they 
develop in the child not only recapitulate past important activities of 
the race, but reproduce those of the child's present environment. 
He continually sees his elders engaged in such pursuits. He daily 
hcis to do with things which are the results of just such occupations. 
He comes in contact with facts that have no meaning except in refer- 
ence to them. Take these things out of the present social life and see 
how little would remain — and this not only on the material side, but 
as regards intellectual, aesthetic and moral activities, for these are 
largely and necessarily bound up with occupations. The child's 
instinctive interests in this direction are, therefore, constantly rein- 
forced by what he sees, feels and hears going on around him. Sugges- 
tions along this line are continually coming to him ; motives are 
awakened ; his energies are stirred to action ; it is not unreasonable 
to suppose that interests which are touched so constantly, and on so 
many sides, belong to the worthy and enduring type." 

In other passages of his writings Dr. Dewey advances further 
arguments in support of these methods and subjects pursued 
in his school, and throws more light upon the educational value 
of the Domestic Arts for young children. He points out that 
it is natural to young children to begin with the home and 
occupations of the home, to proceed next to the study of occu- 
pations outside the home, that is, to the larger social industries, 
after which they are prejmred to study the historic develop- 
ment of industry and invention, so learning the ste})S of 
progress and development.* " There are," he writes, " distinct 
phases of child growth to which the periods of organised school 
work should correspond." The first, from four to eight years 
of age, is characterised by that directness of social and personal 
interest (upon which, as has been stated, Dr. W. T. Harris lays 
much stress) as well as hy directness and promptness of relation- 
ship Ijetween impressions, ideas and actions. The demand for 
a motor outlet for expression is urgent and immediate. During 
this period the constructive work should therefore combine activi- 
ties which include an immediate appeal to the child as an outlet for 
his energy, while leading up in an orderly way to a result ahead ; 
habits of working for ends may thus be formed, while present 
occupations are gradually recognised to be a sequence of steps, 
which permit the accomplishment of something beyond. In ih(^ 
second period, which extends from eight or nine years old to eleven 

* " General Introduction to Groups V. and VI." The Klemeiitary 
School Record, p. 49 . 



6490. 



K 



]4G U.S.A . — Private Kindergarten, Primary and Grammar Schools. 



(a) Elemen- or twelve, the aim should be to recognise and respond to the change 
tary School which comes over the child from his growing sense of the possibility 
—con mue more permanent and objective results and of the necessity for 
^ the control of agencies for the skill necessary to reach such results. 

The mere play of activity no longer satisfies. Hence the recogni- 
tion of rules of action .... and of the value of mastering 
S])ecial processes so as to give skill in tlieir use. . . . There is 
a conscious demand in the tenth year for ' something hard ' to do, 
sometliing which Avill test and call out power, efficienc}-. The 
third period comes when tlie child has a sufhcient acquaintance 
of a fairly direct sort with, various forms of reality and modes of 
activity ; when he has sufficiently mastered the methods, the tools 
of thought, inquiry and activity appropriate to various phases of 
experience, to be able profitably to specialise upon distinct studies 
and arts for technical and intellectual aims. This interest in 
technique, in acquiring skill, demands a sufficient background of 
a(5tual experience ; the introduction of technique must come in 
connection with ends that arise within the child's own experience, 
that are present to him as desired ends, and hence as motives to 

effort." * Hitherto the school has been so 

set apart, so isolated from the ordinary conditions and motives 
(»f life, that the place where children are sent for discipline 
is the one place where it is most difficult to get exj^erience — 
' the mother of all discipline worth the name.'' The world 
in which most of us live is a world in which everyone has a 
calling and occupation, something to do. Some are managei-s, 
some subordinates. But the great thing for one as for the other 
is that each shall have had the education which enables him to see 
within his daily work all there is in it of large and human signifi- 
cance. ... All the juedia necessary to furnish the growth of 
the child should centre in the school. Learning certainly, but 
living ]3rimarily, and learning through and in relation to this living. 
AVhen we take the life of the child centred and organised in this way 
we do not find that he is firet of all a listening behig ; quite the 
contrary. Still, in the ordinary schoolroom all is made for listening. 
The attitude of listening means, comparatively speaking, passivit}-, 
absorption ; there are certain ready-made materials of which the 
child is to take in as much as possible in the least possil3le time. 
There is ver}^ little place in the traditional schoolroom for the child 
to work. . . . The difference that appears when occupations 
are made the articulating centres of school life is not easy to de- 
scribe in words ; it is a difference in motive, of spirit and atmo- 
sphere. As one enters a busy kitchen in which a group of children 
are actively engaged in the preparation of food, the psychological 
difference, the change from more or less passi\'e and inert recipienc}^ 
and restraint to one of buoyant and outgoing energy is so obvicms 
as fairly to strike one in the face. Within this organisation is 
f^und the principle of school discipline and order. . . . The 

* "The SHiool and Societj»." Lecture I. 



Domestic Science at the University of Chicago Experimental Schools M7 

moment children act they individuahse themselves ; they cease (a) Elemen- 
to be a mass, and become the intensely distinctive beings that we ^^^y ^^^^"^l 
are acquainted with out of school. This is the change which is ""^'^'^^'^^'^ 
gradually coming into our educational systems, and is shifting the 
centre of gravity. Now the child is more and more becoming the 
sun about which the appliances of education revolve : the centre 
about which they are organised. . . . The child is already 
intensely active, and the question of education is the question of 
taking hold of his activities, of giving them direction." 

Dr. Dewey considers that the active impulses availalile in the 
school may be roughly classified under four heads : (1) The social 
instinct, shown in conversation ; (2) the constructive impulse, 
shown by the child's impulse fii'st, to " make believe/' afterwards 
to constmct objects ; (3) the instinct of investigation, which seems 
to grow out of both the former, and leads to the enquiry as to the 
" why " of things ; (4) the expressive impulse, which is the com- 
bined outcome of the communicative and constructive instincts. 
That home interests and domestic occupations afford exercises for 
the expression and satisfaction of each of these is evident to 
careful students of Table XXI. 

Of the educational worth of these instincts Dr. Dewey writes 
as follows t : — "A question often asked is: if you begin 
with the child's ideas, impulses and interests, all so crude, 
30 random and scattering, so little refined or spiritualised, 
how is he going to get the necessary culture and information 1 
If there were no way open to us except to excite and indulge these 
impulses of the child, the question might well be asked. We should 
either have to ignore and repress the activities, or else to humour 
them. But if we have organisation of equipment and of materials, 
there is another path open to us. We can direct the child's activities, 
giving them exercise along certain lines, and can tluis lead up to the 
goal which logically stands at the end of the paths followed. ' If 
Welshes were horses, beggars wwld ride.' Since they are not, since 
really to satisfy an impulse or interest means to work it out, and work- 
ing it out involves running up against obstacles, becoming acquainted 
with materials, exercising ingenuity, patience, persistence, alertness, 
it of necessity involves discipline — ordering of power — and supplies 
knowledge. Take the example of the little child who wants to make 
a box. If he stops short with the imagination or wish, he certainly 
will not get discipline. But Avhen he attempts to realise his impulse, 
it is a question of making his idea definite, making it into a plan, of 
taking the right kind of wood, measuring the parts needed, giving 
them the necessary proportions, etc. There is involved the prepara- 
tion of materials, the sawing, planing, the sand papering, making all 
the edges and corners fit. Knowledge of tools and processes is inevit- 
able. If the child realizes his instinct and makes the box, there is 
plenty of opportunity to gain discipline and perseverance, to exercise 
effort in overcoming obstacles, and to attain as well a great deal of 
information. 

"So undoubtedly the little child who thinks he would likf^ to cook 
lias little idea of what it means or costs, or what it requires. It is simply 
a desire to ' mess around,' perhaps to imitate the activities of older 

* " The School and Society." Lectiu'c III. 
t " The School and Society." Lecture TI. 



6490 



K2 



lis U.S.A. — Private Kindergarten, Primary and Grammer Schools. 



{a) Elemen- people. And it is doubtless possible to let ourselves down to that level 
tary School and simply humour that interest. But here, too, if the impulse is 
—continued. exercised, utilised, it runs up against the actual world of hard conditions, 
to which it must accommodate itself ; and there again come m the factors 
of discipline and knowledge. One of the children became impatient 
recently at having to work things out by a long method of experimenta- 
tion, and said : ' Why do we bother with this 1 Let's follow a recipe in a 
cook-book.' The teacher asked the children where the recipe came 
from, and the conversation showed that if they simply followed this 
they would not miderstand the reasons for what they were doing. They 
were then quite willing to go on with the experimental work. To follow 
that work will, indeed, give an illustration of just the point in question. 
Their occupation that day happened to be the cooking of eggs, as making 
a transition from the cooking of vegetables to that of meats. In order 
to get a basis of comparison, they first summarised the constituent food 
elements in the vegetables, and made a preliminary comparison with 
those found in meat. Thus they foimd that the woody fibre or cellulose 
in vegetables corresponded to the connective tissue in meat, giving the 
element of form and structure. They found that starch and starchy 
products M ere characteristic of the vegetables, that mineral salts were 
found in both alike, and that there was fat in both— a small quantity 
in vegetable food and a large amount in animal. They were prepared 
then to take up the study of albimien as the characteristic feature of 
animal food, corresponding to starch in the vegetables, and were ready 
to consider the conditions requisite for the proper treatment of albumen, 
the eggs serving as the material of experiment. They experimented 
first by taking water at various temperatures, finding out when it was 
scalding, simmering, and boiling hot, and ascertained the effect of the 
various degrees of temperature on the white of the egg. That worked 
out, they were prepared not simply to cook eggs, but to understand 
the principle involved in the cooking of eggs. I do not wish to lose 
sight of the imiversal in the particular incident. For the child to desire 
to cook an egg, and accordingly to drop it in water for three mmutes, 
and take it out when he is told, is not educative. But for the child to 
realize his own impulse by recognising the facts, materials, and conditions 
involved, and then to regulate his impulse through that i-ecognition, is 
educative. This is the difference upon which I wish to insist between ex- 
citing or indulging an interest and realizing it through its direction." 

A suggestive and, to my mind, extremely interesting state- 
ment was made to me when visiting Chicago, viz., that, in practice, 
the work in Domestic Science, as carried on in the University 
Elementary School, has been found to be one of the many 
valuable means employed for bringing the home and school life of 
the child into closer relationship. Cooking, sewing, and the study 
of textiles are included under this head, special attention being 
given to correlating these with as many other lines of work in 
the school as possible. Science, history and art, for instance, 
are studied, not as isolated subjects, but as the natural outgrowth 
of dealing with e very-day materials and processes, such as 
those with which a child is famihar in home life. In cooking, e.g., 
connection is made with botany through the plants from which 
food materials are obtained ; with chemistry and physics, through 
the analytical woi'k done with foods and through the innumerable 
phenomena which continually present themselves in the study of 
nature ; with physiology, by the action of food in the body 
and by practical work in the preparation of meat, througli 



Domestic Science at the University of Chicago Experimental Schools. 14^ 



which some knowledge is gained of muscle form and bone (a) Elemen- 
stnicture ; with history, in the development from primitive *^^y School 
to modern methods of obtaming and preparing food ; with shop- —^^^^^^^^^^ 
work, in the demand for various articles made in the shop and used 
in the kitchen, such as towel-racks, rolling-pins, wooden spoons, 
etc. ; while number work plays an important part in the weights 
and measures used. Sewing is connected with the Fine Arts in the 
drawing and colouring of designs and in all colour combinations ; 
with history, in the making of clothing and other articles typical 
of the various periods ; with shopwork, in the making of shop 
aprons in the sewing-room and of spool-racks and yai-n-winders 
in the shop ; with cooking, in the making of api'ons and holdei-s, 
the hemming of towels and other household articles ; and with 
number work, through the continual use of rulei- and tape measure, 
in calculating the amount and cost of materials Jieeded, measuring, 
and verifying bills of goods purchased. The textile work connects 
with botany in the study of the producing plants ; Avith geology, 
in the study of soils with I'eference to the various productions ; 
with geography, in the locating of the plant and animal-raising 
districts and the factories and mills ; with history, in the develop- 
ment of the textile industry and its influence on the people ; with 
])hysics, in the various properties of the different materials and in 
the implements and machines used in their production ; with 
chemistry, in the preparatioii and dyeing of the textiles ; Avith 
shopwork, in the construction of distaff, spindles, and looms ; and 
with sewing, in the work with the finished products. 

The preparation of the class lunch at this school, whether by 
children in the Kindergarten or in older " Groups," affords 
practical illustration of the possibility of realising many of 
Dr. Dewey's views without departing from methods accepted by 
convention, yet lending to them an educational value and a vivid 
interest too often absent from such homely items in the routine of 
daily life. These simple luncheons are served each morning. 
Each class takes it in turn to render this social sei'vice, the various 
members })re]3aring the food, settmg the table, and then A\ aitingon 
their companions during the meal. Social links are b}^ this means 
forged ])etween school and home interests ; the bodily activities are 
exercised. The work appeals to the limited and familiar ex])eri- 
€nce of the young cooks and servers, and, while demanding thought, 
is yet of sufficient simplicity to function in habitual or suitably 
acquired actions. Efforts to acquire technique are stimulated by 
the interest aroused ; the suitable correlation with other school 
work links life with learning, and gives dignity to manual exercise* 
As the lunch frequently consists of some form of cereal served 
with cream or fruit the children are interested in finding out as 
much as possible about each kind of grain used. They plant seeds 
and observe their mode of growth and develojjment ; they talk 
about the hai-vc^sting of the ripe grain (specimens of which are 
shown) and the (bnclopnient of tluM-nrions inothods from primitive 



150 U.S.A. — Private Kindergarten, Primary and Grammar Schools. 



(a) Elemen- to modern ways, considerable attention being given to pictures and 
tary School other representations of methods, implements, and machines 
continued, employed. The uses of the various parts of the plants are then 
discussed, with the necessary processes through which they must 
pass iDefore they are ready for market ; as the cleaning and rolling, 
cracking or grinding of wheat, which are usually learned by a 
visit to the mills. Then there is an examination of each kind 
of grain by means of the microscoi)e, which shows its parts. 
To discover the nature of these parts and the effect on them 
of water, heat, etc., some simple experiments are used. For 
example, in wheat, the grain is crushed in a mortar and sifted 
through cheese-cloth, thus separating the coarse outer covering ; 
this is then examined, treated with cold water and with hot, and 
boiled, the effect being carefully noted in each case. The fin«> 
part of the grain, which passed through the sieve, is tested in the 
same way, and its action compared with that of starch similarly 
treated, from which the inference is drawn that starch is present 
in the grain. The work with this fine part of the grain shows 
the presence of a sticky, glue-like substance, which stretches and 
catches the air when in a moist state. The names bran, starchy 
and gluten are given to these parts ; pictures of the grain are drawn 
repi-esenting them ; and sentences are written which tell what 
has been found out with regard to them. The amount of water 
necessary in cooking one cereal is used as a standard ; and the 
amount required for the others is found by balancing them with 
this standard and using a proportionate amount of water. Thus, 
the children find out that in cooking flaked corn it is necessary 
to use equal amounts of cereal and water, while corn-meal is five 
times as heavy, and, therefore, requires five times as much 
ater. In making out a table, as the children do, for use in 
the cooking of all cereals, the necessity arises for the continual use 
of tlie balance and weights, and of the measuring cup (divided 
into quarters and thirds), all of which give familiarity with weights 
and measures, and with fractional parts in their various combina- 
tions. In the simple cooking of cereals the children also learn the 
properties of water, its simmering and boiling points, the 
meaning and use of steam and of dry heat, with their varying 
applications to suit different materials and conditions, Familiarity 
with certain materials and conditions are thus acquired, the 
natural impulse of the child is exercised and utilised, while 
both knoAvledge and discipline result. Throughout the whole 
course the same general plan is followed ; the children find 
out by experiment the nature and composition of the materials 
used and the treatment to which they must be subjected 
to render them most nutritious and palatable. The work in 
the kitchen, being correlated with that of the otlier departments 
of the school, is supplemented and emj^hasized by directing the 
attention along the same lines in these departments. It is hoped 
in time to make a greater number of connections, and to improve 



TABLE XXIl. 

OUTLINE OF A YEAR'S WORK.-UNIVERSITY OP CHICAGO SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, FORMERLY THE CHICAGO INSTITUTE. (CO-EDUCATIONAL THROUGHOUT). 



HIGH SCHOOL. 



NATURE STUDY. 

""orJiimry diilclrcM'.? (jai 
Ithvtliin gnmes(wil.h h 
Stories. 
Songs. 

Clay Modelling. 

Drawing. 

Paper Catting. 

Vaiutlng. 

large Blocks (l)uilding). 
Sand Work (plans of giii 



.Making 



objects and clay 



ctinBo 



i IndlE 



Memorising of poems. 
JIusio.— 
Songs. 

Simple work on oi 
musical e.\pres8ion. 

IHoor for playlio\iso. 



nnecled with chilli' 



Pottery ; woodwork. 



DHAMATIC AUT— 
Unginal plays for the pupii 

Ditimatisation of stories. 



I'lIV— 

uses, drainage, watoi 
iy, lighting ; construct 



lines as In I. and 11. 
th expeiimcnts on 



iih other wor 

I'ELLmu — 



tiooking ; Sewing. 



DiiAMATic Art— 
Dramatic presentation 
stories of Siege of Troy. 



.'orrelated with Sewing ant 
Geography, purchase o 
fruits and vegetables. 



Field trips. 

Observations of weather. 
Observations of special area: 



Loss_ by evaporation 
Percentage, 



king(one lunch a week 
ing (aprons designed 



Drawing (plana and pictures.) 
Pahiting. 

An entertainment for the 
whole school to be planned 
and carried out each month. 



[NDUSTniALART/ 
TUAININO— 

Dy'Sng,'*'' 



(incUuIed in Industrial j 



Uome and family llife 

colonists. 
Detailed History of vari( 



:iEOGRAPHY— 
about Chicago, 



Natuek Study— 
Use of thermometer, 

gauge, Bkiameter. 
Daily weather record. 



Number Work- 



llistorical and imaginary 

scenes represented. 
School Economics— 
Cooking ; fruit and a luuch. 



Art— 
Drawing. 
Painting. 

Arts and Crai-ts— 
ModelUng ; experiinc 
pottery. 

Thxtile Art— 
Making Puritan costui 
Spinning wool. 

MUSIC-^ ^ ^ 

Manual Training- 
iMal^ing of woollen 



As in Gratl 
LANGUAGES 
French— 



ated with study 
ng of the ear. 



numbers, time, the sea; 
Grammar, 
(owe recitation daily). 



NAT) 



UDV- 



Plant 1 
Food.' 

AnrniJiETio and 
In COTrelationwitho 



iwing.chalk modelling and 
astel modelling of maps. 
nting.landscape.caleniUirs, 



ra AND -MANUAL 

1 experiments. 



Physical Tkainino— 



Vrithmetic and Mathematii: 
Calculations in connection 
with other subjects. Ale 



School Economics- 
Oooking. 



Painting aud modelling 
connection with Natn 
Study, History and Ge 
graphy. 



LANGUAflES— 

f''rench — correlated wltli 
Nature Study and Geogra 



Latin — study of Roman 
history and character, 
Reading at sight from easy 



Eighth Grade. 



sent aud Past Chica 



Art is exercised by the repre- 
sentation and dramatisation of 
the svibject matter of other 



The order of subjects 
- itself from the near ( 

of the geography observed details to 
irld through rivers, laws. 



1 and climatic condi- 



ETIC AND MAXHE- 
ntagc, ratio and ol 



Urawatic Keadikb- 
shakespere. 



nds^apes, illustr; 
ireign life (pictui 



Songs (partly by rote, artly 
by sight reading). 



JUAUES— 
raphy. 



with Geo- 
coraposi- 



04au. 10 /accpayc lol. 



Ninth Grade. 



Including special work m 
Geometry in connection 
with Grecian , 



PHYSIOLOGY 01- NUTKITII 



LAKOnAGES— 

J'reneh. 
Written acc 

Selected readings. 
Kecitation. 
German — 

(Correlated with Mathematit 

Latin." 
In connection with the lift 



Bel. 



of Nature Study. 



^'asVuI-^:. 
DrainatisatiouB. 



Greek. 

Connected with^ the ^stud. 



TWELFTH Grade. 



l''rom Homeric Age to tlu 
Persian Wara. 

-Modern History, more full.v. 



In connection with Histoiy. 



naudc ; structural. 



L,VNGUAGES— 

As in' Grade X. 



As in Grades IX. and X. 
Greek. 
-Vs in Grades IX. and X. 



uthropogeugrapliy. 



Study of I'liysiographir: 
Historical Geology. 
ConLineMtal Evolution. 



As in Grade XI. 



Languages— 

As in'Grades X. and XI. 



Literatm-e. 
Latin. 
As in Grades IX.-XI. 



n Grades I.V.-.Kl 



Domestic Science at the University of Chicago Experimental Schools.XbX 



the work, which was still in the experimental stage at the time 
of my visit (May, 1901), in many details. 

The second experimental school I visited where Domestic Science (^) School 
is linked with home and social interests is now known as the [^/^j^^^^^^l, 
Univeraity of Chicago School of Education, at that time under the XXJI. 
directorship of the late Colonel F. W. Parker. While Dr. John 
Dewey approaches 'this question of the right education of the 
young in the spirit of a philosopher, the late Colonel Parker 
arrived at his conclusions animated rather by the inspiration of a 
prophet. His whole nature was imbued to an unusual degree with 
so intense a love for and sympathy ^\'ith child natui-e that, in the 
opinion of some careful and skilled observers, there existed a risk 
lest sentiment should be allowed to obscure or to replace reason in 
the translation of his theories into practice. His school programme 
was the tentative outcome of years of enthusiastic earnestness de- 
voted to its evolution, in which he received the cordial co-operation of 
his ^' Faculty." Weekly meetings were the rule (lasting from two to 
three hours), in which some contiibution was expected or permitted 
from each member of the staff towards the solution of problems 
forced upon their notice by their daily work in teaching and 
training. Character building (or citizenship) was to Colonel Parker 
the end and aim of education ; to gain this everything must 
])e brought in (to the curriculum) which will concentrate and 
expand ideas and develop right habits." Education he believed 
to be " the all-sided growth of the individual, physical, mental, and 
moral. Community hfe is the ideal of education, because it is the 
only ideal great enough to provide for this all-sided development of 
the individual." The ideal school is the ideal community. . . . 
it is the education of complete living." Community life is that 
state of society in which ever}^ individual member orders his ccmduct 
with reference to the good of the whole ; the whole being so con- 
stituted as to necessitate the highest development of its members." 
Consequently the citizen must know something of the w^orld in 
which he lives, and this knowledge comes best from actual contact." 
This being his creed, Colonel Parker framed his school programme 
with the view of giving actual personal experience to each child of 
what has contributed to the existing phase of civilisation. This 
conception of the scope of school education really involves a never- 
ending correlated study of man, his environment, and his works. 
In practice Colonel Parker attached much impoi-tance to the obser- 
vation of a selected subject in its entire environment, and took 
great exception to conventional isolation and classification. His 
whole scheme was further planned in deference to the requirements 
of body and brain at the various periods of growth, so far as at 
present known. To find and arrange subject matter for the mental 
nutrition of each pupil, and for all grades of pupils, was a problem 
still imperfectly solved at the time of his death, but good ground 
had been broken. Life in his school was organised on a basis of 
(i) work, doing things for which the pupils felt a social need ; e.ij.. 



152 



U.S.A. — Private High Schooh 



Possible 
application 
of foregoing 
iiietliodn ill 
England. 



gardening, cooking, working in wood or metal, clay modelling, 
sewing, weaving, printing, etc. ; (2) a study of human acti\'ities 
in the outside world, to help the children to interpret their own 
experiences ; (3) the study of Nature. The domestic sciences and 
arts found a place in the Kindergarten course hecause home acti- 
vities, the common life of the children, furnish opportunities for 
work and service suited to their years, and constitute a desii'able 
addition to pla}^ and games. These subjects appeared in the Primary 
grades Ijecause Colonel Parker believed (a) in the value of the primi- 
tive industi'ies and arts in the early education of children ; and (5) 
in the importance of simple Avork in school economics, sanitation 
and hygiene for the establishment of an ideal of the conditions 
essential to good health in a connnunity. Home economics took its 
place in the Grammar grades as an integral part of the study of 
Nature, and of Man as its highest manifestation. In each case the 
subjects were found to lend themselves as a means for the employ- 
ment of thought and i-eason, for the application of scientific prin- 
ciples, and for the culture of the social instincts. This method of 
introducing the study of economics deserves consideration, 
associating, as it does, the conception of the value of health and 
time, as well as of monev, with the facts and duties of daily 
life. 

It would be unjust to convey the impression that either of these 
(Klucationahsts believe themselves to have realised their ideal in 
])ractice ; itw^ould be equally inaccurate to give the im])ression that 
1 advocate the wholesale adoption of principles and methods so 
admittedly tentative and experimental as those just referred to ; 
but I am of opinion that these conceptions, wisely modified, 
could be introduced into the kindergarten and primary classes 
of many English schools. The educational attractions and 
advantages attached to the employment, as part of school 
work, of famihar, homely occupations for quite young children 
has been hitherto very generally overlooked ; their ethical, 
sociological and economic values for seniors when progressively 
developed is certainly not yet recognised. A careful study of these 
School Programmes will reveal that their contents are selected, 
handled, and developed so as to forge social links between school 
and home, while experience proves that they foster an intelligent 
participation in connnunal life ; two points where, admittedly, 
our educational methods have hitherto proved unsuccessful. 
Acquaintance with subjects bearing on domestic life is largely 
acquired through the exercise of the bodily activities ; these sub- 
jects appeal to the child's limited experience ; they demand thought 
and permit its expression in action ; it is also believed that they 
arouse an interest so strong that it will cheerfully overcome obstacles 
and perseveringly face drudgery and difficulties to achieve realisa- 
tion ; wherein lies their strong claim as formers of character and 
factoi's in the growth of a true communal spirit. Essential to their 
profitable introduction are (1) space, as individual pai'ticipation 



Typical Domestic Science Courses. 



153 



in each occupation is essential, for Avhicli l ejison classes must be 
siiiall ; (2) time, otlierwise informing by the teacher has to replace 
thought and reflection by the child ; (3) elasticity of syllabus and 
confidence in the teaclier by those in authority, to permit of 
thoroughly intelligent ''doing." In the future, when these 
advantages are secured in our schools, teachers can profitably 
devote some attention to these methods of ])roviding for children 
Avhat Eroebel called " the education of complete living." 

There are, relatively, few private Primary and Grammar Schools, Few Private 
though they are found in large cities, such as New York or Detroit, Qj.^^^^ 
but I had no op])ortunit3^ of studying their attitude towards the Schools, 
teaching of Domestic Science. Piivate educational enterpiise or 
endowment more usually finds its outlet in the provision of 
institutions for higher education from the High School upwards. 

B. — High Schools. 

Private High Schools exist mainly in wealthy localities, for 
considerable capital and a large clientele are necessary to compete 
in equipment and efficiency of staff with those State-aided by 
Boards of Education. The growing prejudice in favour of class 
distinction is frequently compelled to give place to the superior 
advantages offered by the j)ublic High School or to the 
obstacle of a high scale of fees. It is of special interest to note the ^^JJ^ggJ-^ 
belief in Hygiene and Home Science as suitable studies in these Science 
private High Schools, where the curriculum is independent oi all out- Courses 
side control, except that exercised by college entrance requirements 
or the whims of parents. This belief promotes the formation of an 
intelligent public opinion among the more wealthy members of 
the community ; for, although the first introduction of these sub- 
jects is stated to be often unpalatable to the parents, the result 
to their children is so speedily apparent as to invariably overcome 
previous objections. 

Notable among the High Schools supported by endowment and (^') Pr^itt 
fees is that attached to the Pratt Institute, Brooldyn, of which the jj'f.^i'^^^^^® 
superintendence is entrusted to ]3r. Luther Giilick, whose views School, 
on education repay careful study, and so far stand Avell the t(*sts Brooklyn, 
of ])i-actice to which th(iy are subjected by their author. Exprc^ssed r^^^j'^ 
in the briefest terms, Dr. C^uhck considers that two of the funda- \xill 
mental conditions to be met by a secondary school are (1) the needs 
of the individual for the development of a fairly rounded character 
and personality ; (2) the demands of society upon the individual. 
" The individual must be developed as an individual with reference 
to his personality. He must also be so trained as to fit into the 
existing world, to take his place in the present social regime . . . 
Health, character, a strong, constructive, sympathetic view of 
life, and the ability to do something that the world wants done, 
these deserve prominence as objects in school life." These vi(nvs 
and the methods by which they seek to find expression harmonise 
with the idea of the founder of the Institute, viz., that boys and girls 



154 



U.&.A. — Private High Schools. 



(a) Pratt should be placed under conditions wliich favour all-round develop- 
in^t^tute uiQnt^ and that school education should consist in the patient, 
School— systematic, and constant training of body and mind. To this end 
continued. manual and physical training, art training and laboratory work 
are given equal rank and standing with the academic studies ; 
health, jxjwer, and a wholesome, earnest attitude towards work 
being essential to the realisation of the ideas of both founder and 
director. A second aim is to help each pupil to discover his gifts 
and to start him in their eflt'ective development ; while, with the 
object of encouraging all Avho can to continue their work at college, 
it is endeavoured to frame a scheme such as shall enable those who 
desire to do so to meet college entrance requirements. The accom- 
panying diagrammatic illustration of the studies and occupations 
pursued during this four years High School course shows how these 
rec[uirements are met ; though naturally it is impossible to indicate 
by means of any figure the atmosphere of social claims and interests 
which surrounds the young people, or the methods employed to 
temper, while seeking to develop, the individuality of each boy and 
girl. The school is open to all children of fourteen, who, in Dr. 
Gtilick's judgment, are ready, physically, mentally, and morally, 
to profit by the work, without interfering with the progress of 
others. The greatest sympathy is felt for those in feeble health, 
but the amount of woi'k, both physical and mental, is planned for 
the best development of the normal child, and ^^'Ould be excessive 
for the delicate. A standard of normal height, weight, and health 
must be therefore conformed to. 

The school day is divided into six periods of fifty minutes each ; 
one-half of the time is given to academic work in languages and 
the humanities, in mathematics, and in science ; the other half 
is devoted to music, art, and manual training, laboratory practice 
and gymnastics. The n:ianual training, to which six periods a week 
are devoted throughout the curriculum, comprises, in the first year, 
bench-work in w^ood and wood-carving for boys and girls alike ; 
in the second year it consists, for boys, of wood-turning, pattern 
making and moulding, ; for girls, of sewing, drafting, cutting and 
making garments, some study of materials being also included. 
In the third year, boys take forging and the elements of decorative 
iron-work ; while the girls study form, line, colour, and texture, 
and the outline and proportions of the human figure. They also 
practice costume designing (sketching hats, draperies, and gowns, 
half life size), and devote some time to millinery. In the fourth 
year the boys attend the machine shop, learning bench-w^ork and the 
use of machine tools ; and the girls are instructed in domestic science, 
wliich comprises cookery, emei'gencies and home nursing. No 
pains are spared to teach accuracy, economy, patience, judgment, 
and perseverance throughout the whole course. It is maintained 
by Pratt Institute teachers that after a year's " drill " in wood-work, 
needlework may be so taught as to veritably merit the designation 
of manual training. Their system of instruction is framed to 



Typical Domestic Science Courses. 155 



TABLE XXIII. 
PRATT INSTITUTE HIGH SCHOOL 
Four years' course showing proportion of total course given to each subject. 




U.S.A. — Private High Schools. 



(a.) Pratt train the eye to recognise, the liand to produce, correct lines and 
^strtute angles, as in niatchijig stripes, turning hems, sewing seams, slanting 
School — stitches, cutting gores from an ol^lojig, drafting and machine 
continued. sewing. In dressmaking comes the additional study of beautiful 
foim, colour, and texture in relation to clothing of tlie body and 
some knowledge of the intimate connection between the laws of 
beauty and the laws of health. Millinery methods are considered to 
develop lightness of touch and skilful handling of materials, and may 
be employed in training the imagination to picture the desired 
result." So far as my observations extended, these aims are kept 
very steadily in view during the two years occupied ^vith. the study 
of plain needlework, dressmaking, and millinery ; indeed, the 
primarily educational purpose of the manual and art training in this 
High School is very evident throughout. Dr. Gtilick believes that 
there should be no division between the A\ ork of the artist and that 
of the artisan, therefore a close connection is maintained bet^^'een 
the studio, the " shop," and the sewing-room. The girls especially 
are unquestionably much interested by this development of the 
educative and culture side of a pursuit, often treated with contempt 
at their age on account of its utilitarian aspect being over emphasised. 

I was fortunate in securing very full particulars concerning tlie 
year's training in Domestic Science ; and the following details are 
couched chiefly in the words of Mrs. Chambers, who was the director 
of all the cooking classes and courses given in the Pratt Institute 
at the time of my visit. An earnest student of the best educational 
methods, she agrees with many other teachers in their belief that 
the educational value of cooking as a school subject lies as much in 
its mind as in its manual training properties. " In Pratt Institute 
an attempt is made to teach cookery scientifically, the main object 
of the course is the development of the student through the subject 
taught. While constantly stimulated to aj^ply her knowledge of 
chemistry, ph3^sics and biology, the lesson is so planned that these 
applications are suggested l)y the work, not by the instructor. For 
instance, at the beginning of a lesson the student may perform 
under dire(;tion certain simple experiments to illustrate the effect 
of the addition of salt or of soda on the solvent ])roperties of water, 
or of an acid on cellulose, etc. She may then be asked to cook 
various classes of A Cgetables, sweet juiced, strong jui(;etl, etc., or the 
problem of cooking a cabbage may be given, a vegetable with both 
strong juices and tough cellulose, entire freedom in treatment 
of the water being allowed ; but each student must subsequently 
support the method she has pursued by sound reasons, Avhile results 
are compared and conclusions deduced hy the whole class." In the 
course of an interesting article on her methods in the Pi-att Institute 
Monthly for March, 1900, Mrs. Chambers threw hght on how she 
stimulated her students' powers of reflection and association : — 

They are encouraged, for instance, " to trace the probable history 
of cooking, from broiling directly over the coals to the skilful applica- 
tion of heat in oven or braising pan ; from the crude combination 
of meal and wetting of water and milk, as in ' johnny-cake,' to the 



Typical Domestic Science Courses. 



157 



beating in of air, as in ' gems,' or the addition of egg, as in ' pop-over.' (a) Pratt 
They are led on to observe the advantages which follow the substitu- Institute 
tion of some leavennig agent for the prolonged labour of beating, as High School 
in griddle-cake or crumpet ; or the variety gairied by the addition of — continued. 
a little shortening, and the use of a utensil calculated to give a large 
extent of crisp surface, as in ' waffles.' They are called upon to note 
the well-defined relation which is traceable in all the various flour 
mixtures, and are made observant of the dependence for successful 
results upon the use of a definite proportion of wetting, dry material 
and leaven. A student who has found the key to this can form her 
own combhiations by the exercise of thought, independently of the 
cookery-book, confident that by uniting materials in right proportions, 
and by exposing them for the right time to the right temperature, 
something good and wholesome will result. Has too much flour been 
added to the gem-batter 1 Well, change it to waffles, to biscuit, to 
raised muffins. When the subject is taught on this basis the student 
is given the recipes for various batters and doughs, but not in order, 
for she is to assort and classify them, and to discover the relation. 
Then let her take the cookery-book and study some other branch, such 
as soups, or sauces, or puddings, and trace the connection, the evolution 
for herself. A white sauce, made of milk, thickened with flour and 
enriched by butter, may be developed into a souffle, which also is made 
of milk, thickened with flour and enriched by batter, but is further 
enriched by the yolks of eggs, and is flavoured and baked. White 
sauce may, by other additions which are governed in character by the 
result desired, lead to American ice-cream, thence to pistachio bisque, 
or to a frozen plum-pudding. Each one is free to trace his own com- 
binations, and each has the joy of the investigator, the discoverer, the 
creator of order out of disorder." Mrs. Chambers encourages the 
making of graphic representations to illustrate these relations and 
proportions, a method found very stimulating to children. For in- 
stance, in the Cake lesson, in which the cup-cake can be used as a 
suitable foundation, the several varieties made by subtraction, addition, 
or substitution can be illustrated by a simple diagram. The accom- 
panying illustration"^ is here reproduced by kind permission of Mrs, 
Chambers. No. 1 represents the cup-cake, with the varieties made 
by subtraction, resulting in plainer cakes of the same type ; No. 2 
(raisin, currant, fig, date, citron, nut, chocolate, and spice cakes), the 
varieties made by addition, resulting in richer cakes, more or less 
divergent from the type ; and No. 3 (gold, silver, and coffee cake), 
those made by s\ibstitution, Avhich gives apparently totally different 
types of cake, resembling neither one another nor the original batter, 
yet possessing an easily traced relationship. The plan once mastered, 
the children are called upon, as a " time exercise," to write out in 
detail the ingredients needed for a nut-cake, or any other variety, 
using for a l^asis a fraction, as three-eighths, of a cup of flour. If 
correct they are allowed to make a small specimen. ..." Out 
of more than thirty children in the last Saturday (mixed) morning 
class only two or three failed in the first attempt, and none in the 
second. They may then be given a number of simple recipes, and 
asked to make a graphic representation for themselves. Much 
originality and ingenuity have been shown in this work." 

In conjunction with this pupils are encouraged to note, from the 
beghming, the properties of the various materials used ; whether 
soluble or insoluble, how affected by heat, how by acids, etc. This 
leads to a classification of foods, and eventually into the separation 
of the five-food principles — protein, fat, carbo-hydrates, water and salt. 
Instruction is given in the right propoi tion of nutrients to meet 
the needs of the body, simple dietetic rules are formulated, and students 

* See Fig. V. 



158 



U.S.A. — Private High Schools. 



FIG. V. 

"CAKE" DIAGRAM. 

Ke])roduced by kind permisyion from " The Pratt Institute Mon 
Marcli 1900. 

A/0. I. 



fOR2TSR 
OR OTHER 



VANILLA 
EXTRACT. 



BUTTER 
aiBSP-/ CUP 



SUGAR 

1-2 CUPS 



BAKINQ 
5-6 



POWDER 
TSP. - 



MILK 
'/2~l CUP 




BUTTER 
f/s-fCUP. 



SUGAR 
2 CUPS 



No. 2. 



RA/S/NS 
CITRON 
NUTS 
CHOCOLATE 
SPICES 



1-2 CUPS, 
i/z-l CUPS 
1-2 CUPS. 
'/z-l/zCUPS 
/-J TBSPS 




BAKINQ 
S-6 



POWDER 
TSP. 



MILK 

OR MOLASSES 

'/2 CUP. 



4 EGGS 



No. 5. 



BUTTER 
I CUP. 



SUGAR 
2 CUPS 




BAKING POWDER 
S' 6 TSP. 



MILK OR 
COFFEE . 



I WHOLE EGG 
AND 7 YOLKS, 
OR 8 WHITES. 



Typical Domestic Science Courses. 



150 



are enabled to estimate correctly which food principle is in excess, (a) Pratt 
which is lacking, in each new recipe, and what other dishes should Institute 
be used with it in order to complete a well-balanced meal." High School 

The High School girls have the advantage over the Saturday class, —c^^^^^^^^^- 
to which the last joart of the above extract refers, in that the cookery 
they practise is based upon the knowledge the}' ha^'S previously 
gained in elementary ])iol()gy, j)liysiology, physics and chemistry. 
Miss Edith Greer, Directress of the Domestic Science Department, 
and Mrs. (Chambers told jne that the girls are delighted with the 
opportunities offered for the api)lication of their other studies. The 
scientific method of treatment first arouses " sheer amazement by 
the field of interest it opens up ; and this feeling is i-apidh' succeeded 
by a satisfactory enthusiasm. " The High School girl finds a new 
interest in both kitchen and laboi-atory when she applies her know- 
ledge of the expansion of gases to the rising or falling of her cup-cake, 
and when she is led to reason out the best way of cookhig vegetables 
from her knowledge of the degree of solubility of mineral salts." 
The High School cooking classes consist of from twenty to tbii'ty 
* girls ; last year (1901) they were conducted by Mrs. Chambers her- 
self, without assistance ; she confessed that to superintend the 
practical work of so large a class, which came to her without previous 
training, taxed all her capacity No outside work was exj^ected or 
required of the pupils, lout well kept, systematic note-books were 
insisted u])on, to assist in the development of methodical, scientific 
habits. The arrangement of this High School course differs in some 
respects from that in general use ; but the Directress was true to 
her conviction that the allowance of time for somewdiat experimental 
work by the pupil, demanding observation and concentration of 
attention, is more profitable than the rapid and correct execution 
of a given number of dishes, so carefully superintended that 
failure, with all the valuable lessons it covers, is im])0ssible. 

The course opened with the cooking of eggs in various 
ways, so that the pupil might gain, through her own experience, 
information as to the behaviour of albumen under a variety 
of conditions, of which the hnal application was carried on, 
without the teacher's assistance, in the manufacture of different 
dishes. Yov example, a recipe was given for " water custard " ; 
oljservation showed that the egg and water must be combined 
in a definite i)roportion to ensure right consistency ; that 
the use of sugar as a condiment to suit individual tastes must 
be regulated with judgment ; that without care in the application 
of heat at a certain temperature, failure was inevitable. The 
next lesson, which included the making of egg lemonade, drew 
attention to another characteristic of albumen, that it is 
coagulated by acid as Avell as by heat. Subsequent lessons continued 
the study somewhat as follows : No. 3, stuffed egg, seasoiKMl and 
])Ounded; i)ractical point, albumen is toughened by high temjiera- 
tures ; No. 4, eggs cooked by jooming boiling water u])on them and 
allowing them to stand (a) 8 minutes, (/;) 20 minutes. Examina- 



C.S.A. — Private Hl(jk Schools. 



tion showed that the yolk coagulated at a lower temperature than 
the white. No. 5, the making of meringue ; observation demon- 
strated that the white of egg will hold air when beaten, whereas the 
yolk will not become tenacious by this means. A series of experi- 
ments was subsequently introduced to ascertain more exactly the 
solubility of albumen and the exact temperature at which the 
various changes occur in the yolk and white ; after which the girls 
were given some attractive recipes with eggs to carry out by them- 
selves, which demanded intelligent application of the principles 
just learned. Gelatine was next taken, studied by similar methods, 
and the results compared with the knowledge of albumen gained 
in previous lessons ; the double application derived from intimate 
acquaintance with the properties of both substances was then 
demanded, for example, in the cooking of fish. The girls would be 
asked to solve the problem of boiling this successfnlly, knowing that 
the albumen is soluble in cold water, the gelatinous fibres in hot. 
Later on in the course they would be asked what substances are 
needed to supply the nutrients lacking in fish, and required to 
combine these substances in a soup, a sauce, or a pudding, to accom- 
pany the fish, adding condiments to enhance or to supplement 
flavour. Thus as the work advanced the knowledge gained w^ould be 
constantly used for the purpose of acquii-ing further information, 
always to be tested by practice, the pupils being encouraged to discuss 
and to try various methods of procedure, after preliminary observa- 
tions and experiments ; these being made in test tubes with very 
small quantities of material. Space does not permit me to indicate in 
detail the interesting and thorough manner in which the structure 
and properties of meat were similarly studied. Carbohydrates were 
subjected to the same method of observation, while in the case of 
sugar the attention directed to how far cooking changes might be 
carried, introduced the causes and control of fermentation. Lessons 
on fats followed ; illustrations of the power of combination, emulsi- 
fication, decomposition, under certain conditions, etc., being found 
in dishes, such as velvet cream, clotted cream, toasted bacon, etc. 
Water and its quah ties were considered before vegetables and their 
cooking, in order that advantage might be taken of the opportimities 
offered in the cooking of vegetables to apply the lessons learned 
as to the effect of the use of hard or soft water in kitchen pro- 
cesses. Salts were left for the latter part of the course, because it 
was considered that their intelligent study demanded some acquaint- 
ance with chemistry, and the girls, who had meanwhile been 
continuing their general biology and chemistry courses, should 
have become competent at this stage to detect the presence of 
phosphates in wheat, potash in potatoes, etc., and were expected to 
be intelligently interested in their preservation in the chief salt- 
containing foods. A study of the general nutrition of the body 
and its metabolism, and of well-balanced diets, was carried on 
concurrently, so that the end of the year's work found these girls 
of seventeen and eighteen intelligently trained and genuinely 



Tyficd Domestic Science Courses. 



101 



interested in the fodd question, upon which the well-being of 
famihes so largely depends. Keports from mothers " are constantly 
received " expressing their surprise at the appetite created for 
practical work at home by this course in the High School. There 
seems to be a steadily increasing recognition on the part of the 
parents that the school can fitly provide a part of that education 
which used to be more generally furnished by home life ; and they 
readily admit that a decided impulse towards a higher estimate 
of household skill is given indirectly by their own increasing reali- 
sation of the value of these subjects as a profession, when properly 
studied. A wise emphasis is laid in this particular course upon 
nursery hygiene. The question of accommodation and equip- 
ment for this work presents no difficulties in this case, for though 
the High School is in a separate building from the Institute, the 
laboratories and workshops of the Technical Department, are open 
to, and used by, the High School students. 

An interesting departure was that initiated, some three years {h) Girl^' 
ago, in t»he Girls' Classical School at Indianapolis, of which the prin- Classical 
cipal is Mrs. May Wright Sewall, president of the International jj^^-^^/^'. 
Council of Women. In some respects this school is unique ; the apolis. 
courses of study are planned on somewhat broader and even more 
flexible lines than are usual in High Schools ; among the advan- 
tages are to be included opportunities for individual instruction 
consequent upon small classes, the intimate acquaintance formed 
by the principal with all her pupils, and the facilities offered to 
weak and backward students. Careful supervision and direction 
extends even to the uniform dress worn by the girls, which is 
suitably simple and thoroughly healthful. A commodious two- 
storey addition has been made to the building for the special accom- 
modation of the Household Science Department, the organisation 
of which was entrusted to a graduate of the Drexel Institute, 
Philadelphia. Its establishment was entirely the result of Mrs. M. 
Wright Sewall's own initiative ; not at all in response to, indeed 
rather contrary to, existing public opinion. Her object in taking 
the step Avas to give to well-born and Avell-bred girls, whose cir- 
cumstances in life relieve them from the necessities of household 
work, a respect for labour, a comprehension of the skilled Avork 
demanded by domestic duties and an insight into the degree to 
AA^hich applied science may lighten daily household claims, turning 
drudgery into delight." Evidently the danger of a contempt 
arising on the part of the well-to-do for hand labour is 
not confined to one nation or to one hemisphere; so, as her OAvn 
pupils are drawn chiefly from Avealthy homes, Mrs. Sewall Avisely 
set herself to direct their attention to the hygienic, economic and 
aesthetic claims and possibilities of household science, in order 
effectually to counteract this regrettable tendency. Practice 
classes in cooking, one hour per Aveek, are open to all school pupils, 
but the full course of study covers two years, and, in common Avith 
many other subjects, is electiA^e." This complete two-year course 

6490. L 



162 



U.S.A. — Private High Schools. 



(b) Girls' of study inchides two lessons a week of one hour each, one of which 
Classical fg devoted to theory and one to practice. During the first two 
indiaii years of its existence about twenty-five per cent, of those eligible to 
apolis elect the subject took the work ; these pupils showed much en- 

—continneJ. thusiasm and apparently real pleasure and profit were derived from 
the course. The work of the department is carried on in the new, 
admirably equipped kitchen and workrooms ; it is related, so far as 
is possible, with that of the other departments in the school, par- 
ticularly with that carried on in physical culture, drawing and 
natural science ; the educational and disciplinary values are specially 
emphasised. During the first year the work was limited to that of 
the kitchen and dining room ; the instruction covered the subjects 
of foods, marketing, cooking, the cleansing and care of utensils, 
and the serving of meals. Subsequently systematic instruction 
was introduced in laundry work ; in the care of bedrooms ; in 
house ventilation, heating and general sanitation ; in the simple 
principles of nursing ; in the care of the sick and emergencies ; 
in plain sewing, dressmaking and millinery. Pupils are 
required to carry out practically only that for which they have 
already learnt good reason exists ; and, under their teacher's 
guidance, they endeavour to demonstrate the utility of the facts 
and laws previously presented in theory. As has been stated, the 
course is elective, but permission to elect it is regarded as a recog- 
nition of good standing in other classes and is esteemed a privi- 
lege. The charges to pupils in regular attendance are reduced 
to the lowest amount that will cover the cost of the materials used 
and of the expensive equipment provided for conducting the work, 
viz., $10 (£2) per year. 

An " applied science " course for students of Household 
Economics is still in its infancy, but is reported to promise 
well for the future. It covers two years ; during the first 
of these there is one three-hour lesson per week in cookery, 
one hour's theoretical lecture, and three periods of laboratory 
work in chemistry, physics, and physiology ; in the second year 
there are two lessons in theory and only two periods of laboratory 
work in chemistry and physiology ; this course entails really hard 
work on its students. Mrs. Sewall tells me that, by its means, 
she hopes to impress on her girls that " skill is important, but of 
even more importance to them than skill, is a consciousness of the 
fact that the principles inculcated in this work are fundamental ; 
and that their right comprehension materially affects the attitude 
of the mind towards the work of women, and particularly towards 
domestic interests." 

.To that proportion of the general public who may be interested 
in household science, opportunity is also given to increase their 
scientific knowledge of home subjects and their skill in house- 
keeping and home-making by means of adult classes. For these, 
courses of lectures on physiology, hygiene, house sanitation, nursing, 
emergencies, marketing, food values, table servic^e, etc., are pro- 



Typical Domestic Science Courses. 



163 



vided. Classes are organised, limited to ten students, for those 
who wish to supplement the theory thus obtained by practice 
in cooking ; those who desire laboratory instruction may join 
the school classes in applied science. In general outline the 
subject matter presented to the regular school classes and to these 
classes of adults is identical, but the treatment is modified in detail, 
condensed or expanded, to suit the age, understanding, and present 
attainments of those in attendance. 

In order to emphasise the evident tendency to direct the atten- (c) Home 
tion of all social grades to this important subject of Household g^^^^f ^ 
Science, I propose to refer, very briefly, to another excellent Detroit, 
illustration of the success which attends the introduction of 
the subject into schools where extra expense accompanies its pur 
suit. The Home and Day School at Detroit was opened in 1876 by 
the Rev. James D. Liggett and his daughters ; it is now installed in 
an ijnposing building situated in the pleasantest part of the city, 
and is attended by upwards of three hundred boys and girls of 
varying ages. The school comprises four departments, Kinder- 
garten, Primary, Intermediate, and Academic or High ; the first 
three are co-educational ; about thirty girls find accommodation 
as boarders. The new department of Domestic Science was opened 
in September, 1900, when classes were organised in sewing and 
cooking. Sewuig is taught in four grades, which include the three 
years in the Intermediate department and the first year in the 
Academic. Two periods a week are given to the work, of which 
the aim is to give manual training, and to set high standards for 
fine work. The course in the first year covers simple stitches 
carried out by hand ; from these the girls pass on to machine work 
and make underwear and blouses, for which they take their own 
measurements and draft their own patterns. The objects of the 
work done in the Domestic Science kitchen are threefold : — (1) 
to acquire skill in preparation of foods ; (2'l to study the nutritive 
value of food ; (3) to study the chemical composition of foods. The 
kitchen is a large, bright room, with complete equipment for sixteen 
individual workers. The tables provide a drawer for each student, 
containing all necessary utensils, and a gas-burner, over which 
most of the cooking is done ; a sink with hot and cold water is 
fitted to each table ; a coal range contains the oven which is used 
in common by all ; while a full dining-room equipment gives 
opportunity for serving a dinner or luncheon at the end of each 
term, to demonstrate the knowledge and skill acquired during 
that imw. The cour'se is to extend through four year's in tlie 
Academic department, and is planned along good lines. Simple 
cooking in the first year leads to . food analysis, and later on to 
chemical and bacteriological examination of foods. Students 
throughout give two periods a week to the work, which is optional ; 
at the time of my visit it had been elected by one-third of the 
girls, A very promising foundation for this course is laid by 
previous studies ; elementary science (chemistry, physics, geology, 

6490. L 2 



164 



U.S.A. — Private High Schools. 



meteorology, &c.) is introduced in connection with nature study 
(which enters largely into the time-table of the lower grades), 
and is subsequently differentiated into distinct subjects ; all 
the studies included in the curriculum are entrusted to really 
competent teachers. I must not omit mention of a practice 
which also undoubtedly contributes to the efficiency of the 
teaching carried on in this school, namely, the frequent meetings 
held by the large staff of teachers, with the express object of 
maintaining an intelligent correlation between the subject or 
subjects for which each is responsible with other studies con- 
ducted by his or her colleagues. 
(d) Boston 1 was interested to learn that useful work in the form of 
?^^)endix*D ^^^^^'^^^ lessons in Household Science is done in Boston 
. ppen IX • jjjg]^ Schools by Miss S. Maria Elliott. These, though chiefly 
theoretical in character, in consequence of the conditions under 
which they are admitted to a place in the school programmes, 
have served a very good purpose ; they have aroused interest 
among the pu])ils and their parents, they have attracted the 
attention of the authoi'ities to a satisfactory extent, and ha\e 
awakened a desire for more j^ractical knowledge among the 
pupils. Miss Maria Elliott is herself well vei*sed in both the 
theory and practice of her subject, and is further skilled in its 
]H-esentation from the standjioint of experience. The syllabus of 
three of her courses is included to illustrate the sco})e and selection 
of subjects which her experience has shown her to be both service- 
able and attracti\'e, where but a limited time is allowed for such 
studies and where attendance is ojDtional. Miss Elliott's pioneer 
efforts in this direction have throughout received substantial 
support from the Association of College Alumnue, to whose initia- 
tive Boston owes so much of its educational and sanitary reform 
and ])rogress ; while they have so far assisted to form public opinion 
that the City Board of Education had under contemplation, at the 
time of my visit, the provision of a practical High School couree in 
the subject of Household Economics. In this may be found a 
further example of the fact to which reference was made in the 
early pages of this Ee])ort, that private enterprise has almost 
invaria])ly paved the way for the adoption of every branch of 
Domestic Science into the curriculum of State-aided schools. 
I^ygien^eand With reference to the teaching of hygiene and physiology in 
Courses^^^ ]^rivate schools, space will permit me to refer only to the excellent 
Horace methods employed in the Horace Mann School. This can be done 
Mann in part by extracts from the Teachers College Record " for 

'^^^^^^^'^J^.^^'^' March, 1900, and January, 1901. This school is attached to 
^ ^* Teachers College, Columbia University, N.Y., f^r the purposes of 
practice and observation. It comprises three departments, a kin- 
dergarten, an elementary and a secondary school, and is now 
housed in magnificent new buildings designed to be in all respects 
models of their kind. Hygiene and physiology are associated with 
nature study in tlie two lower departments and with biology 



Hygiene and Physiology CouTsets. 



165 



in the High school. In describing the course in nature study, Horace 
Professor Francis E. Lloyd writes as follows ; "In general, Mann 
we conclude, that the aim of nature study is to prepare the |p y^q' 
individual for life by training his mental power of observation ^-continued. 
and of generalisation, by deepening and rationalising his emotional 

life, and by increasing his social worth." Nature 

study at first must find its material in the immediate environ- 
ment of the child, and as the mental grasp strengthens and 
the mental horizon broadens, new sources are made available. 
We believe that this is an important principle, for in this way the 
home and the school life can be woven together in the life of the 

child." After draAving attention to the special 

correlation with other studies emphasised in each grade, Prof. 
Lloyd concludes : In the eighth grade a serious attempt has 
been made to introduce a course embod3ang the essentials 
of physiology, meaiung thereby not merely the study of the 
human body, but strictly the essentials of both animal and 
plant physiology. This is done because we believe that such a 
course is of much more value educationally, bringing out, as 
it should do, the essential unity of animal and plant physiology 
than the usual course in physiology and hygiene. That idea of 
physiology which makes it for the most part the study of the 
two hundred odd bones in the human frame, leads us to believe 
that it is time to begin on a new tack. It must not be thought, 
however, that the course is not aiming at the human aspect of 
the study, for it is of profound importance that students should 
have accurate information concerning the workings of their own 
bodies. Furthermore, there could hardly be a better preparation 
for the work in biology, soon to follow in the High School, than 
the training given in such a course." . . . 

I learnt on enquiry that the simplest principles of hygiene are 
introduced throughout the grades, not alone in connection with 
the study of animal and plant life, but successfully also in 
connection with elementary science ; for the elder children the 
principles of diffusion, solution and chemical change are directly 
applied in human physiology. 

The "Teachers College Record" for January, 1901, discusses 
in detail the High School Course in Biology, which is made the 
medium for a more advanced study of physiology and hygiene. 
Again, a few extracts will best serve to indicate the general 
lines by which ])upils are led on from the physiology of the lower 
to that of the higher forms of life. The importance of 
interpreting the activities of the human body from the com- 
parative standjioint seems sufficient reason for advocating 
the consideration of the fundamental principles of physio- 
logical action in connection with the study of elementary 
zoology. Experience has convinced the writers that there is 
no more profitable study for secondary pupils than the physio- 
logical side of animals. No other phase of zoological study 



166 U.S.A. — Private Institutions for Training Teachers. 



arouses a deeper interest and appreciation or is more spontaneously 
applied by them in connection with their own life activities. It is 
scarcely necessary to offer a stronger reason for including such 
study in an elementary course." ..." The principles of 
physiology should be introduced with the first animal which is 
studied morphologically, and each principle as introduced should 
receive concrete application. The study can easily and quickly be 
made comparative, as successive types of animals are taken up ; 
and, finally, such specific and comparative studies may be made tc 
lead to a direct application of the principles of comparative physio- 
logy to the activities of the human body." . . . 

Four periods a week, of forty-five minutes each, are given to 
this subject. The first half of the year is devoted to the zoo- 
logical part of the course, followed by botany in the second half. 
It was desired to extend this time, and to do so would add 
materially to the value of the whole course. This interconnection 
of hygiene with nature study, chemistry, physics, and biology 
seems to me essentially the right method; the influence of 
heredity, environment and nutrition upon the highest as well as 
upon lower forms of life is emphasised ; human physiology is 
robbed of any subjective aspect; concrete applications for the 
theories of science and art suggest themselves naturally; and 
while the time-table is impregnated with an atmosphere of hygiene 
it is not burdened with an additional, isolated subject. To those 
who are in agreement with me I strongly i-ecommend a careful 
study of the two publications from which the above extracts are 
made, and from which I offer one more quotation before quitting the 
subject. Professor Lloyd has been detailing and supporting his 
outline scheme in botany ; he concludes his arguments as follows — 
" There is a further point of importance in that the very natural 
and essential facts about the subject of sexual reproduction may 
be made a part of the knowledge of young students. Such 
knowledge, it is believed, helps to Hft them to a normal conception 
of a question which is in the young mind very frequently befogged 
and distorted to the pronounced detriment of the moral nature." 

The above selection of examples of the adoption of Domestic 
Science and Hygiene as an integral part of their programme by 
private schools of high standing could be much increased ; but it 
will, I hope, suffice to show the strong conviction of the importance 
of the subject held by independent persons, and the possibility of 
finding time for the study where there is first " a wiUing mind." 

C. — Institutions for Training Teachers in Domestic Science. 
Teachers in Teachers of Household Science obtain their training chiefly at 
Household Technical Institutes, which usually comprise many other depart- 
Science and ments, though at least one Normal course is offered at an institute 
(a^TheOr ^^^'^^^•^ entirely to this subject. Considerable attention has been 
Institute^^^ attracted to the Oread Institute, by its publications as well as by the 
Table XXIV. generosity of its present owner. It was originally founded and built 



Training of Teachers in Household Science and Art. 167 



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Principal, 
Miss Harriet 
Higbee. 


Institui 
Worcest( 
Mass. 


Domestic S( 
Normal Cc 



108 U.S.A. — Private Imtkations for Trammg Teaclicns. 



iit Worcester by Hon. Eli Thayer, a graduate of Brown Univei-sity, 
and was opened by him in 1848 as the first institution of higher 
education for women in Massachusetts ; it was continued as a 
school until the early eighties. The property was subsequently 
bought by Mr. Henry D. Perky, the philanthropic manufacturer 
of the Shredded Wheat " preparations, who converted it into 
the existing Oread Institute of Domestic Science. Of the forty 
students who took the course during the past year twenty-nine 
had the advantage of free scholarships ; the fee to those who pay 
for their training is S200 (£40) ; the number of applicants for 
the course was stated to be 600. The building has been thoroughly 
remodelled, and is now supplied with the latest systems of drainage 
and water supply. It is heated by steam, lit by electricity, and is 
furnished with all modern apparatus for gymnastic, laboratory, 
and experimental work, as well as for general instruction in all 
branches of household economy. No expense has been spared in 
the provision of equipment ; the great kitchen laboratory, science 
laboratory, and gymnasium are situated above each other on the 
three floors of one of the two circular towers, 40 feet in diameter, 
which form a distinctive feature of the building. The kitchen is 
open to \'isitors, a special gallery being provided for their acconnno- 
dation, in order that the students may not be conscious of interrup- 
tion. As the attem])t is made to cover in one year the course of 
study usually spread over at least two, more generally thi'ee, it is 
essential tha t the students be in a condition to acquire a considerable 
body of knowledge under j^ressure. In view of this necessity, the 
requirements for admission to the school lay stress on — (1) good 
health, to enable the student to stand a regime of industrious 
application and very hard work ; (2) maturity, which is so largely 
an individual matter that a minimum age limit is not rigidly fixed, 
but in general candidates between twenty-two and thirty-five 
years of age are preferred ; (3) academic training. The full course 
in a High School, or its equivalent, is deemed an adequate academic 
j)reparation ; the faculty, however, judge each application on its 
merits, not according to an arbitrary standard. Some acquaintance 
with the following subjects is held desirable : elementary physics, 
chemistry and physiology ; mathematics, including arithmetic, 
geometry, and algebra ; English and American history. The 
regular school year consists of two terms of twenty weeks each. 
Two training courses are offered — the Domestic Course and the 
Normal Course — each extending over a similar period of time. The 
first includes general care of the house, general cooking, laundry 
work, a short course on marketing and lectures on the history and 
chemistry of foods, infants' and invalid cookery and emergency 
work, but omits the science and special lecture work included in 
the second. 

The Normal students are at work from 8.30 a.m. to 5.45 p.m., 
and are further required to devote five evenings a week to study — 
from 7.30 to 9 p.m. In addition to this, each girl is responsible 



Trainmg oj Teachers in Household Science and Art. 169 



for the arrangement of her own bedroom, and groups of girls are 
appointed to attend to the service of meals. Only three-quarters of 
an hour are allotted to air and exercise, though each student must, 
in addition, spend a quarter of an hour in the open air before going 
to bed. It is reported that the practical house-work, as well as 
that in the kitchen and laundry, are better carried out than the 
laboratory practice, though this is much appreciated. Much stress 
is laid on individual work in all studies. Practice work in 
teaching is obtained by means of the special classes offered to 
adults and children, as well as by those given in the schools of 
Worcester. Each student has also to give a specimen lecture 
and a practical lesson in each science before her companions, her 
subject being assigned to her. 

The comprehensive syllabus shows a just appreciation of the 
scope of training desirable; but, in s])ite of the long hours devoted 
by the students to their studies, the crowded curriculum must 
nullify its own object, too much being demanded in the limited 
time. The Principal is so much interested in the organisation of 
this work, of which she desires to promote the practical utility, that 
it is to be hoped the period of Normal training, at least, will shortly 
be doubled in length. The physical and mental strain to which the 
young women are subjected, and to which their appearance, to my 
eyes, bore witness, is not the only matter for regret. To lower the 
prestige of a subject by entrusting it to insufficiently-equipped 
teachers is a matter of real moment where public opinion is still in 
process of formation. It is in this connection that I foresee that 
the desirable time extension will be made, for the exceedingly 
high standard attained by the graduates in Household Science at 
Teachers College, Columbia University, or at the Pratt and Drexel 
Institutes, necessitates that other Normal courses, in the interests 
of their future diplomees, must follow in the steps of those at 
these prominent institutions. 

Tlie work of the Oread Institute is not confined to its two groups 
of resident students ; special classes for clubs, teachers, house- 
keepers, domestics and cooks, are offered in afternoons or evenings 
as most convenient ; twelve weekly lessons in classes of fifteen each 
being given for fees of $5 (£1) and $3 (12s. 6d.) respectively. A 
kindergarten department has also been formed in connection 
with the Institute, where mothers may send their children from 
four years of age ''to be instructed in the A B C of proper food 
w hile they are also learning the A B C of language." The children 
are taught, through games, to set and clear a table, wash dishes, 
sweep a room, make a bed, &c. ; a weekly fee of 75 cents (about 
3s.) is charged. A class for older children, from 10 to 12, is given 
on Saturdays, at a fee of 25 cents (about Is.) per lesson. Course 
for private individuals are also offered in sewing and home 
dressmaking. 

The Normal course at the Boston Cooking School, which extends Boston 
from the first Monday in January to the last Friday in June (a Cooking 
Bix months' course of two sessions daily, even Saturday afternoon School. 



1 70 U.S.A. — Private Instihdiovs for Training Teachers. 



(b) Boston being occasionally claimed) is another illustration of a short 
Schoof^^ training, though it is by no means so ambitious as that just 
continued described at the Oread Institute, practice being confined to the 
kitchen and laundry. The course includes instruction in all 
branches of cookery and laundry work, with lectures and examina- 
tions in marketing, the physiology of digestion, hygiene, chemistry, 
bacteriology, psychology, and pedagogy. Special attention is 
given to the arrangement of lessons in cookery adapted to public 
school and hospital work, which include plans for kitchen equip- 
ment and the purchase of utensils and supplies. The Normal 
students are admitted to all demonstrations, and lectures given 
at the School, and when sufficiently advanced are required to 
give demonstrations before their companions, who subsequently test 
and criticise the dishes. Diplomas are awarded to those who pass 
the required examinations and satisfactorily meet the require- 
ments of the course. A High school education is the essential 
qualification for admission, though more advanced studies are 
advantageous, especially previous attendance at a Normal School. 
I was told that several college graduates were taking the course 
in 1901. There is a steadily increasing demand, at good salaries, 
for qualified women, and graduates are helped to secure })Ositions 
at hospitals and institutions, either for teaching or for supervision, 
in Grade schools and elsewhere. Grade school teachers follow this 
course occasionally to take a diploma in cooking. The Principal 
also told me that, owing to the number of good openings offered, 
several women previously engaged in office work have saved 
enough money to support themselves while they took the coui-se, 
w^ith subsequent satisfactory pecuniary results. The tuition fees 
are $125 (about £26), payable one half in advance, the balance 
at the middle of the term. Board and lodging may be obtained 
near the school at the Y.W.C.A., the boarding-house for students, 
or in private families, at rates varying from S5 (£1) to $9 
(£1 15s.) per week, according to accommodation. Each pupil must 
be provided with light w^ashing dresses, full-belted white aprons, 
sleeves and caps to be w^orn at the school. The number in the 
class is limited, and averages thirty, sub-divided into three divisions, 
each under a teacher ; the students are drawn from all parts of 
the States and Canada. There is no laboratory for chemistry or 
bacteriology ; the demonstrator in cooking brings her own micro 
scope when required for the study of food stufls. Each student 
has twenty practice lessons in Public School work, and the examina- 
tions are conducted by outside examiners. The premises are large 
and airy, three kitchens being provided for the accommodation of 
the normal students and of the ladies who attend private classes. 
The whole organisation is the outgrowth of Miss Maria Parloa's 
energy and enterprise ; but its well-wishers now desire to see the 
course extended and the accommodation amplified to meet the 
modern requirements in this class of training. 



4 



Training of Teachers in Household Science and Art. 171 

An interesting four years' normal course in Household Economics (c) Lake Erie 
is that provided at the Lake Erie College for Women, which is 
situated at Painesville, thirty miles east of Cleveland and three rj^^^j^ -j^'^y 
miles south of Lake Erie. Founded some forty years ago by private 
enterprise, most of the contributions to its funds have come from 
citizens of Painesville and Northern Ohio ; the College buildings 
are beautifully situated in well-wooded grounds of over twenty 
acres. Frequent additions to the original accommodation have 
proved necessary, and Science Hall, in which are located the lecture 
rooms and laboratories for physics, chemistry, l)iology, botany, 
and physiology, dates only from 1897. The College offers three 
parallel courses which lead to the degrees of Bachelor of Arts, 
Bachelor of Science, and Bachelor of Literature. Each of these 
extends through four college years of thirty-five weeks each, and 
consists of specified studies for the first two years, with certain 
required studies and a definite amount of elective work in the last 
two. Entering students may present, in place of examinations, 
certificates from accredited schools, with the understanding that 
scholarship after entrance must be satisfactory ; to this end the 
work of the first term is probationary. The charge for board, 
room, and tuition for the College year is $250 (about £50), 
The tuition fee of $75 (£15) must always be paid in advance, 
and is not subject to return or deduction ; no deduction is made 
for board either, except in case of serious illness or other necessity ; 
there are small extra charges made for use of laboratories, coaching, 
laundry work, and extra cleaning of students' rooms. The fact 
that the College is worked on what is known as the Mount Holyoke* 
plan is probably answerable in part for the moderate fees, as the 
institution is by no means wealthy. 

The original idea has been considerably modified at Mount 
Holyoke, but Lake Erie College holds true to its standard. All 
students are required to do a certain amount of daily domestic work, 
for, with the exception of certain rough kitchen processes, no service 
is provided. Each girl must attend to her own bedroom, and 
the other household duties are shared, each student taking thirty- 
five minutes daily for twelve weeks at a time. The service of the 
three daily meals devolves upon the girls ; breakfast is at 6.45, 
lunch at 11.30, and dinner at 5.30. (I confess the question pre- 
sented itself to my mind whether hygienic requirements were being 

*The Mount Holyoke plan, referred to above, recognises the cultural as 
well as the economical value of housework, and is so designated because the 
Women's College at Mount Holyoke was founded with the object of its 
illustration. The students were called upon to participate in the daily 
domestic work, except cooking and scrubbing, in order that, while 
deriving the intellectual stimulus, and the broad scholarship, which 
tradition associates with men's collegiate studies, a high ideal of home 
life should be developed and maintained with its mutual helpfulness 
and its self restraint. The conception attempted to combine in practice 
the home ideal of dignified and systematic household service with the life 
of a scholar. 



U.S.A. — Private Institutions for Training Teachers. 




Training of Teachers in Household Science. 



173 



considered when I learned that no refreshment of any description (c) Lake Erie 
was provided for these young people between this early evening ^^^J^^^^^ 
meal and the next morning's breakfast, although study for two or ^^^^ 
three hours was carried on before retiring to bed.) The setting 
of the tables and washing up of all utensils used for 130 people at 
each meal entails no small labour, but is carried on in most syste- 
matic fashion. Ten girls are appointed weekly to lay the tables 
for meals and to serve the food, which is l)rought to the dining 
hall hy lifts. Another ten wash up, working in pairs ; the silver, 
glass, and small china are collected on each tabla, then little wagons, 
mounted on wheels, are run from one to another, carrying howls 
of soapy water, cloths, etc., and the washing up is done on the 
spot. The residue of bread and butter, broken meat, etc., is also 
collected on to wheeled wagons and sorted ; those portions suitable 
for subsequent use being set aside in a convenient pantry. Batches 
of students are told off in regular order to attend to the sitting 
rooms, corridors, and staircases, which are very extensive. The 
Principal, Miss Evans, considers that the active interest main- 
tained in these daily life processes conduces to the development of 
the social spirit, and prevents the girls acquiring a contempt for 
household duties, while it affords excellent training in methodical 
habits and in ready adaptability to circumstances. A strong 
religious atmosphere pervades the college. The average number 
of students is somewhat over a hundred, who, with their twenty- 
three professors, are all resident. Systematic work in })hysical 
training is carried on under a specially trained teacher (unless 
students are excused upon examination), who most wisely includes 
base-ball, basket ball, and tennis under this designation ; and con- 
ducts all her classes in the open air whenever the weather permits. 

In the four 3^ears Normal course in Home Economics*, students 
entered for the degree of Bachelor of Science take prescribed courses 
as ''electives" in this and related subjects, and receive at 
their graduation, in addition to their degree, a Teacher's Dijjloma 
in Home Economics ; thus they combine the liheral training 
of a college course with special training along one line. Their first 
year's chemistry deals with non-metals, and includes a certain 
amount of qualitative analysis, to which three laboratory periods 
of two hours each and one lecture period weekly are devoted. 
An introduction to organic chemistry follows in the first quarter of 
the second year ; the remaining twenty-four weeks are devoted to 
s|:ecialw()rk, of which the distinguishing feature is applications to 
food and i^Viysiology ; this course also includps a study of air, water 
and food principles from the standpoint of sanitary and physiological 
chemistry. A course in general bacteriology, in which cell structure 
is carefully studied, forms an introduction to botany, which in this 
instance consists of a laboratory study of ty]^ical forms, beginning 
with rusts, moulds and mosses, leading on to flowering plants. The 
laboratories in the new Science building give every opportunity for 



* See Table XXV. 



174 U.S.A. — Private Institutions for Training Teachers. 



(c) Lake Erie the pursuit of both these studies ; further assistance being afforded 
^onUrmed excellent departmental reference library, the large collection 

of slides for microscope and lantern, the herbarium, rich in local 
species, and the fresh material for study easily available in adjacent 
woods. General biology and a short course on anthropology are 
also open to seniors. 

The immediate study of Home Economics comprises the following 

courses : — 

(1) Household Sanitation. —{The house, its location, construction 
and care ; to be preceded or accompanied by courses in physics, chemis- 
try, bacteriology and art.) Time required, four hours a week for 
twelve weeks. 

(2) Chemistry of Foods and Cooking. — (Qualitative and quantita- 
tive analysis of foods ; detection of food adulterations, principles of 
cooking illustrated by laboratory work. To be preceded by general 
chemistry and physiology.) Time required, six hours a week for 
twenty-four weeks. 

(3) Dietaries^ Theoretical and Practical. — (Planning of meals for 
the college family with careful estimate of cost.) 

(4) Supervision of Domestic Work. 

(5) Home Economics.~{A review and unifying of all previous work 
relating to the home, expenditure, values, the relation of the home 
to society.) To be preceded by a course in Economics. 

(6) Methods of Teaching Home Economics. — To be preceded by a 
course of Pedagogy. 

The equipment for the practice of cookery was somewhat limited 
at the time of my visit, though the kitchen had been well fitted up 
and supplied with sets of the Pratt Institute Food Analyses, charts, 
and sets of block models. Erom the first a certain number of 
students had shown great interest in this course, and it was antici- 
pated that considerable impetus would be given to the practical work 
in this department by the new teacher of cooking, to whose charge 
it was to be entrusted that autumn. 

A short course in Elementary Home Economics is arranged for 
general students. This is confined to an introduction to the study of 
sanitation, food, principles of cooking, and dietaries ; no preparation 
in the sciences is required, and only so much of the scientific basis 
is given as is necessary for the understanding of practical methods. 
The course is not included in college work, but is sufficiently in 
request to show that, to an increasing degree, educated women 
desire to gain an insight into the subjects upon which the right 
ordering of daily life is based. 

All students must attend the lectures upon hygiene and the 
classes in voice culture. The science work required of all also in- 
cludes physiology and one year's work in physics or chemistry 
for the classical and scientific courses ; physiology and six months' 
work in physics or chemistry for the literary course. The obli- 
gatory courses in hygiene and physiology are conducted by Miss 
Luetta Bentley, who is profoundly and unusually interested in 
her sdbjects. The elementary courses deal with the principal 



Training of Teachers in Physical Culture and Hygiene. 175 



bodily functions and care of the health ; they are illustrated by 
dissections of an Auzoux dissectible mannikin, and by models of the 
eye, ear, heart, larynx and head ; four hours a week for twelve weeks 
are required in each year ; no practical work is carried out by 
the students. The course in advanced physiology is elective ; 
it is devoted to a microscopic study of the tissues and to detailed 
study of the special functions in relation to health and disease ; 
it covers the same length of time as the elementary. The fourth 
year course in hygiene and physiology is again obligatory on all 
graduating students ; this is concerned with embryology, the sub- 
ject being gradually developed from plants, through fishes, birds, 
and mammals to human beings. With the assistance of a collection 
of special models and specimens, prepared and voluntarily con- 
tributed by leading medical men in Cleveland, Miss Bentley is 
enabled to introduce the young women in her class to a right under- 
standing of the responsibihties of motherhood and the wise care of 
infant life. The results of her tactful, discreet, and sound methods 
of handling this subject during the past few years are stated to 
be already perceptible beyond the college walls ; meanwhile 
she is the recipient of many grateful letters from graduates 
who have subsequently married and who realise their 
deep obligations to her teaching. It is largely owing to 
Miss Bentley's enthusiasm and energy that the general equip- 
ment of this department has reached its present complete con- 
dition ; valuable charts and engravings, skeletons and anatomical 
preparations and histological specimens constitute a small museum. 
The wide-reaching influences for good of such a course, conducted 
on such a method, are incalculable, though, worthy as it is of 
imitation, one is compelled to recognise that few individuals 
combine the technical knowledge, enthusiasm, discretion and skill 
which distinguish Miss Bentley, and contribute to her admirable 
success. It is her ideal that all the science work carried on in the 
college shall be brought to bear in its application on the study of 
hygiene ; and she is fortunate in having as a colleague Miss Edna 
Day (a graduate of Michigan University, the recently appointed 
professor of chemistry, biology, and home economics in Lake Erie 
College), whose interest and training well qualify her to further 
develop the Normal Household Science course. 

When writing in Part I. of the hygiene and physical culture Training of 
courses obligatory in most colleges, no reference was made to the Teachers in 
sources from which the professors of these subjects are drawn. This 
Report would be incomplete were no allusion made to one of the Hyoiene.'— 
most prominent of these — the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics Boston 
Mrs. Hemenway, in addition to her pioneer work in the establish- Normal 
mont of the. first public school kitchen in tlie United States and the School of 
inauguration of the first Normal school for teachers of Household TabYe^XXVI 
Arts, also, in 1889, founded the Boston Normal School of Gym- 
nastics. Tlie promotion of true womanliness was her life-long 
object, and she looked for its attainment by two means — i.e., by the 



176 U.S.A. — Private Institutions for Training Teachers. 



Boston intelligent study of the household arts, and the perfect develop- 
Normal ment of physique by a well-planned course in physical training, 
G^^nastics ^^^^^ upon the knowledge and practice of hygiene. Mi's. Hemenway 
—continued. ^"^^ aided in her work by Miss Homans, at present Principal of 
this Normal School of Physical Training, who has Ijeen its prime 
organiser for a quarter of a century. Opportunities are here 
offered to men and women to prepare themselves to conduct 
gymnasia or to direct physical training according to sound methods. 
To this end thorough instruction is provided, not only in gym- 
nastics, games and dancing, but also in those principles of physi- 
ology, i)sychology, and the hygiene of the hmnan body, upon 
which physical training must always depend. A High School 
certificate or its equivalent is required of entering students, as 
well as proof of a sound elementary acquaintance with physics and 
chemistry. The courses of instruction include a pursuance of 
both these subjects, in addition to practical physiology and 
histology ; the theory of gymnastics ; corrective gymnastics and 
massage ; gymnastic games ; dancing, swimming, emergency work ; 
psychology, educational theory, and practice lessons with Grammar 
School and High School children, as well as with private classes and 
instruction to shop women in the evening. The names of the 
instructors answer for the admirable character of the training ; 
they are drawn chiefly from the professoi-s at Harvard Univei'sity 
and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The courses in 
physics and chemistry are given in the ample laboratories of the 
latter building ; the work in both branches of study has special 
reference to preparation for the study of physiology and gym- 
nastics. Instruction in histology and physiology is given by 
means of lectures, recitations, demonstrations, and, in histology, 
by laboratory work on the part of the student. The course is 
planned so as to give a clear conception of the methods and results 
of physiological investigation, and is made to bear directly upon 
the subject of personal hygiene in its widest sense. To this end, 
thirt}^ hours are devoted to conferences, in which there is the 
fullest possible discussion, on the part of students and instructor, 
of the conditions of healthy life. Among the topics considered 
in this part of the work are the relations of heredity and environ- 
ment to health ; the effects of use and disuse of organs ; the physio- 
logical effects of muscular exercises ; clothing, bathing, and the 
prevention of colds and other inflammatory processes ; feeding, 
fatigue, rest, and sleep. During the entire period the amount 
of didactic teaching is reduced to the minimum ; and the students 
are, above all, encouraged to work out for themselves the appli- 
cations of physiology to the healthy life of the organism. 

Much thought has been devoted by Dr. Theodore Hough (Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology) to this eminently practical course 
in physiology and hygiene; he considers it advisable to include a httle 
elementary bacteriology ; to this only from fifteen to twenty hours 
can be given, but it is very carefully done, great pains being taken 
with the drawings and microscopic work ; by this means the cellula^ 



Training of Teachers in Physical Culture and Hygiene. 17? 



TABLE XXVI. 
BOSTON NORMAL SCHOOL OF GYMNASTICS. 



Two Years' Course of Instruction for Normal Students. 



Physics with demonstrations 30 hours 

Chemistry with laboratory work 45 hours 

Histology and Physiology and Hygiene with laVjoratory work 195 hours 

Kinesiology and Theory of Gymnastics - - - 100 hours 

Descriptive and topographical Anatomy - - - - 86 hours 

Symptomatology --------- 25 hours ; 

Theory of Gymnastics and Art of Teaching - - 70 hours 

Psychology and Pedagogy 40 hours 

Pedagogy and Art of Education 30 hours 

Lectures on spinal curvature 12 hours 

Lectures and practical exercises in Applied Anthropometry 

(in sections) 

Corrective gymnastics and massage 95 hours 

Instruction in gymnastic games - - - - 30 hours 

Instruction in dancing - - 30 hours 

^Esthetic dancing . - - - ... 30 hours 

Swimming (in sections) - - - - - - - - 12 hours 

Athletics (lectures and illustrations) 10 hours 

Instruction in fencing (elective) 

Emergencies, with practical instruction in bandaging - - 15 hours 

Daily instruction in gymnastics 

Daily review in gymnastics and instruction in teaching 

Teaching classes of children 85 hours 



C490. M 



178 U.S.A.— Private Institutions for Training Teachers. 



Boston structure of the simple tissues of the body can be more intelligently 

Normal studied (epithelium, connective tissue, muscle and nerve cells) ; 

School of embryology he approaches from the general philosophical stand- 

Gymnastics point, which he believes to have real pedagogical value. In his 
—continued. opinion not less than five hours a week for a year must be devoted 
to the study of anatomy, physiology and hygiene, practical and theo- 
retical, if the student is to teach the subject subsequently in Grammar 
and High Schools. Like many other scientific men, he deplores the 
limitations hitherto imposed by the state legislation as to the teaching 
of these subjects, one regrettable result of which has been the un- 
willingness of experts to write text books, which the law requires to 
be submitted to a lay committee prior to acceptance ; but his con- 
sciousness of the loss to the rising generation which results from this 
attitude has prompted him and his colleague, Professor Sedgwick, to 
consider the preparation of a manual, which should be at once reliable 
and acceptable ; there is evidence also of a movement to secure desir- 
able modification of existing legislation on the teaching of hygiene 
and physiology. 

Much attention is directed in this course to the science of move- 
ments and to corrective gymnastics, the object of which is to 
impress the avoidance of harmful exercises and the use of pre- 
ventive measures. The etiology, development, and pathology of 
lateral curvature of the spine are dealt with so far as is necessary to a 
practical understanding of the subject ; special stress is laid upon the 
examination and detection of this condition as found in children 
of school age, with illustrations of the practical methods of recording 
such changes. The question of treatment is taken u]) through a 
consideration of the principles underl3ang the conditions which 
demand attention and of the range of application of the different 
means which may be employed. In the clinics of the Children's 
Hos])ital, and in the school itself, the students acquire 
considerable experience in the gymnastic treatment of various 
deformities, as well as in the practical apj)lication of massage. 
The brief course in Symptomatology is intended to convey to the 
minds of the students an estimate of the general appearance of 
the more common diseases. Two reasons are advanced in support 
of such instruction, first, that it enables the students in their 
future work as teachers to detect conditions of doubtful health 
in applicants for gymnastic training, and to warn them to consult 
a physician before undertaking the work : second, that it fits them 
to comprehend more intelligently the information given by phy- 
sicians regarding patients whom they may advise to take gymnastic 
training. 

A most careful physical examination is always made previous to 
the admission of candidates ; expert advice is at once taken on any 
doubtful point, free of expense to the would-be student. The 
physical training is undoubtedly severe, but great consideration 
is shown, while students are expected to co-operate with their 
instructors by the exercise of discretion and by the conduct of their 
daily life along healthy lines. The aesthetic dancing which enters 
into the curricuhmi of the second year is a form of applied gym- 
nastics, in which the power of co-ordination and the sense of rhythm 



Training of Teachers in Physical Culture and Hygiene. 179 



are especially trained. The movements are more complicated, less Boston 
localised, less sharply defined than are formal gymnastics ; they g^.j^^j'^^f 
are continuous, rhythmical, of constantly varying character, Grymnastics 
and involve blended but partial action of a great number of joints —co7itinued. 
and muscles, rather than powerful, complete action of a few. The 
practical results obtained are grace and ease of movement and bear- 
ing, together with a considerable amount of endurance. It seemed 
to me that they constitute a valuable addition to the more ordinary 
course of training, for they develop a graceful control of muscular 
power, charming to the beholder and refining to the possessor. 

The school itself contains rooms of unusual proportions. In 
addition to the gymnasium proper, which has an area of 4,000 
square feet, there are lecture-rooms, an anthropometric-room, a 
library, a gymnasium for corrective work, etc. Shower baths and 
ample dressing-room accommodation are provided, while, thanks 
to the well-selected aspect, all the rooms are well lighted and 
flooded with sunshine. The equipmeiit of the school includes 
forty microscopes, mounted and disarticulated skeletons, prepa- 
rations of joints, a life-size Auzoux model of the human body, 
and a large number of anatomical charts, etc., besides a complete 
set of anthropometric instruments. The library contains alwut 
1,000 volumes, brought chiefly from Europe ; these are largely 
professional in character and include, in addition to the purely 
technical matter, standard works on psychology, metaphysics, 
sociology, natural science, and education. 

The personal interest taken by the staff in their work for this 
school impressed me to a marked degree ; no pains seemed spared to 
adequately prepare the students for their Avork, and the thorough- 
ness of the training struck me forcibly. Miss Homans does not 
consider the experimental stage of the training to be yet passed ; 
she would like the two years to become a four years' course, though 
compelled to await the realisation of her amljitious ideal until subse- 
quent remuneration is calculated upon a scale which would comj^en- 
sate for the investment this prolongation would involve. She quotes 
insufficient opportunity for practice in teaching and the difficulty 
of raising the standard of admission, as the existing prominent 
defects, together with the pressure of study which necessitates a 
great deal of hdjiie work. The individual development and mental 
growth of each' student 'is carefully studied; Miss Homans deals 
personally in a private interview with any pupil with whom she, or 
any member of the staff, has cause to be dissatisfied. Students are 
fequired to be careful of their personal appearance, and at all times 
to be neat in their dress, in the belief that professionals cannot be 
too careful on these points. Black serge is used for the gymnastic 
costume, a red tie distinguishes the junior class, while the senioi^ 
wear orange. One hundred graduates are now earning from 
S800 (about £1G0) to S2,000 (about £400) a year, and only 
those who for family reasons, such as marriage, do not desire to 
make use of their certificate remain unemployed. All applications 

6490. M 2 



180 



U.S.A. — Private Technical Instituted. 



pass through Miss Honians' hands, and she has devised a system 
of promotion, which gives advancement to experience, backed by 
sound knowledge. All graduates can, indeed are advised to, return 
periodically for further exercise and study — and they avail them- 
selves fully of the privilege ; they are in such demand, that unusual 
advantages are in most cases afforded them to visit Boston for 
this purpose. The male students are generally members of the 
medical profession, who have made a speciaHty of bodily deformity. 
The cost of training is about £170, inclusive of board and lodging. 
The tuition fees and incidentals average £18 to £20 a year. 

D. — Technical Institutes. 

There is no more striking illustration of the growing national 
faith in the importance of affording to young people adequate 
opportunities for industrial as well as for purely intellectual train- 
ing than is found in the Technical Institutes of the United States. 
This faith is certainly know n by its works : from east to west, 
from north to south, it has found expression in the erection 
and endowment of numberless such schools. Of these, the inten- 
tion is invariably excellent ; and of the greater number it may 
be also truthfully said that they are handsome specimens of 
architecture, usually the pride of the city to which they belong. 
Their spacious lecture halls and laboratories are equipped with 
the latest and best appliances ; the staff of professoi^s is selected 
from the most highly qualified and experienced teachers available 
for the funds at the disposal of the Committee ; and their students 
are imbued with an esprit de corps which at the same time 
stimulates study by the desire it fostei-s to maintain the prestige 
of the institute, and develops a healthy spirit of corporate life. 
Typical It is hard to resist the temptation to enlarge upon the good 
Courses in work carried on in the teaching of Household Science 
icience^^ (General and Normal courses) and Hygiene in a considerable 
(General and number of these Institutes. The increased attention which 
Normal hygiene claims is clearly observable in the emphasis laid on 
andirT^^ a study of the sanitary aspects and applications of such subjects 
Hygiene. architecture, engineering, bacteriology, and physiology — the 

last two are frequently obligatory — upon all science students ; and 
I was surprised to find courses on sanitation and personal hygiene 
required even of those who had selected classical or literary studies. 
(a) Bradley For instance, at the well-known Bradley Institute at Peoria, Illinois, 
Institute, courses in physiology, bacteriology, and hygiene, based upon 
l^eoria. biology, chemistry, or physics, are taken by the science group in 
its fifth year ; while sanitation, food work, or dietary studies, 
based upon the same fundamental sciences, are required of the 
classics, literature, and general groups in their sixth year. 

It appears to be quite usual to arrange courses of study in these 
Institutes so that a student may enter at the end of a Grade School 
course and continue in attendance for six years. This ensures 
time for the acquirement, first, of a broad and practical general 



Typical Courses in Domestic Science and Hygiene. 



181 



education, corresponding to a general High School course ; and 
subsequently of the special preparation essential to the selected 
trade or profession. A limited amount of specialisation is allowed 
in the third and fourth year, but it is in the last two that the 
special work is carried forward with energy, usually with a con- 
siderable amount of freedom. Thus it comes about that the 
students' courses in the subjects of this Report become annually 
more prolonged and thorough. A further illustration in this 
connection may be drawn from the Bradley Institute. The required 
study of physiology comprehends not only the structure and 
functions of the body, but time is afforded for a careful microscopic 
study of the tissues, as well as for carrying out some of the more 
simple physiological experiments. The course in bacteriology and 
hygiene is sufficiently prolonged to carr}^ the student on from a 
general introduction to these subjects, through the cultivation 
and systematic study of the common non-pathogenic organisms 
and their effects, to the more distinctively hygienic aspects of 
bacteriology, such as the examination of water, air, soil, milk ; in 
conclusion, some problems of public health are discussed. Again, 
the sanitary science course includes, besides personal and general 
domestic hygiene, a study of the details of sanitary house con- 
struction, of building materials and of house decoration ; practical 
treatment is pursued in this course as far as possible, extending 
even to visits to furniture stores, and to the selection of suitable 
articles. 

Typical examples of Technical Institutes which offer General and 
Normal courses in Domestic Science may be found in the Pratt 
Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y. ; the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia ; 
and the Mechanics' Institute, Rochester. Perhaps in respect of 
equipment, the Eastman building, at the latter school, riiight take 
first place, though its Normal courses have not been conducted for 
a sufficient time, or under such conditions, as to place its graduates 
as yet in the front rank attained so justly by those of Pratt and 
Drexel. 

The handsome technological school opened in 1900, at {b) Eastman 
Rochester, New York, is the outcome of the munificence of Mechanics' 
Mr. George Eastman, who gave $200,000 for the {"J^^j^^J^^^^^^^ 
purpose, supplemented by princely donations from Mrs. N.Y. 
Henry Bevier and others. The Institute previously carried 
on its educational work in detached buildings, poorly adapted for 
the purpose. Space, light, ventilation, and heat have now beeii 
provided without stint ; the large rooms, wide halls, and abundant 
provision of apartments for officers, teachers, and caretakers, 
(covering a large area. As far as practicable, the building has been 
divided between industrial and fine arts and domestic science, the 
latter department having been established in the south end. On 
the first floor, for the Department of Domestic Science, is found a 
large demonstration room used for lectures and instruction to large 
audiences. Close to this demonstration room is the first group 



182 



U.S.A. — Private Technical Institutes. 



Mechanics 
Institute, 
Rochester 
N.Y.- 

continued. 



(b) Eastman of Domestic Science rooms, tliose devoted to cookery ; a small 
dmiiig-room and butler's pantry which belong to this suite are used 
by Normal students for planning and serving the luncheons and 
diimers required as part of their training. Beyond the group of 
Normal class-rooms are three large kitchens, each with pantry 
and other adjuncts, used for day and evening classes. These con- 
stitute one of the most interesting series of rooms to be found in the 
building. The second floor is arranged on a similar plan. On the 
south side is a series of six large rooms used l^y the Department of 
Dressmaking ; they are exceptionally well arranged, and have 
abundance of light both from the side and from skylights in the 
roof. A very attractive room is devoted to the study of art history ; 
a]id an ofhce for the head of the Department completes the suite. 
Close at hand are the millinery class-room and teachers' room, while 
continuing around to the rear are the first, second, and third grade 
sewing rooms in the order named. The laundry is placed in the 
basement ; the equipment includes nine porcelain tubs, an immense 
boiler, a dryer, and other essentials.* 

The branches of study offered in these departments of Domestic 
Science and Art are cookery, home science, laundry work, a house- 
keeper's course, a course in general and household chemistr3% 
drawing, sewing, dressmaking, millinery, and physical culture. 
These are arranged to meet the requirements of several classes of 
pupils. 

(1) General Courses, which afford practical instruction in all 
the subjects that })ertain to the daily routine of home work. A 
pupil ma\ enter for a single term or for a year, taking up for special 
study one or more subjects in which she is particularly interested. 
There are three terms of three months each in day and evening 
classes. The firet, second, or third grade Avork in any subject may 
be taken up at the beginning of either autumn, winter, or spring 
term. 

(2) Certificate Courses, i.e., separate courses in cookery, home 
science, laundry work, needlework or dressmaking, so carefully 
systematised and graded that a student may specialise in a particular 
branch and become fitted to take it up as a means of livelihood. 
Courses of twelve lessons each in advanced, invalid and fancy 
cooking are also offered to meet the needs of ]:)rofessional students, 
■ uch as physicians and nurses, or confectioners, respectively. Cer- 
tificates are granted to those who complete any of these courses 
satisfactorily and pass the required examinations. 

(3) Normal Courses, which give such special training as shall 
fit young women to become teachers of the various branches in- 
cluded in the domestic arts and sciences. For admission, at least 
a High School education or its equivalent is required. The course 
may be completed in two years of five days a week. To those who 
Batisfactorily complete the full Normal course of two years the 
diploma of the Institute is awarded. The Board of Education is 



* See Fig. VL 





Eastman's Buildings. Mechanics' Institute, Rochester, New York. 
6490. lo face page 182. 



Typical Courses in Domestic Science and Hygiene. 183 



authorised to employ graduates of this Normal course to teach 
domestic science and art in the city schools ; for which reason it 
is satisfactory to add that it includes an excellent course in public 
hygiene. Tliis deals with contagious diseases, disinfection, food 
inspection and protection, and last, but by no means least, school 
hygiene. In the Normal training in Domestic Art special atten- 
tion is given to the theory of colour, colour combinations, and a 
study of colour schemes from textiles and natural objects ; study of 
light and shade from drapery ; and of line and pose from the 
works of great masters. House furnishing and house sanitation 
are included in this course, while physiology, hygiene, and physical 
culture must be studied by students of either group of Domestic 
subjects. 

The tuition fees vary from $3 to $27 per term, according to the 
course ; in all cases they are reduced for evening classes. 

I have selected as a detailed example of a six years' Technical (c) Lewis 
Institute course in Domestic Economy for general students that Qjj^j^d^^Q^' 
carried on under Miss L. C. Hunt at the Lewis Institute, Chicago. Table^^* 
The Institute owes its existence to the late Allen C. Lewis, ^^ ho XXVII. 
left a large part of his estate ($550,000) for its support 
and provided for its organisation. The estate was so efficiently 
managed, that when handed over to trustees in 1895, eighteen years 
after Mr. Lewis's death, it amounted to $1,000,000 (£200,000). 

The work of the Department of Science and Literature is arranged 
in three divisions : — (1) Preparatory; covering what is usually done in 
die first two years in a High School. (2) Academic ; covering the work 
of the last two High School years. (3) Collegiate ; corresponding 
to the first two years of a college course. Each candidate for admission 
is required to furnish a testimonial of honourable dismissal from the 
school last attended ; he must also refer to two persons, preferably 
his teachers or employers, from whom information about him may be 
obtained. Candidates from Chicago Grammar Schools and other 
schools of equal rank, who ha\e completed satisfactorily the work of 
the eighth grade, may be admitted without examination, upon recom- 
mendation of the principal of the school from which they come. The 
uniform cost of instruction for full regular work is 20 (£4) a 
quarter of twelve weeks ; a reduction is made for a single coiu-se of 
instruction and for evening classes. 1\\ the Preparatory division 
most of the lessons are prepared under the direction of the teacher 
for whom the work is being done, for which purpose the 
students meet their teacher in his class room, library, laboratory, 
or workshop ; these are equipped with such appliances, in 
the way of books, apparatus, or tools, as will enable him 
to make his teaching most effective, and to furnish his students 
with whatever they need for the successful preparation of their 
lessons. In all divisions classes are limited in number to twenty- 
five, so that each student may receive such individual instruction 
as he needs, and be tested each day as to the conscientiousness wdth 
which he has prepared the work assigned. In the Preparatory Division; 
a " credit " signifies the^ successful completion of a twelve weeks' 
course of instruction, requiring from ten to twelve hours a week, 
counting time of preparation and recitation. To obtain the Prepara- 
tory certificate the student must secure twenty-one credits, of which 
sixteen are prescribed as follows : — English, three credits ; Algebra 



181 



U.S.A. — Private Technical Institutes. 



(c) Lewis and Geometry, four ; Latin, four ; Science, two ; Drawing, Shop- 

Institute, work or Domestic Economy, three. To follow four of the essential 

Chicago — courses at a time means nine to twelve hours' work a day. More 

continued. advanced students are trained in methods of greater self-dependence, 

though, thanks to the large and efficient staff secured by means of 
Mr. Lewis' liberal endowment, all studies are conducted under desirable 
supervision. Examinations are conducted by the staff, except in the 
case of students who are subsequently appointed under the Chicago 
Board of Education, when they are subjected to a further examination 
by that body. 

The course in Domestic Economy carried on under Miss L. C. 
Hunt at the Lewis Institute, Chicago, covers six yeare. It includes 
the chemistry of daity life, cooking, sewing, home sanitation (this at 
present taught largely theoretically), and physiology. Biolog3% 
chemistry, and physics are still " elective " subjects ; for the Normal 
couree, to be shortly initiated, they will be pre-requisites ; but even 
now they are frequently elected, as, by pursuing them, in addition 
to other coui-ses in this department, a student can qualify for the 
B.Sc. degree, while she also prepares herself to teach domestic 
economy, or lays the foundation for the future professional study 
of medicine or nursing. The average age of the students is seven- 
teen ; about 100 were following the course at the time of my visit. 
In general terms, it may be stated that ten hours a week are given 
for one year respectively to cooking, sewing, housekeeping, and 
domestic economy (which includes house sanitation, and is incul- 
cated to a large extent by field w^ork A year's work in 
])hysics and three or four years' work in chemistry are required 
of those who elect these subjects ; the latter embraces general 
chemistry, qualitative and quantitative analysis and some 
organic chemistry ; general biology absorbs a year, 
to which the courses in animal physiology and hygiene form a con- 
tinuation; these, again, cover three terms of ten hours' work a week. 
In general biology each student studies the gross and microscojuc 
anatomy of at least one representative of each of the chief grou])s 
into which plants and animals are divided, and assists in the 
preparation of material for microscopic study. In hj'giene atten- 
tion is concentrated on a study of those factors in man's structural 
environment which chiefly affect his physical well-being, such as 
disease germs, household and public sanitation, exercise, clothing, 
etc. Practical histology enters into the physiology course ; no 
text-book is employed, but many reference l30oks are at the disposal 
of the students, e.g., Schaffer's " Histology," and Howell's " Dis- 
section of the Dog," which is followed in the dissection of rabbits. 
The results from the study of biology and physiology are con- 
sidered most successful ; students never before interested become 
almost invariably genuinely absorbed in these subjects, the scope of 
which promotes, in addition, genera] culture. Sixteen is the 
average number in the housekeepers' or cooking course. Judging 
by the lessons I was able to attend, the students are called upon 
to do their own thinking, and it did not surprise me that they 
should be recorded as developing intelligence under the process. 



Typical Courses in Domestic Science and Hygiene. 



185 



In addition to school practice, they are required to carry out at home 
processes learnt by demonstration in cookery, these demon- 
strations being given by Miss Hunt, or her assistant, once or twice 
daily. The practical work is chiefly individual, though, in the case 
of a searching lesson on the testing of milk for colouring matters 
and preservatives, for the specific gravity of whey, etc., the students 
w^ere divided into groups of two. 

Two hours a day for three quarters, each consisting of twelve 
weeks, is devoted to needlework under Miss Watson, who is a 
good example of the ti'ansfusion of perseverance and enthusiasm 
from teacher to taught. Her scheme of work emphasises colour 
matching, beauty of form and line, grace and fitness and the 
evolution of textile fabrics in addition to mere stitchery in which, 
however, her students attain to a high degree of proficiency. It 
seemed almost incredible that the excellent needlework displayed 
upon specimen knickerbockers, aprons, night-dresses, corset covers 
and petticoats, each crisp, dainty and elaborate, could be the 
unaided performance of pupils, who, a year before, did not know 
how to thread a needle. Their introduction to the art began with 
the usual technical series of specimen stitch samplers which ai-e 
preserved in books, with written descriptions appended. Among 
the " fine art " points which specially attracted my attention 
in the work of Miss Watson's students were the j^erfection of 
the button holes and gussets, and the joining of lace or eml)roi- 
deries so accurately that detection was literally impossible. The 
happy energy of the students and the artistic arrangement of the 
room left a vivid and pleasant impression. 

The whole building is light, airy, and admirably planned for its 
purposes, though the Domestic Economy department needs enlarge- 
ment ; under its able principal. Dr. George Carman, there is every 
prospect of increasing utility arising from its further development. 
Meanwhile, it is doing excellent w^ork by evening classes for the 
general public, as well as by the more complete course alcove detailed; 
the former are confined chiefly to cooking and dressmaking and 
are well attended by working girls and women. 

An active interest in Domestic Science and Hygiene has been [d) Institute 
aroused and maintained in Brooklyn among adults by means of of Arts and 
courses at the Institute of Arts and Sciences, which for many years 
has been an important factor in the social, literary, scientific, and y . ' ' 
educational life of the city. A new era in its history was inaugurated 
in 1887, when it was decided to make its work broader and more 
comprehensive by providing for its sub-division into departments 
representing various branches of science and art. The member- 
ship increased in proportion to the new departments formed, 
reaching upwards of 6,000 in 1900, when the departments num- 
bered twenty-eight ; of these Domestic Science formed one. The 
presidents of each department form a Council, and meet monthly. 
Asifciate mem])ers pay S5 a year; each ticket admits one 
person to a day and two to an evening lecture. The Domestic 



186 



U.S.A. — Private Technical Institutes. 



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Typical Courses in Domestic Science and Hygiene. 187 



Science Department was organised in 1893 with fortv-t^Vo memljei*s, " 
who inc'reased in seven years to 170. Mrs. John Dunn has been 
president of the department since its formation, and is the only 
woman holding such a position in the Institute. Much attention 
is given to the study of practical problems in domestic science, 
and standing Committees have been appointed on the following 
subjects : — The sanitary and economic construction of dwellings ; 
the general principles of house furnishing ; the composition and 
value of foods ; labour-saving methods and utensils ; and sanitation 
and economy in clothing and domestic service. At present, 
the results to be oljserved among the members are improved 
common-sense and a feeling of responsibility for family welfare*. 
By request of the Child Study department a special course on thfe 
feeding of children Avas organised in the Domestic Science 
Department last winter, — the first recognition by members of 
these two departments of the mutual assistance each can render 
the other by experience gained through their respective studies 
and enquiries. Such oljservational enquiries are of undoubted 
value, though, from the circumstances of the case, they are 
conducted along less fundamental lines than can be defined for 
more youthful students still engaged in preparation for their 
future callings. 

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, at Boston, affords a (e) .Mi.s.sa- 
lii'st-rate example of the favourable opportunities now offered £'^^^^-^^^^. 
to students of l^oth sexes in the United States for studying Teclinolo<>^' 
the sanitary aspects of various professions. Facilities of Boston, 
an unusual character are here aft'orded for advanced or special 
work in hygiene or sanitary science. The departments which give 
the principal instruction in these subjects are the biological, 
chemical, physical, architectural, and that of sanitary engineering. 
In the department of biology the whole system of laboratories is 
well organised for work directed chiefly towards the hygienic and 
industrial sides of the sul)ject. These laboratories are frequented 
Ijy those who desire to fit themselves for teaching or for medical 
study, as well as by those whose future ])rofessions demand that 
their training should comprise some practical work in the 
])iological sciences, including comparative physiology, zoology, bacte- 
riology, and industrial and sanitary biology. Science teachers in 
secondary schools or Normal Colleges derive great assistance from 
the extensive course of laboratory woi-k cariied on in connection 
with the courses in comparative anatomy and embryolog}', 
as well as in comparative physiology ; while among those engaged 
in some branches of sanitary engineering or in food-jDre- 
aerving industries, the course in sanitary bacteriology and 
fermentation is in request, owing to the facility acquired in the 
examination of air, ice, and water, or to the insight gained into 
industrial a})plications. Graduates or special students, e.g., physi- 
cians, ijispectors under Boards of Health, or superintendents of 
water oi* sewage works, are, if qualified to pursue such work with 



188 



U.S.A. — Private Technical Institutes. 



(e)Massa- advantage, also admitted to such subjects as they select in this 
Institute of ^^P^'^*"^^^^' every opportunity being afforded them to equip 
Technology, themselves for their professional callings. The instruction in 
Boston— water, air, and food analysis in the chemical department consists 
continued, raainly of laboratory work, supplemented by occasional lectures ; 

special laboratories have been assigned to these courses. The 
usual scheme of work includes practice in the methods commonly 
employed in the chemical examination of air and water, of milk, 
and of butter. For those who wish to take a more extended course, 
opportunity is provided for the critical study of methods of analysis 
and for the investigation of a variety of sanitary problems in which 
chemical questions are involved. The hygienic aspects of heating 
and ventilation are thoroughly handled by Professor Wood- 
bridge in the department of physics, while the architectural coui*se 
includes a technical study of the same subjects in its third year, 
illustrated by the study of important public buildings in the city. 
Enumerated among the studies required of students in the sanitary 
engineering course are, in addition to the general, special, and 
sanitary biology courses referred to above, those in the principles 
of jDubUc health, municipal sanitation, and on air analysis. The 
s])ecified object is to qualify engineei-s to deal intelligently with 
questions relating to the health of individuals and communities, 
and to plan intelligently works of sewerage and drainage. Frequent 
opportunities are given for the inspection of actual examples of 
sanitary engineering; the work in the class-room is also supple- 
mented by exercises in designing, and the students attend lectures 
and demonstrations in sanitary science. 

It will be observed that in all departments the method i)ui'sued 
is to supplement lectures and recitations by practical work in the 
field, the laboratories, and the*, drawing rooms ; indeed, high value 
is set upon the educational effect of this practical work, which 
intentionally forms the foundation of each of the thirteen courses. 
Text-books are used in some subjects, but not in all. In many 
branches the instruction given varies considerably in available 
text-books ; in such cases notes on the lectures and laboratory 
work have been printed, either privately or by the Institute, 
and are furnished to the students at cost price. Both oral 
and written examinations take place from time to time. The 
general examinations are held near the close of the months 
of January and May ; after these the standing of the student 
in each distinct subject is reported to his parent or guardian, 
though these reports are based to a very large extent upon the 
quality of daily class work ; they constitute also the grounds for 
admonition or advice from the Faculty in the case of the students 
who are not profiting sufficiently by their connection with the 
Institute. The degree of Bachelor of Science in the coui-se pui-sued is 
given for the satisfactory completion of any of the regular courses 
of study. To be entitled to a degree the student must have 
attended the Institute for not less than one year next preceding 



Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N'. Y. 



181) 



the taking of a degree, must have completed the prescribed studies 
and practical work of the four years, and must, in addition, pass 
final examinations, if required, on subjects relating particularly 
to his course. He must, moreover, prepare a dissertation on 
some subject included in his course of study, or give an account 
of some i'esearch made by himself, or present either an original 
report upon some machine, work of engineering, industrial works, 
mine or mineral survey, or an original design accompanied by 
an explanatory memoir ; either thesis or design must be apj)roved 
by the Faculty. 

So nimierous and comprehensive are the courses in Domestic Pratt 
Science and Domestic Art carried on in the departments for these Institute, 
subjects attached to the great Technical Institutes at Brooklyn, 
New York, and at Philadelphia, that an effort to detail them 
accurately could scarcely be rewarded with success, and would 
probably prove wearisome to the reader. The allusions through- 
out this Eeport, however, to the prestige which attaches to the 
graduates from the Normal courses at these two Institutes demand 
that the grounds should be stated upon which they are based. 
This I will endeavour to do ; though, in justice to those who are 
responsible for the gradual evolution of these courses, it must be 
clearly understood that they recognise no finality in the existing 
phases of development. The curriculum of each is in a transitional, 
tentative stage, to be studied as offering valuable suggestion based 
upon experience, not criticised as a model held up as typical of 
perfection by its formulators. Some introductory words as to the 
origin and purpose of these two prominent institutes will prove of 
interest, and wnll serve as a useful explanation of their independent 
position in the educational world. 

Pratt Institute was established in 1887, after many years of 
educational investigation on the part of its founder, Mr. Charles 
Pratt, of Brooklyn. Its objects are to promote manual and 
industrial education, to promote cultivation in literature, science, 
and art, and to foster all that makes for right living and good 
citizenship. Facilities are provided by which persons who wish to 
engage in educational, artistic, scientific, domestic, commercial, 
mechanical, or aUied employments may lay the foundation of a 
thorough knowledge, theoretical and practical, or may perfect 
themselves in those occupations in which they are already engaged. 
Instruction is based upon an appreciation of the dignity as well as 
the value of intelligent handicraft and skilled manual labour ; 
efforts are made to establish a system of instruction whereby 
habits of thrift may be inculcated, to develop those qualities 
which produce a spirit of self-reliance, and to teach that personal 
character is of greater consequence than material productions. 
While fees are required, there is an endeavour to make possible, 
by some means consistent with self-helpfulness and self-respect, 
the admission of every worthy applicant. 



190 



U.S.A. — Private Technical Institutes, 



Pratt ■ The courses have four distinct aims in view : — (1) Educational, 

Institute, ip\xrG and simple, as in the work of the High school ; (2) Normal, 
^roo yn, g^^.]^ training being given in four departments, those of fine arts, 
—continued, domestic art, domestic science, and kindergarten ; (3) Technical, 
i.e., special training to secure practical skill in the arts, handicrafts, 
applied sciences, and mechanical trades ; (4) Su}:)plementary and 
Special, intended for the benefit of those who wish to add to school 
or college training special subjects conducing to the more intelligent 
development of domestic, social, or other interests. The endowment 
is so liberal that not only can the best talent and facilities for the 
accomplishment of its aims be secured, but the charges for tuition 
can be and are most moderate. The ljuildings are six in nmuber ; 
the departments of Domestic Art and Science are situated in the 
main building. The rooms are old-fashioned and not always con- 
venient, the cause being an outcome of American caution. Mr. 
Pratt was somewhat uncertain as to the success of his oi'iginal 
venture ; he therefore had the building designed to play the 
double part of technical institute or of textile factory, so that, 
were the first a failure, the second could redeem the disaster. 
Fortunately, his fears were not realised ; but, unfortunately, the 
light, air, and space so desirable for his students have been cur- 
tailed. Some consideraljle rebuilding is contemplated in the near 
future. The Institute is under the control of a Board of Trustees, 
with a secretary as executive officer ; the heads of each de])art- 
ment constitute the faculty ; both sexes are admitted on equal 
footing to all classes. 

The requirements for admission differ in the several depart- 
ments ; those for applicants to the Normal course may best he 
quoted from the handljook. " All applicants for normal coui^es 
for the training of teachers should be at least eighteen yeai-s of age, 
and should have good health, a good voice, a mature and thoughtful 
mind, a love for teaching as a profession, and a good general 
education equivalent to a four-year course in a high school of good 
standing." Diplomas and certificates are granted for the quality 
qf the work done, and not for the number of years spent in study. 
That progress in all courses depends upon individual ability 
and application was again and again impressed upon me. The 
Diploma of the Institute is giveti to . those students who successfully 
complete one of the following courses of study : — High School 
course, Normal Art course, Normal Domestic Science course, 
Normal Domestic kvt course. Normal Kindergarten course. The 
Certificate attests the successful completion of any one of the 
following Day courses, which represent from one to four years' 
w^ork : — 

Fiae Arts. — Regular art course, architecture, design, model- 
ling, wood-carving, art metal. 

Domestic Art. — Sewing, full-time course ; dress-making, full- 
time course ; millinery, full-time course ; art needlework, 
basketry and weaving. 



Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y, 



191 



Science and Technology. — Steam and machkie desigij, applied 

electricity. 
Kindergarten. — Mothers' course. 
General course in Domestic Science 
Food Economics, 
Library Science. 

The Department of Domestic Art is under the direction ot Miss («) Domestic 

Harriet S. Sackett ; it offers a larffe choice of General and Technical Courses 

• . . ((Jener{il 

courses in sewing, dress-making, and millinery, as well as the formal ' 

Normal course. Less familiar to English minds is the inclusion also Technical), 
of a course in Costume Design (which embraces an art course of '^^ble 
two years, a study of the outlines and proportion of the human ^ ^ 
form, and of historic costume ; the sketching of dresses and hats 
in water colour, etc.). There are also courses in art needlework 
(freehand drawing, design, colour, artistic needlework) ; in 
basketry and weaving ; in physical training, which comprises 
Swedish educational gymnastics, carefully graded exercises 
with stationary and hand apparatus, and games. Lideed, this 
department includes comprehensive courses of study in those 
branches of the various arts which are related to healthful 
development and to household decoration, as well as to appropriate 
clothing of the body. All these courses are developed progres- 
sively, and are arranged to give either professional training, or 
to prepare teachers, or for use in the home. They vary in 
length from one term of plain sewing to two years in dress- 
making, or to three years in costume design, etc. The number of 
pupils in each class is limited, so that all may have opportunity 
for practical work under the direction of the teacher, in addition 
to the instruction given by means of lectures and recitations. 

The rooms of this department occupy the third floor of the 
main building, and are fully equipped Avith essential apparatus. 
Casts of the best examples of sculpture, photographs, coloured 
plates of costume, and many specimens of textile fabrics, both 
ancient and modern, afford excellent material for study. The 
Library is also an important factor in Miss Sackett 's schemes of 
training. Books treating of domestic art and science are con- 
stantly added ; material on class topics is secured for the pupils' 
use, and an almost unique collection of plates illustrating the 
historical development of costume has been made. The methods 
of instruction aim to instil the artistic and scientific principles 
imderlying all good work, and to impress upon the students the 
value of economy, order, and accuracy. Listruction in freehand 
drawing, water-colour, and elementary design forms a part of all 
dressmaking and millinery courses, with a view to cultivate taste 
in dress, to impart skill in the harmonious combination of coloui-s 
and textiles, and to foster selection of costvunes in keeping with 
the individuality of the wearer. Eyes and hands are thus trained 
to see objects in their true proportions, and to sketch them in line 



192 



U.S.A. — Private Technical Institutes. 



(d) Domestic simple light and shade and water-colour. It will be easily realisable 
Art Oours^ tJi^t a considerable amount of home practice is necessarily required. 
— con mue . ^j^^ technical dress-making course lectures upon hygienic, 

artistic, and historic dress are given, pupils being expected to 
further inform themselves upon these subjects by the use of the 
library. Those who wish to become practical dressmakei*s have 
an opportunity in this class to make dresses for others in order to 
gain experience, and, if necessar}^ to defray a part of their expenses. 

In the costume design course students are trained to become 
illustrators or designers of costume, and I learned that the fashion 
plates in one of the most popular women's journals have really 
been influenced for good through a graduate from this coui"se 
having l3ecome a memljer of the stafi". The first year is spent 
entirely in the Department of Fine Arts; the second and third year 
are divided between this and the Department of Domestic Art. The 
instruction embraces cast drawing from ornament and the antique, 
freehand, perspective, colour, life and portrait drawing, sketching 
from the figure, composition, design, and the history of art. 
Normal students are required to devote a part of their second year, 
and the whole of the third year of their training to special study 
of costume design. The system of art training employed is 
derived from the French, and the designs and drapery studies are 
alike beautiful in colour and graceful in form. Textures and 
patterns of various materials are copied in water-colour, while 
advanced students are required to design and carry out dresses 
which exemplify the tints, position, and relative j)roportion of 
colours found in a selected flower, moth, or butterfly. The 
result seemed to me to embody the quotation appearing on the 
walls, " Grace of form and beauty of vesture." Careful studies 
in crayon and water-colour of hats (full size) are insisted upon 
before execution in the millinery coui*se, and appear in considerable 
numbers on blackboards or easels. The fact that so many of the 
graduates enter into trade and professional life has led to the gradual 
evolution of this exhaustive method of training. Eight hundred 
students passed through the Domestic Art Department in 1900. 

The following synopsis of some of the courses affords material for 
comparison with those pursued in the Technical classes in this 
country : 

I. The Full Day One-year Course in Sewing is organised in 
September only. It is arranged for those who can devote their whole 
time to the work. The first half of the year is devoted to practice in 
the various kinds of hand and machine sewing ; to learning the prin- 
ciples of draughting, cutting, and fitting undergarments ; and to 
children's dress. When a student can make this range of garments 
satisfactorily she may take orders for work, and thus put into practice 
the principles already learned. By this means an increased amount 
of accuracy, judgment and self-reliance is gained ; so that at the end 
of the year competent pupils may become seamstresses, work in shops, 
or find themselves fitted to be more useful in the home. This course 
is considered necessary as a preparation for the training in dress- 
making by those who have had but little experience in hand sewing 
or the making of simple garments. 



Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y 



193 



Course of Study. — Models in housework afterward applied on bed (a) Domestic 
linen and table linen, aprons, patching and mending and simple Art Courses 
repairing, draughting and making drawers, under-bodices, skirts —continued. 
blouses and nightdresses, children's dresses, undergarments and baby 
clothes. 

Work in the gymnasium is required in connection with this course ; 
and a course in drawing runs concurrently, which assists the student 
to develop her own ideas in design and colour. A certificate is granted 
for the satisfactory completion of the whole. Applicants must be 
over fifteen years of age, and are required to present for entrance 
examination some article showing their hand-sewing. The fees are 
$15 per term (about £3 3s.). 

II. The Special Couese for Home Use which Meets Twice a Week 
FOR One Year. — This course is arranged to meet the needs of those who 
wish to learn hand and machine sewing and the various kinds of 
mending merely for home use. In learning to make garments the 
pupils measure and fit each other. They furnish their own materials. 
The course of study is as follows : — 

First grade. — Exercises in basting, stitching, overcasting, hemming, 
gathering, and buttonholing ; draughting drawers ; exercises in 
machine sewing, cutting, and making drawers. 

Second grade. — Exercises in darning on stockingette and cashmere ; 
patching ; draughting ; cutting and making white petticoat ; exer- 
cises in feather stitching, and making underbodice from pattern. 

Third grade. — The making of dainty lingerie, includin;; fancy muslin 
and flannel petticoats, bodices, nightdresses and dressing jackets. 

For mothers who desire to make their children's clothes, or seam- 
stresses who wish to become more proficient, a course is offered in 
the making of infants' clothes, including knitting and crocheting, 
children's underclothes, guimpes, and dresses. The fee is $5 a 
term (about £l.). 

Children's classes meet from nine to eleven o'clock on Saturday 
mornings, and are open to children between the ages of six'and fifteen 
years. They cover a period of several school years, and include simple 
work with cord and raffia, weaving, hand-sewing, making of doll's 
garments, and elementary machine sewing. Such training, satis- 
factorily completed, prepares the student to enter the classes meeting 
twice a week. Tuition fees $2 per term (about 8s.). 

III. The Full-Day Course of Two Years in Dressmaking* is 
arranged to give a thorough training in the principles of dressmaking, 
with as much practice in their application as the time will allow. It 
meets daily, except Saturdays, from 9 to 4.30 o'clock. This class is 
organised in September only, and continues through two school years. 
The mornings are given entirely to dressmaking ; three afternoons 
a week are devoted to costume design, methods of keeping accounts, 
and physical training. Students also attend lectures upon the history 
of costume, and a further course of lectures on the history of art, 
by the Director of the Department of Fine Arts, is open to them. 
Tlie literature of hygienic and artistic costume is brought to their 
notice ; and they are expected to inform themselves upon these sub- 
jects, using the library of the Institute, The first year is devoted to 
plain dressmaking ; orders may be taken after each student has made 
a dress for herself ; in this way the students are able to defray part of 
their expenses. 

Course of Study.—First Tear.— Draughting, cutting, fitting and 
making unlined blouses and skirts ; draughting blouses with chart ; 
exercises with practice materials in cutting, fitting, and designing 



* For Course in Home Dressmaking, see Appendix E. 
6490. N 



194 



U.S.A. — Private Technical Institutes. 



(a) Domestic skirts and lined bodices ; and in making dress trimmings and finish- 
Art Courses ings ; bow making ; study of colour, form, line and texture ; house 
— continued, and street dresses not too elaborate in style. 

Drawing, water-colour, elementary design : Practice in the use of 
the pencil and of water-colour. Appearance of objects, bows, gowns 
and drapery. Outline and proportion of the human form. Study 
of gowns becoming to different types of figure, and also of historic 
costume. Practice in designing gowns for street, home and evening 
wear. 

Second Year. — Draughting and making princesse gowns and negli- 
gees ; study of contour and poise of the body ; making evening gowns ; 
study of woollen textiles ; draughting, cutting and making tailor- 
made jackets and skirts. 

Applicants must be over seventeen years of age, and bring for exami- 
nation a dress made by themselves from a pattern ; they must also 
prove their ability to do good hand and machine sewing. A written 
examination is given upon the method of making a simple dress. 

Women who have had previous experience in dressmaking may be 
admitted to advanced work upon passing an examination which Avill 
prove their fitness to enter the second year class. Orders received in 
this class furnish the materials to carry out the schedule of work. 
A certificate is granted for the satisfactory completion of this course. 
Tuition fees, $25 per term (about £5). 

IV. The Full-Day Course in Millinery — two terms of two months 
each. The first part of the course is planned to develop lightness of 
touch in the making of bows, trimmings, and facings, and leads up 
gradually to the later work of designing and making an entire hat. 
The student provides her own materials, and is at liberty to bring 
from home any materials which can be utilised. This class, com- 
pletes the full course in foin- months ; it is organised in September and 
February, and has been arranged for those who wish to prepare to 
become milliners. It meets daily, except on Saturday, from 9 to 
12.30 and from 1.30 to 4 o'clock. Two afternoons a week are devoted 
to the course in design. There are also lectures upon hygienic, artistic, 
and historic dress, and instruction is given in methods of keeping 
accounts. 

Course of Study. — Facing and finishing hat-brims, making bows, 
trimming hats, study of form, line, colour and textiles ; designing, 
draughting, and making frames ; making and trimming covered 
hats and bonnets ; making velvet hats and bonnets ; toques and even- 
ing bonnets ; making wire frames and straw hats ; lace and shirred 
hats and bonnets ; children's hats. 

Drawing, water-colour, elementary design ; practice in the use of 
the pencil and of water-colour ; appearance of objects, drapery, 
bows, hats ; outline and proportion of the head ; study of historic 
costume ; designing of hats becoming to different types of face. 

Applicants must bring for inspection a hat showing some skill in 
the trimming and making ; and they must be able to work rapidly, 
since the time devoted to the training Is short. The class organised in 
September prepares students to take positions at the opening of the 
spring season, while the class which begins in February fits them for 
the autumn season. They must be over sixteen years of age and able 
to do good hand-sewing. Familiarity with the use of the tape measure 
and ability to cut accurately are re(iuisites. Only students who prove 
themselves satisfactory workers are recommended to positions in 
work-rooms. A certificate is granted for the satisfactory completion 
of this course. Fees, $25 per term of two months (about £5). 

Thei'e is also a special course in millinery for home use, which 
extends over four terms of three months each. While not all the 



Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y. 



195 



details of the mechanical side of milhiiery are taken up in this and (a) Domestic 
other abridged classes, those points are selected whicli will be tlie Art Course;^ 
most helpful in the liome. In order to awaken an appreciation - continued, 
good form and colour as related to dress, instruction in freehand 
drawing, w^ater-colour, and design as related to millinery Is given 
as outlined above. There are also classes without drawing for those 
who are unable to devote so much time to the course. 

Course of Study. — First grade : practice in foundation work ; 
making bows ; making and trimming hats adapted to styles in vogue. 

Second grade : designing, draughting and making frames ; making 
and trimming covered hats. 

Third and fourth grades, winter season : making draped toque, 
evening hat, street bonnet and velvet hat. Spring season, making 
hat and toque of fancy straw braid over frame, also lace and chiffon 
hats. Children's hats may be made in any grade. Fees^ $iO per 
term (£2). 

V. Basketry. — This course consists of one lesson a week for three 
months and teaches the methods of making baskets of various weaves 
and shapes in rafiia, splint, reed, grasses, and other materials. Tlie 
weaving and shaping are done by the eye ; which is considered to 
give an opportunity for expression to the worker's feeling for form 
and design. Originality in design on the part of the student is thus 
encouraged, a slight difference in manipulation producing a variety 
in form and pattern, this lends especial charm and interest to the 
work and at the same time stimulates appreciation of good form. 
The art is practised for its value as manual training, as well as for 
the pleasure derived from the useful and decorative results. The fees 
are $5 per term (£l). There is also a series of children's classes 
in simple basketry in rafha and reed ; experience shows that these 
materials are well adapted to interest children, while they teach firm- 
ness of touch and dexterity in handling. These classes consist of 
children from nine to fifteen years of age, and meet on Saturday 
mornings from nine to eleven o'clock. Fees, $2 per term (about Ss.)- 

Considerable rearrangement of the Normal Courses has taken 
place at the Pratt Institute since my visit in April, 1901. Expe- 
rience has shown tliat the present i)rofessional opportunities open 
to women of special training usually require of them a command of 
more than one subject when they first undertake professional work. 
For instance, out of ninety-nine positions filled to-day. by women 
who chose Domestic Science as a major subject and Domestic xArt as 
a minor in their training, in seventy they are required to teach both 
cookery and sewing, in twenty-five cookery only, and in four sewing. 
It is therefore considered advisable that the Normal coui-se in 
Domestic Art* should consistently include work in Domestic Science, 
so that graduates may be efficiently prepared to teach elementary 
Domestic Science, in addition to being experts in Domestic Art. Con- 
sequently from the autumn of 1901 the work of the first year for 
Normal students in both subjects became identical, and is carried 
on entirely in the Domestic Science Department. At the end of this 
time, students are given an opjjortunity, if their work has been 
satisfactory, to choose whether they will devote their time in the 
second year to advanced woi*k in Domestic Art or in Domestic 
Science. Those who desire and can give evidence of the necessary 
qualifications are then admitted to the Normal Domestic Art 

~~ See Table XXVITl. 



> -2 



196 



U,S. A. —Private Technical Institutes, 



course. This includes normal methods, practice teaching, phy- 
sical training, advanced sewing, basketry and weaving, dress- 
making, millinery, art needlework, and costume design. Students 
are also required to write a thesis upon a subject relating to 
domestic art, showing a clear and thoughtful consideration of the 
selected subject. 

(h) Domestic In the Department of Domestic Science the courses of study for 
adults are also Normal, Technical, and General, while others are 
provided for children of various ages. 

The following are the outlines for the General and Special courses, 
the latter being planned for women who can devote but a few hours 
a week to such work ; to further meet their convenience they are 
subdivided upon entering into three groups, (a) those who can give 
six hours, (6) four hours, or (c) only one hour a week, for one year. 

General Course (five days a week for one year). — Chemistry, 
bacteriology, physiology and hygiene, sanitation, household economics ; 
cookery, dietetics, marketing and accounts ; serving, sewing, laundry 
work, house construction. Fee, £6 a term. 

Special Courses.— (1) Cookery and dietetics; (2) bacteriology, 
hygiene, marketing and accounts ; (3) serving, laundry work, household 
economics, sanitation and construction. Fees, £2 to £3 a term. 

There are also day and evening courses designed for mothers or for 
women engaged in domestic service, which deal with the preparation, 
composition and purchase of foods ; these consist of two classes a 
week for two terms of three months. Cooks' courses ; Sick Nursing 
courses ; Saturday morning school girls' classes ; lectures on market- 
ing, and private lessons are also given as desired. A course for wait- 
resses and one in laundry work are provided, and a special one-year 
course is given in Food Economics, intended for women already qualified 
for responsible positions by character and practical experience. It is 
the result of a demand for trained persons as managers or house- 
keepers for public institutions, hospitals and schools, etc., and embraces 
the following topics : the selection of food material with regard to 
quality and cost and the principles of cookery. Methods of prepara- 
tion in large quantities. Physiology, hygiene, sanitation. Chemistry, 
bacteriology. Dietetics, household economics, accounts. Marketing 
and serving, including general dining-room economy. 

This course affords training along all the fundamental lines of 
practical housework ; and, so far as the time will permit, in the under- 
lying natural sciences ; only mature women of fair general training 
with executive ability, experience in life, skill in practical house-work 
and possessed of physical strength and endurance are advised to take 
it. Six months are devoted to student work in the department and 
three to probationary professional service. The Institute kitchen 
and lunch room, serving daily between two and three hundred guests, 
provide necessary facilities. Dinners and luncheons are planned, 
prepared and served by students ; hospitals, orphanages, day nurseries 
and school lunch-rooms are visited ; and expeditions are made to public 
kitcliens and to manufactories of kitchen and hotel furnishings. 
Miss Edith Greer is director of this whole Department ; and 
brings a trained intelligence and much enthusiasm to bear upon her 
responsible duties. The Department itself occupies the sixth floor 
of the Institute ; it has large recently-remodelled and well-equipped 
chemical, physiological, and bacteriological laboratories and school 
kitchens planned for individual work ; rooms thoroughly equipped 
for handwork and sewing: ; a collection of food products and a 
departmental library (Fig. VII.), 



Pratt Institute, BrooUyn, N.Y, 



197 



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(b) Domestic The Normal students in Domestic Science* are prepared primarily 
Science to teacli the group of subjects included under this title ; and 
^continued secondarily to teach elementary sewing and handwork. They 
must be at least eighteen years of age, and must have satisfactorily 
completed a High School course of four years or its equivalent. 
Applicants must pass the general Institute examinations, and 
must also give evidence of having formed good mental habits, and 
of being able to use with facility their knowledge of arithmetic 
(especially percentage and the metric system), algebra, plane 
geometry, elementary physiology, physics, and English. Some 
knowledge of sewing and cooking is expected. They are accepted 
only on probation, which continues until they have shown the 
ability and the desire to develop into cultured women of character. 

The following extracts from " The Pratt Institute Monthly" for 
March, 1902, give in the words of its organiser a brief resume of 
the objects and methods of the course : *' The lines of work now em- 
bodied in the normal course are : Education for the training of the 
professional teacher ; Science, with the natural sciences as basal to a 
true conception of their application in such practical work as cookery, 
for the training of the special teacher of domestic science ; Art, 
including its expression in handwork, such as sewing and basketry, 
for the training of the special teacher of domestic art ; Physical 
training for the physical well-being of the teacher that is to be ; and 
for conscious development of interaction between her mind and the 

medium for expression, her body - 

The course requires two years for its completion. The student- 
work consists of an average of twenty-five fifty-minute periods of 
class work for five days a week, sixteen hours of preparation, and 
two hours of physical training throughout the course. Thus the 
student spends seven and a half hours a day for five days a week, 
and one and a half hours on Saturday, in class work and preparation 
for the same. The proportional distribution of the time is as 
follows : — For all Normal students approximately seven hours a 
week for two years to education (psychology, normal methods, 
practice teaching, etc.), and two hours to physical training ; for 
Domestic Science students, twenty hours to science and ten to hand 
work ; for Domestic A rt students, twenty hours to domestic art and 
ten to domestic science. Until the second year there is neither 
evening nor Saturday class work. The schedule is so arranged 
that approximately three subjects are assigned for each day. The 
sequence maintained in the daily work is recitation, laboratory or 
practical work, and field work alternating with physical training. 
The character of the demand made upon the student by the type 
of work determines the time of day and the order of rotation for 
each subject or phase of a subject. In the first year the educational 
aspect of the work is emphasised ; in the second, the professional . 
The curriculum is strictly confined to the subjects essential 
for an intelligent understanding and free expression of the 
subjects to be used professionally by the graduates. Though the 
students are not introduced to many branches of knowledge with 



* See Table XXIX. 



Pratt Inditute, Brooklyn, N.Y. 



FIG. VII. 




PLAN OF THE SIXTH FLOOR OF PRATT INSTITUTE 
T"hr oftiio *nd the Sewing, Hand-work and Lecture rooms of the Department are located on the 
first rtoor of the Marn Baildmn 



Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y., Plan of Domestic Science Department. 



200 



U.S. A Private Technical Institutes. 



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Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y. 



201 



which they are entirely unfamiliar, a new point of view and more (6) Domestic 
intelligent and personal responsibility for the quality of the work Qq^^J?,!^^^ 
are exacted by the nature of the normal training." Students find continued. 
a third year of work frequently advisable to gain the diploma. 
The lines of elective work suggested for them during this period 
are as follows : — " The continuation of any subject pursued in the 
earlier part of the course ; manual training if not already taken ; 
the evening class for nurses and teachers in kindergarten 
methods and the use of kindergarten materials, the ' Education 
of Man ' ; drawing, composition, and design ; sewing, dress- 
making, and millinery ; or Latin, French, and German in the 
High School classes. The special subjects specified are given 
under the auspices of the departments in the Institute which deal 
with them primarily. In being thus given, apart from allied sub- 
jects, they afford general and not normal training, and are to be 
taken for their value to the individual and not to be used pro- 
fessionally." 

The general chemistry in the Normal course includes (a) quali- 
tative analysis, (b) quantitative analysis (three experiments being 
performed, one of which is gravimetric and one volumetric), 
(c) organic chemistry. In physiology, one hour's lecture with 
demonstrations is given by a physician once a week in the first 
year ; in the second year the lecture is followed by two hours' labo- 
ratory work. This is ideally good, but I learned that its success 
depends wholly on the personality of the professor. The only 
branch of physics dealt with directly in the course is Heat. 
The bacteriology comprises a study of lower forms of life and 
their influence ; the changes in which they are agents ; and the 
conditions necessary to their development. Four hours a week 
for four months is devoted to its study, mostly under direct 
supervision, though students do some outside work. The course 
is essentially non-pathogenic, modelled on that for general 
students at the University of Chicago ; it has been given along 
the same lines for three years, and is considered fairly satisfactory ; 
the class is usually limited to six or eight. Leitz's microscopes 
with objectives 3 and 7 are those used ; and the equipment both 
individual and general is essentially moderate, though sufficient. 
The nature study course consists at first largely of field lessons ; 
subsequently timbers are studied, and students are called upon 
to apply their knowledge to furniture and house- fittings ; so 
far their powers of observation are reported to be defective and 
to demand much training. The course in psychology includes an 
introduction to logic ; the professor in charge is well fitted for 
this work, and has great sympathy with his students. 

The History of Education and Educational Methods appears 
in the syllabus ; but a weak point recorded in its present treat- 
ment is absence of sufficiently close study of child nature and the 
child mind. 

Household economics are studied under three heads :— (1.) house 
construction, the instructors being an architect and an artist ; 



202 



U.S.A. — Private Technical Institutes. 



(^) Domestic (2.) house plumbing, taught by a master plumber; (3.) house 
Courses furnishing ; which includes care of furniture ; methods of house 
—continued, ventilation, etc., etc.; disposal of garbage and waste; purchase of 

supplies, coal, wood, outside food stuffs, etc. 
The laundry work is planned to demand a knowledge of applied 

chemistry and applied bacteriology. 

It is customary to require each normal student to prepare a set of 
bottles illustrating the percentage composition of twelve typical foods. 
These graphically represent the food principles present in some of the 
commonest articles of daily diet — meat, eggs, milk, butter, wheat, 
rice, apples, potatoes, etc. ; the analyses are carried out with scientific 
accuracy, and are in request by schools and colleges where Domestic 
Science is taught. Their sale is a source of small profit to the Institute ; 
but, though such work has its value, it is objected that the amount 
of time demanded by the preparation of twelve such analyses is a heavy 
tax on the time of the students. 

The number in the Normal classes for cooking has varied from 
thirty-four to twenty ; though it is considered that twenty should 
be the limit. At the time of my visit the kitchen was low and not 
very light, but thoroughly well equipped ; it has since been re- 
modelled. The cooking table forms three sides of a square ; 
although this form in some ways minimises the steps of the teacher, 
it is not entirely approved. Each student has her own equipment 
in a numbered drawer, and all the work is individual. As 
has been already described, the director of these courses 
has thought out the fundamental principles of the art of 
cooking, and has a great idea of stimulating thought 
and application by presenting problems which demand the 
illustration of the underlying principles by her students. She 
is eminently mindful of the possibilities of cookery as a point of 
correlation with chemistry, physics, botany, physiology and hygiene. 
Knowledge acquired is, as usual in the United States, tested by 
members of the staff. For instance, in the cooking course, eacli 
student periodically draws a slip from a packet containing the 
names of different dishes ; then cooks that which she draws and 
submits it to criticism. Again, each senior student is required to 
supply three questions weekly ; and it has been Mi-s. Chambers' 
habit to select three of these groups from the whole number sub- 
mitted ; each student must then choose one group to answer and 
work out during the following week ; this plan is found to con- 
stitute a most satisfactory method of testing and promoting pro- 
gress. The Normal students get into touch with social problems 
through their practice teaching in settlements, or in mission-halls 
connected with religious and philanthropic organisations, which 
increasingly demand such assistance. Here they have to face 
very practical difficulties in their environment, and gain useful 
experience along many lines. Students are not accepted for a 
shorter period than two years, unless so exceptionally well pre- 
pared for the work that they can satisfy very stringent conditions, 
which include the passing of both theoretical and practical examina- 



Fratt Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y. 



203 



tions and the presentation of note books recording the mental (6) Domestic 
work which accompanied the past practice. Such students are ^cienc.e 
not expected to use professionally the knowledge they acquire ^.^r^^Hnved, 
unless they remain to complete the Normal course ; the opinion 
being wisely and strongly held that a partial course cannot prepare 
for inteUigent and effective work. 

The following analysis of the subjects of this Normal course (Pratt 
Institute Monthly, March, 1902), is added in order to furnish as 
accurate and comprehensive a view as possible of its details. 

Education : — 

Psychology : its principles and their application to education. 

Principles of education, the laws underlying development 
and their expression in educational practice. 

History of education, its relation to history as an expression 
of the social life and development of the race. 

Normal methods, the principles obtaining in the school-room 
whereby a wholesome atmosphere, self-activity of the 
pupil, and greatest efficiency in the special work are attained. 

Kindergarten methods and use of materials ; comprehen- 
sive survey of different phases of kindergarten work (the 
"Mother play," stories, occupations, and games), ta give 
insight into the life of the child. 

Practice-teaching (under supervision) in Domestic Science and 
Art. 

Science (Natural) :— 

General chemistry, qualitative and quantitative analysis, 
organic and physiological chemistry, and chemistry of foods. 

Physiology, function and structure of the body under normal 
conditions of life, with special emphasis upon digestion 
and the organs of the special senses ; hygiene (personal and 
public) ; emergencies and home nursing. 

Bacteriology : its principles, their significance and their appli- 
cation to life. 

Heat : its principles, and their significance and use in Domestic 
Science. 

Nature study : its principles and the methods of study involved 
as basal to correct scientific observation and inference. 
Science (Applied) : — 

. Cookery : its general principles in practice, their modification 
in the preparation of food for infants, invalids, and adults 
living under widely varying conditions. 

Dietetics : composition of the body, its waste and repair ; 
• need of food ; kinds and proportions required ; composition 
of various food materials ; use of each in the body ; digesti- 
bility of each ; desirable combinations ; best methods of 
cooking in order to secure greatest nutritive value at least 
cost ; modes of meeting the needs of the individual ; calcu- 
lation of dietaries ; comparison of the dietaries for persons 
of different ages and engaged in different occupations, 
and of those for different races ; and, so far as the present 
state of science will permit, the solution of special dietetic 
problems arising in the home. 

Serving : the principles and practices underlying wholesome- 
ness and attractiveness. 

Marketing : economical purchase and preservation of food. 

Household economics : care of the house and its furnishings ; 
plumbing ; scientific principles involved and practices con- 
ducive to the maintenance of healthful conditions. 



2m U.S.A. — Private Technical Institutes, 

(h) Domestic Construction : the sanitary and artistic expression of the 

Science principles embodied. 
Courses Art ; — 

inued. Drawing : a comprehensive study of lino, light and shade ; 



colour ; nature study ; hand-work and sewing affording 
material for design and blackboard illustration ; draughting 
in connection with sewing and construction for mechanical 
drawing. 
Art (Applied) : - 

Hand-work ; braiding, knotting, netting, knitting, weaving, 
and basketry embodying the artistic and mechanical 
principles of good manual work. 
Sewing : hand sewing, draughting, and machine sewing, in- 
cluding undergarments and an unlined dress ; principles 
of construction and execution and their appropriate 
expression. 

A student is expected to recognise her knowledge as the fund 
upon which she is to draw for subject matter in her professional 
work, but she must acquire skill in its adaptation (in accordance 
with the principles instilled by her normal work, normal methods 
and practice teaching) to the subjects and conditions under 
which she finds herself at work. Evidence of power to do this, 
as well as to work skilfully, economically, and harmoniously 
under any conditions which may exist of necessity, is held to 
be an essential qualification for the satisfactory completion of this 
Normal course. In addition a thesis on a subject relating to 
Domestic Science, showing research and original work, is required 
of all Normal students before the diploma is awarded. Never- 
theless, though the course is planned to develop the Normal 
student, and to train her along special lines of domestic science 
and art through wise stimulation and development, it also 
embodies all the principles and most of the specific exercises in 
general form which are adapted to other classes of students. 

After the training has been completed satisfactorily, the Depart- 
ment interests itself in the future of those whom it has trained, 
but naturally it does not assume the responsibility of undertaking 
to procure positions for such as desire to enter professional life. 
However, since applications are constantly received for candidates 
qualified to render good service along the various lines of domestic 
science and art, there is usually no difficulty in placing graduates. 
The demand from manual training and private schools, from 
agricultural colleges, hospitals, institutions, and univ^sity settle- 
ments is an ever increasing one. 

Six instructors are in charge of this department, and give con- 
centrated attention to their work and its problems. Upon them, 
together with the director, devolve the general guidance and 
thought for the well-being of the students, and from them, in the 
main, emanate the good influences which mould their personalities. 
They publicly make known their desire to permeate the lives 
of their students with consciousness of the fact that a choice is 
the expression of a " moral motive " ; that action is impelled 
by thought and is a test of it, and that it is in action that 



Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



205 



possibilities are discovered and realised. Thus all encouragement Domestic 
is given to direction from within, and as far as possible sug- Science 
gestion is substituted for that from without. It is gratifying ^^J^-^^^^^ 
to learn how soon students begin to appreciate that they are, 
in the main, capable of being what they choose to be ; that they 
gain power to see their work in the light of what it might be ; for 
it is thus that they are led to realise more fully their potentialities, 
and to grow in power, in freedom, and in helpfulness." Each 
student comes in contact with these six instructors within the de- 
partment, with at least six Institute instructors in other de 
partments, and with one or two lecturers from other institutions 
or engaged in other walks in life. It is believed that in this way 
the best intellectual, personal and technical results are attained. 

The only significant change in the faculty of the department 
during the past year, i.e., the appointment of a supervisor of prac- 
tice-teaching, has proved even more beneficial than was antici- 
pated. The wide experience of this lady brings in an invaluable 
element to the young teacher, confronted by many unexpected 
conditions in the public schools of the large cities and rural districts 
where she will work. Miss Snow was for eleven years superinten- 
dent of schools and director of the City Training School for Teachers, 
of Bangor, Maine, where her work attracted the attention of 
the educational institutions and associations of New England ; 
indeed the University of Maine, in recognition of her service to the 
State, conferred upon her the degree of Master of Philosophy. The 
Association of Superintendents of New England elected her to its 
presidency in 1899, as did also the Pedagogical Society of Maine ; the 
appointment in each instance being the first tribute of the kind 
shown to the work of a woman by either Association. Miss Snow 
teaches not only normal methods, but some physiology as well, 
in order that she may come in touch Avith the students in a study 
which is vitally connected with their future professional work. 
Since the missions in which they practice are widely scattered, 
and the work is in progress at all hours, on all days, among 
all kinds of people, and under extremely varying types of 
management, only a woman of exceptional abilities, experience, 
and broad sympathies could superintend it successfully. In the 
practice-classes the conditions are in many respects unfavourable ; 
they are irregular and ungraded. As a j^hase of Domestic Science 
work they possess a certain value, but in time it is hojied that 
this type of work may be supplemented by experience more nearly 
akin to that which the student will meet in professional life. The 
practice-classes in sewing greatly outnumber those in cookery ; it 
seems that some mothers find it troublesome to have a child cook - 
ing at home, while sewing can l^e turned to good account without 
serious inconvenience. Possibly the thought that sewing, as such, 
leads to a more acceptable professional career than cookery may not 
be without its influence. About 400 women and children are being 
instructed in these mission classes, nearly double the number taught 
by the Department during the previous year, a^ the size of the second 



206 



U.S.A. — Private Technical InstitMtes. 



(h) Domestic year Normal class made it possible to undertake more work of this 
C^u"^^ kind. That there should now be a long waiting list for teachers 
-^^ontinued ^^'^'^"^ marvellous to those who remember with w.Uat difficulty 
such Avork was secured a few years since for even a small number 
of Normal students. In this practice work, " the student is ex- 
pected to study the class and its environment, and to aim to meet 
the students where they are ; to direct and to stimulate them 
to desire and strive for what will nourish best both body and mind. 
This requires the exercise of insight, discrimination, mental flexi- 
bility, and a genuine desire to help where help is needed." 

Health and personality are considered such influential factors 
in the life and success of a teacher, that much stress is laid upon 
them in the selection of Normal students. Otherwise inadequately 
prepared candidates, if promising in the above respects, are 
encouraged to complete the necessary preliminary training ; 
general direction of such student work is always offered, invariably 
welcomed, and usually followed ; as a result from eight to twelve 
students are each year conscientiously preparing themselves elsewhere 
for the Normal course offered in this Department. Meanwhile, 
no effort is spared to discourage girls from specialising in science 
and handwork in the High School, with the intention of sub- 
sequently offering such work as the equivalent of that of a similar 
nature in the Normal course. The feeling is strong that, though 
early manual training and an elementaiy knowledge of science 
are excellent and useful, they do not afford adequate professional 
preparation for teachers of Domestic Science ; and when over 
emphasised prematurely, at the expense of a firm foundation in 
general knowledge and breadth of culture, a real loss results 
instead of the anticipated gain. 

Each year the Department prepares what are called " food 
museums," for schools, consisting of blocks representing the com- 
position of the body, and of others shewing the daily outgoing and 
income, hi addition to the set of bottles, before described, which illus- 
trate the percentage composition of twelve typical foods. This year 
the demand for the "museum" has been such, that orders 
could only be taken on the condition that delivery could 
be delayed from one to two months. This is interpreted to 
mean that Domestic Science is more widely taught, and that its 
place is becoming so assured that expensive equipment is 
obtained for it. To many schools the Department has sent, by 
I'equest, suggestions relative to equipment and the subject matter 
to be taught in Domestic Science and Art courses. It cordially 
receives visitors who are interested in these subjects ; and turns such 
visits to useful account by deriving from these sources fuller 
information as to the needs which Domestic Science workers may 
assist to meet. During the p^ast ten yeai'S tlie cui-riculum for the 
Normal students of Domestic Science has been materially modified. 
Though some subjects have appeared in the course only to be 
crowded out by others with still more urgent claims for recognition, 
the efifoi't of late years has been one of " simplification, not through 



Drexel Institute, PhiladdpJiia. 



207 



rejection, but through harmony." " It is not the intention to 
ivniain satisfied with the progress ah-eady made ; therefore, tliere 
wiU be changes, but with continuity of hfe and unity in purpose 
underlying them." In these conchiding words are to be found 
evidence of that spirit of earnest self-criticism, and broad-minded 
opemiess to suggestion, which appeared to me to characterise the 
leaders of thought and practice in Household Economics in the 
United States. 

A quotation from a letter recently received from the Director of 
the Pratt Institute Course throws light upon past results and indicates 
probable modifications in the near future : — " For several years," she 
writes, " some of our plans have been yery tentative, because of the 
transition state of education in general ; but now that it is evident 
tliat such work as we are doing has entered the school system as an 
integral part, we feel that we should expand our work somewhat, as 
we propose doing next year. We are trying a new presentation of 
cookery with a group of ten normal students, which bids fair to be 
more effective in the training of teachers than any method which 
we have used in the past. It has always been discouragingly difficult 
to train a woman scientifically, and at the same time imbue her with 
a spirit which would make her desirous to teach cookery in conformity 
with science, instead of simply science through cookery. ... It is 
with difficulty and through strenuous effort that we make teaching a 
child through the concrete interesting to the normal student." It 
may be anticipated, therefore, that actual cooking practice will now 
receive a larger measure of attention than hitherto in the Pratt Insti- 
tute Normal course. The following extract from Miss Edith Greer's 
account of the Normal course in Domestic Science from the " Pratt 
Institute Monthly" for March, 1901, explains her reasons for the 
relatively limited time devoted up till now to this branch of Domestic 
Science. " Before speaking of cookery, its place and ])resentation in 
a normal conrse in Domestic Science, perchance it may preclude mis- 
understanding if the ever present question, ' Are the normal students 
taught to be skilful cooks ? ' be answered tentatively. It is the duty 
of the school, if it fulfil its mission, to train ' intelligent not skilful 
workers.' Skill, in mechanical manipulation especially, can come 
through repetition only and repetition does not to any great extent 
enforce conscious mental activity. When the hand has carried out 
the mandate of the head and thereby strengthened the mental impres- 
sion, the act may be repeated almost automatically until muscnlar 
co-ordination becoming perfected results in skill. But inasmuch as 
' he who is never given anything more to do than he can do, will never 
learn to do what he can,' so the mind when it has nothing further to 
learn from a special act, and thus is freed and strengthened for some- 
thing new and more difficult, i^ defrauded and for ever impoverished 
if it be not taxed anew. Cookery, therofore, in the Normal course 
is, as will be surmised, considered primarily from the scientific point of 
view ; not theoretically, however, for practical work in the school 
kitchen for four hours each week for two years exacts of the student 
material expression of the training obtained. Familiarity with pro- 
cesses and sufficient skill therein to ensure with experience excellent 
results as to the quality and fia\ our of cooked food, are requisites of 
acceptable work." 

Another example of courses in the same subjects, organised under Drexel Insti- 
directors as zeak)us as Miss Greer and Miss Saokett, are those cari-ied tute, I'hila- 
onatthe Drexel Institute, Philadelpbia, founded by Anthony J. ^^^Iphia. 
Drexel in 1891, for the promotion of education in art, science, 



* 



208 U.S.A. — Private Technical Institutes. 

Drexel Insti- and industry. The chief object of the Institute is the extension 
tute, Phila- and improvement of industrial education as a means of opening 
—continued ^^^^^ better avenues of employment to young men and women. 

In accordance with the founder's desire, however, the plan of organi- 
sation has been made comprehensive ; liberal means of culture 
for the public are also ])rovided by means of evening classes, free 
lectures and concerts, the library and the museum. Mr. Drexel's 
gifts to the Institution amount in all to three million dollars. 
There are eighteen departments in Art, Science, Commerce, and 
Domestic Subjects, both Normal and Technical courses being 
available in most subjects. The exterior and much of the 
interior of the building are handsome and impressive ; but the 
general plan is inconvenient, so that considerable sums of money 
are now compulsorily expended on re-arrangements and additions. 
The main entrance hall is of magnificent proportions, and sump- 
tuous in its lavish decoration of fine marble staircases, pillars, and 
galleries. It is pleasant to note, on the authority of the President 
of the Institute, that in spite of the daily use of this handsome hall 
by thousands of students, no single instance has occurred of damage 
to its beauty. The control of the Institute is entrusted to a Board 
of Trustees, assisted l)y an Advisory Board of women, whose numbers 
are well represented on the various committees. The general 
courses are open to both sexes, on equal terms and conditions. 

Mr. Drexel handed over the organisation of his great scheme at 
an early stage to Dr. MacAlister, the present President of the 
Institute, to whom much credit is due for the speedy introductioji 
of a successful Domestic Science course. From the first, the 
diplomees secured excellent positions as teachers, managers of 
large institutions and so forth, the demand continuing to 
exceed the supply. This Department ^\^as soon reinforced by 
one in Domestic Art, which is admirably equipped, and is 
situated in spacious, air}^ and well-lit rooms, artistic in their 
decoration, and well suited to their purpose. The same may be 
said of the Department of Domestic Science ; kitchens, laundry, 
laboratories, dining-room, class-rooms, all give the impression of 
convenience and space. Under Miss Caroline Hall and Miss Burgess 
in the one, and under the directorship of Miss Helen Spring in the 
other, skilled organisation fosters the growth of sound work among 
the students. The Institute Library contains a large section 
devoted to Art subjects, and includes a collection of books on 
costume, ancient, mediseval, oriental, i)rofessional and hygienic ; 
also a wide range of costly pul^lications dealing with art needlework, 
tapestry, colour, textiles, dyeing and weaving. Students can secure 
a printed reference list containing the bibliography of these subjects 
admirably classified, which also offers suggestions to those 
anxious to follow a systematic course of reading in the various 
branches (e.g., references are furnished to certain books of travel 
which contain good, brief descriptions and illustrations of the dress 
of different nations) 



Drexd Institute, Philadelphia, 



209 



A study of the schedules of the Normal courses in the Domestic 
Arts and Sciences at both the Pratt and Drexel Institutes reveals 
a general similarity, flavoured with the diversity to be anticipated 
where each is free to plan and practice as seems best in the light 
of experience and the needs of the community it serves. The scope of 
all the courses is wide ; for the reason that those responsible for them 
share the prevalent conviction that technical work of the highest, 
most intelligent order is impossible unless founded upon a firm 
basis of theoretical principles ; therefore, they maintain, the funda- 
mental sciences and arts must find a place. Manual and physical 
training, in addition to the scientific methods and skilled manipu- 
lation gained in the chemical and biological laboratories, are in- 
cluded from the belief that the necessary co-ordination of hand, 
eye and brain can be more profitably acquired through suited 
variety of exercise than by the constant repetition of one class of 
operation. Obligatory attention to literature is required in order 
to develop a quick sympathy with varied temperaments, and a 
mind, not alone well balanced, because exercised in many directions, 
but broadened also by contact with the wise sayings of great philo- 
sophers and poets ; in addition, the necessary command of a good 
vocabulary is another result anticipated from wide reading of 
classics in several languages. As such culture studies are too often 
overlooked in the press of daily work,especially when this is of an 
essentially practical nature, English Hterature, composition and 
elementary psychology are compulsory, not "elective" subjects. 
Experience has shown that the same need for obligation exists in 
the case of physical training, which is, therefore, required of all stu- 
dents throughout their courses ; young and eager girls are prone to 
forget that a healthy body and a good carriage are indispensable 
to satisfactory study as well as to success as a teacher. The care 
for physical needs is further evidenced in the daily provision at 
these Institutes of inexpensive, nutritious and appetising lunches 
for students. 

A comparison in detail of the Normal courses in Domestic Art* 
affords further illustration of this general similarity, though some- 
what more prominence is given to artistic training at the Pratt 
Institute, while a recognition of the assistance to be derived from 
acquaintance with business methods and the keeping of accurate 
accounts is evident in the Drexel scheme. It also appeared to me 
that a more] practical knowledge of the chemistry of dyeing and 
cleaning enters into the latter course, in which the study of 
human physiology is rather more prolonged ; in other respects 
the resemblance in scope, methods, and time periods allotted is 
such that I do not propose to detail the Normal course in Domestic 
Art at the Drexel Institute, though further particulars are sup- 
plied in Appendix F.f (See also Table XXX.). 

* See Tables XXVIII. and XXX. 

t Further referei^ce to the work of the Domestic Art Department is 
made on p. 215. 



G490. 



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210 



U.S.A. — Private Technical Institutes, 



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-Brexel Institute, PMladdpMa. 



211 



Turning to the Domestic Science course, it will be seen that at (a) Domestic 
the Drexel Institute human physiology is supplemented by a Science 
short course in biology and bacteriology, whereas at the Pratt ^^^^^^j 
Institute students of both Domestic Science and Art gain thisxormal,' 
desirable introduction to physiology through their preceding nature Technical), 
study • they have the advantage also of a short study of that Table XXXI 
branch of physics which is concerned with heat ; dexterity with 
their hands is developed by a definite course in manual training, 
while sewing also finds a place, in order, as has been said, that 
graduates may be competent to conduct an elementary course in a 
grade school should it be desired. Speaking broadly, I gained the 
impression that, while substantially the same in conception and 
scope, manual training is somewhat more emphasised at the Pratt 
and chemical practice at the Drexel Institute. A comparison 
can be also instituted as to the number of hours spent on the diffe- 
rent subjects by the students following the respecuves courses 
at the two Institutes ; for instance, at Pratt 330 hours are devoted 
to nature study, bacteriology and physiology, and 470 to physics 
(heat) and chemistry, while at Drexel 200 hours are given to 
biology, bacteriology, and physiology, and 500 to chemistry. The 
Pratt course gives 280 hours to actual cooking practice — little 
more than half the time expended on it at Drexel — in most other 
subjects the courses are of almost equal length. 

Thanks to the ready courtesy of the Directors of these important 
Departments in both Institutes, many details have been furnished 
to me with which my too short visits prevented me from acquainting 
myself personally. Among these must be specially mentioned the 
series of syllabuses from the Drexel Institute included in the 
Appendix F., which cannot fail to interest those responsible for 
similar courses in Great Britain. In the Domestic Science Normal 
course* at the Drexel Institute the general chemistry extends 
through one year ; and is followed by the practice of qualitative 
and quantitative analysis, with two lectures and two laboratory 
periods a week. The course in quantitative analysis is devoted to 
food analysis ; the laboratory work is of such a character as to 
furnish data for the calculation of food values as well as to detect 
adulterations. I learned that the following indicates the general 
scope of this quantitative work, to which one year is devoted : — 
analysis of chemically pure soils, of potable water, of milk, of butter, 
of cereals, of tea and bakin^j powder. Some study of organic 
chemistry follows, the method employed in both courses being 
(a) a lecture covering the ground of the week's work ; (6) imme- 
diate practice, carried on under supervision where necessary. It is 
evident that Miss Spring and Professor Henwood attach very 
considerable importance to the chemistry of foods and to dietary 
studies ; lectures on these subjects form a coui^e in the last term ; 
and problems, theoretical and practical, are furnished for solution 
to the students. Professor Henwood has worked out and carried 

^ See T^ble XXXI. 
6490. O 2 



212 



U.S.A. — Private Technical Institutes. 



(a) Domestic on a scheme in this subject for six years, three of which have now 
Science been on the Hnes he finds to result in the accompHshment of good 
( ourses.-- ^Qj.]^ . orraduates attend these classes as well as the Normal st\idents. 
conttnuea. mi , ^ • n • t- ^ L^ 

The class of sixteen works m groups of twos and threes. 

During the junior year the course in anatomy and physiology 
cavers a general study of the body and its various systems ; the 
laboratory demonstrations have reference to the lecture topics, 
Avhich embrace the subjects of physical development, physical 
training, personal and domestic hygiene. 

Each Normal student goes through practically eight courses in 
cookery. Of these, however, three consist in repetitions of the 
first three in general cookery, to ensure a thorough grasp of 
principles and facility in practice. The course in advanced cookery 
is then taken, as well as that in invalid cookery, followed by a 
" lunch room " course, through which experience is gained in 
providing for large numbers. Individual work with small quan- 
tities is usually followed by group work in which food is prepared 
in sufficient amounts for a family of six or eight persons. The 

lunch room " is open for the use of all students who attend the 
Institute. A handsomely decorated hall, resembling a high-class 
restaurant, was approaching completion, at the time of my visit, 
to replace the hitherto ci-amped and unsatisfactory quarters. 
Each portion of food must represent a certain nutritive value, and 
is sold at remarkably low prices ; it appears to be appetising and 
varied. No special study is made of infant feeding in this course, 
in consequence of the wide divergence of opinion and practice 
which prevails, as w^ell as of the increasing custom among physicians 
to waite prescriptions for individual cases. Students are throughout 
referred to an excellent library of books of reference containing 
not only the standard works, but all the new^est and best as they 
appear ; the invaluable Food Bulletins of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture being also available for their use. 

The Laundry course comprises only twelve lessons ; it appears, 
so far as it goes, practical, and based on scientific principles ; as a 
subject it does not as yet rank high in the curriculum of sucli 
training courses, though here, as at the Pratt Institute and 
Teachers College, great stress is laid upon its importance in house- 
hold training. The plan and building of a house is at present 
treated only theoretically ; this course of lectures is open to students 
in several other departments besides those in the Normal and 
Housekeepers' courses ; the synopsis of lectures appears well planned, 
and the appended bibliography, which includes books on house 
sanitation and hygiene, sites and environment, and the historical 
development of the dwelling, is very complete and suggestive. 
The course is given by Professor Prescott Hopkins of the Architec- 
tural Department of the Institute. Home nursing is practised 
in a well-fui-nished bedroom, but, unfortunately, is not taught by 
a trained nurse. The fees fc>r the Normal courses ai-e $40 
(about £8) per term ; text books and stationery average $1(> 



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214 V.S.A, — Private Technical Institutes. 



(a) Domestic (about £2 2s.) ; board may be had near the Institute at prices 
Science ranging from $5 to $8 (about £1 to £1 12s. 6d.) a week. A 
Courses. students' boarding-house has been organised in connection with 
the department, the inclusive terms being $5 (£1) a week, board 
only $3.50 (14s.) ; tjie accommodation, however, is limited, and 
the long waiting list shows how inadequate it is to the demand. 
In the kitchen washing-dresses are not required, white blouses 
and black skirts with the usual apron, sleeves, and cap being the 
selected costume. The demand for the normal students on 
graduation is at present larger than can be met; the training 
i-eceived having a very high character throughout the United 
States. The normal practice work is obtained by means of classes 
for guilds, church schools, children's Saturday classes, etc., held 
in various quarters of the city. 

In addition to the Normal courses in cookery, ten alternative 
courses are offered in this and other subjects connected with the 
household ; each course occupies one term and is complete in itself. 
Of these, three are confined to general cookery ; they are consecu- 
tive and must be taken up in regular oi'der. 

The First Course consists of instruction in the composition and 
dietetic value of food materials. The lessons are arranged in logical 
order, and each principle is illustrated by the preparation of simple 
dishes. The teaching is largely individual, each student preparing 
an entire dish ; the object of the course is the preparation of food in 
the most digestible and appetising forms. 

In the Second Course instruction and practice are given in the pre- 
paration of more complicated dishes and menus than are included in 
the first course. 

The Third Course includes the preparation of still more elaborate 
and expensive dishes ; lessons in marketing and carving ; and practical 
demonstration in the cutting of meat. In each course one lesson of 
three hours is given weekly. 
The course in Invahd Cookery is intended for professional nurses 
and other peraons desirous of acquiring a practical knowledge 
of cookery suitable for the sick room. It extends throughout 
one term, with one lesson of two and a-half hours each week. 
Similar classes are arranged for medical students either in the 
afternoon or evening to suit their convenience. The Housekeepers' 
course is offered in the belief that greater skill and intelligence 
are needed in the management of the home, and for the purpose 
of providing thorough training for women who possess the re- 
quisite qualifications to fit themselves for positions as housekeepers 
or as matrons of public institutions. It is analogous to that on 
Food Economics at the Pratt Institute, and occupies a year. 

It includes the general courses in cookery, courses in invalid and 
lunch-room cookery ; a course for waitresses ; laundry work ; 
marketing ; lectures on physiology and hygiene ; home nursing ; 
familiar talks on food materials and other matters relating to the 
household together with a study of business forms and accounts. 
At present the number who attend it is very limited ; applicants must 
be twenty-five years of age and must give evidence of a good education. 
Courses are also organised in Home Nursing, Laundry work and 
ior Waitresses (six lessons of two hours each) ; there is a good 



tJrcdccl Institute^ PMladd^jhia. 



215 



fecture course on Home Construction, as well as children's Satur- 
day classes and evening classes in General Cookery ; there is also 
a " Chafing-dish ' ' course for men ; all are open to the public ; 
occasionally boys are included among the Waitress course students. 

The syllabus of the first course in the Evening Cooking Classes 
is included in Appendix B (p. 312), also one in Household Science ; 
they will be seen closely to resemble those employed for correspond- 
ing classes in this country. One lesson a week is usual in the above 
courses for one or two sessions ; the fees charged vary from 
twelve shillings to £1. 5s. All materials in the cookery classes 
are provided by the Institute. Good reports are given of the 
attendance at the greater number of these numerous classes. 

The General Course of Instruction in Dressmaking consists of (^) Domestic 
four grades, each occupying one term or half the academic year ; (Qg^^af ^^^* 
two lessons of two hours each being given weekly. All materials Normal,* 
must be furnished by the students, except those supplied in the Technical), 
third and fourth grades for order work, when, for further practice, 
students are allowed to receive and execute orders. All work cut 
and planned in the class room must be finished at home. Instruc- 
tion is also provided in accounts, business forms, and correspondence, 
two lessons of one hour each being given weekly during the second 
term. A course of lectures in the Chemistry of textiles, dyeing, 
and cleansing is given during the second term of each year. 
Throughout the Domestic Art Department, similar stress is laid 
upon the study of line, form, the proportions of the human figure, 
etc., as in the Pratt Institute ; one and a-half hours a week must 
be devoted to such instruction and practice in the General, as well 
as the Technical and Normal dressmaking and millinery classes. 
The two terms begin in September and February respectively ; 
students enter for one term at a time. The fees are £3 for the 
first grade, and £4 for each of the more advanced. 

The Technical courses in Sewing, Dressmaking, and Millinery 
are arranged to meet the need of those who desire to train as pro- 
fessionals. The dressmaking students are expected to attend 
lectures in physiology and in hygiene with reference to dress, in addi- 
tion to those in the chemistry of textiles, dyeing and cleansing, no 
additional fee being required; they also have the privilege of physical 
training in the gymnasium without extra payment. They must 
be at least eighteen years of age on admission, have a good know- 
ledge of hand and machine sewing, and must present for inspection 
a dress made personally from patterns. Applicants are admitted 
only in September in each year ; cei'tificates are granted to satis- 
factory students who have followed the entire course. The fees 
are $30 (£6) per term. In the evening classes instruction is 
given in hand and machine sewing, in the first, second, and third 
grades of the general course in dressmaking, and in millinery. 
The session extends through six months, from the beginning of 

* With reference to the Normal Course in Domestic Art, see above' 
page 209. 



V.S.A. — Private Wofneris CoUeyes. 



October to tlie end of March ; in each grade two lessons of tw(3 
hours each are given weekly ; the fees are 12s. 6d. for the first 
covirse, and from £1 to £1. 12s. 6d. for the more advanced, 
(c) Juriioi' Brief mention must be made of the junior coiiree in Domestic 
Coarse in Science and Art which is a non-professional course of prescribed 
Sd^icVand ^^^^ies for girls ; it covers two years, and is designed to supply that 
Art. training for the duties and responsibilities of home life wdiich the 

ordinary academic education fails to give, and also to lay a broad and 
solid foundation for the technical work involved in direct prepara 
tion for a profession or a skilled occupation. The course is based 
upon the recognition of the fact that training for the practical 
business of life should have its due ]jlace in the education of the 
individual during the plastic period of life, and experience is con- 
stantly showing the soundness of this position. Of the pupils who 
have thus far graduated, more than three-fourths have developed 
aptitudes for some domestic art or science ; these have subsequently 
taken advanced courses in chemistry, physiology and hygiene, 
domestic science, millinery, or dressmaking, with a view in each 
case to following the pursuit as a profession. As a result of 
this preparatory training in a well-arranged and soundly-correlated 
course of study, these pupils have the advantage of entering 
upon the pursuit of their technical coui-ses with good haljits of 
thought and study, and with the ability to feel an intelligent 
delight in their work." The course is divided broadly into scien- 
tific work, academic work, and technical work — about one-third 
of the time being given to each of these l^ranches. 

The complete list of studies is as follows : — language and 
literature, general history, civics, current events, mathematics, 
elementary chemistry, physiology and hygiene, domestic science 
and arts (including household economics), cookery (practical in- 
struction in the school kitchen, talks on foods), sewing, millinery ; 
the planning, decoration, and furnishing of a house; business 
customs and accounts ; drawing and physical training. 

E. — Women's Colleges. 

Courses in A'course in physiology and hygiene is given at Vassar College 
Hygiene and fQj. Women by Professor Thalberg, which is obligatory for all 
Econoniics freshmen during their first term. It comprises lectures, recita- 
(a) Vassar tions, and practical investigation of the principles of house 
College. sanitation ; drawings and models are provided for this study. An 
elective course is also offered in advanced hygiene, which is open 
to juniors and seniors ; this comprises, in addition to text-book 
work, the microscopic study of tissues, experiments in physiological 
chemistry and frequent dissections. Certain courses in biology 
are recommended as a good introduction to these advanced 
courses. In chemistry, the analysis of food is open to those who 
have studied quantitative analysis and organic chemistry ; while 
in the department of economics and sociology Professor Mills, in his 
course on Charities and Corrections, treats of the physical and 
physiological, as well as of otiier causes of abnormality. 



Coilfses in Hyfjiene and tiousehold Economics. 



A course in the Elements of Hygiene, conducted by Miss E. B. (^>) Wellesley 
Sherrard, resident health officer, is also required of all freshmen (^'ollege. 
at Wellesley College for Women, and coimts towards the degree of 
B.A. Miss Hazard, the President, believes that this course pro- 
vides for health in the present and in the future by awakening 
and helping to educate a " physical conscience." The part of the 
subject presented is concerned chiefly with the proper care of the 
Iwdy. The course is designed to give a practical knowledge of its 
structure and an understanding of some of the chief causes which 
lead to deterioration of health and to needless loss of life. A useful 
outline is also given of the general principles of public hygiene. 
The courses in zoology and animal physiology afford opportunity 
for further study to any specially interested student. Instruction 
in domestic science, including the theory of diet and cookery, was 
given for some time ; the resignation of the instructor, on her 
appointment to work in another college, brought this to a close. 
Since then occasional lectures on this subject have been given, and 
have invariably been received with much interest, but no regular 
course has been organised. 

In the other colleges for women — Bryn Mawr and Smith, for 
instance — attention is devoted to physical culture, and a general 
supervision is exercised over the health of the girls ; though 
Wellesley College is still the exception in the excellent work 
carried on by its resident health officers. These medical women 
endeavour perseveringly to train students to judicious care of 
themselves, chiefly by the adoption of a set of commonsense 
rules for healthful living. The results to their well-being, physical 
and mental, are first-rate. 

Considerable interest has been aroused at Boston, and indeed (c) Simmons 
over a much wider area, by the founding and endowment of the Female 
Simmons Female College, several million dollars having been g^g^^^' 
bequeathed for the purpose by the late John Simmons. The 
college is established as an institution in which the instruction 
given is such as will best enable women to earn an independent 
livelihood. The trustees believe that the purpose and plan will 
interest and attract students who desire to fi-t themselves to become 
superintendents or matrons of institutions, heads of college houses, 
or of social settlements, private secretaries, librarians, and 
teachers of household arts and sciences. Provision will be made 
for those who desire to prepare themselves for the study of medicine 
and nursing, and for others who wish to become more proficient 
in a calling already adopted, or who need to add general training 
to practical skill. Thus, college graduates who wish to secure 
technical or professional training will have special opportunities for 
doing so, while encouragement will be given to that large class 
of women interested in educational problems, who feel not only 
that constructive work should accompany academic studies, but 
that no woman is well educated until she is thoroughly i)repared 
to obtain an independent livelihood, whether choice or necessity 
may demand such self-maintenance. The plan of instruction 



218 U.S. A. —Private Women^s Colleges, 



(v) Simmons provides for three classes of students. It offers a complete course 
UoUe ^^'^^ years for such students as are able to give the requisite time 

BostcHi.'— college training, while shorter technical courses are to be 

continued, provided for those who have had adequate preliminary prepara- 
tion elsewhere, whether in college, or normal school, or in practical 
life. Properly qualified students will also be received for a partial 
course. There are to be Saturday and evening classes for students 
unable to attend the regular classes, with regard to which detailed 
announcements are not yet published. 

The following courses in the departments of Household 
Economics, Secretarial work, Library training, and Science will be 
begun in the year 1902-3. The Corporation expects to open the 
department of Applied Art in the year 1903-4, and other depart- 
ments in subsequent years. 

A. Household Economics. 

1. Regular course of four years in preparation for professional 

housekeeping and for teaching. 

2. Advanced course of one or more years for college graduates 

and others of sufficient training. 

3. Elementary course of one year. 

4. Special or partial courses. 

B. Secretarial Courses. 

1. Regular course of four years preparing for professional 

positions and for teaching. 

2. Advanced course of one or more years for college graduates. 

3. Special or partial courses. 

C. Library Courses. 

1. Regular course of four years. 

2. Special or partial courses. 

D. Scientific Courses. 

1. Collegiate course of four years in preparation for science 
^ teaching. 

2. Advanced course of one or more years for students with 

previous college or normal school training. 

3. Course of four years in preparation for the study of medicine. 

4. Courses of one, two, or three years in preparation for admis- 

sion to training schools for nurses. 

5. Special or partial courses. 

The regular course in Household Economics is designed for 
women who wish to prepare themselves for taking charge of insti- 
tutions or social settlements, or for teaching the subjects of house- 
hold arts and sciences. Students preparing to teach will be expected 
to take the theory and practice of teaching in their last year. 
Four years will be required for the course, unless students have 
had a satisfactory preparation subsequent to their High school 
training, such as two years in college study, a course in a Normal 
school, or sufficient experience in teaching, in which cases they 
may be admitted directly to the advanced course. The Elementary 
course is offered for those who desire to understand the principles 
underlying elementary Household Economics or to become pro- 
ficient in the management of the home. 

The following tentative programme indicates the number of periods 
a week allotted to each subject in this elementary course ; the labo- 



Courses in Hygiene and Household Economics. 



ratory and practice periods will occupy two or three hours each (c) Simmons 
lectures and recitations one hour each. Unless otherwise specified' Female 
electives may be chosen from all the subjects taught in the college, College, 
which are not included in the prescribed portion of the programme. Boston.— 

Periods per week- continued. 

Cookery - - - - _ - , - - 4 

Marketing and accounts - - n» ' - - 2 

Physiology and hygiene - - - - - -1 

House construction, decoration and equipment - - ii 

Household administration and sanitation - - - il 

Conferences - - - J 

Sewing and materials or elective subjects - - - 3 
Special and partial courses may consist of a portion of the regular 
course combined with any other studies offered by the college. 
In the Science Department are found courses preparatory to 
the study of medicine or of nursing; it is interesting to note 
that mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and physiology, 
bacteriology, sanitation and cooking find a place in each of 
these. In fact, a series of lessons in cookery, laundry work, 
and household accounts will be provided for all students in this 
Department. Arrangements have been made with the Boston 
Normal School of Gymnastics whereby competent instruction 
in gymnastics will be given to the college students in the gym- 
nasium of that school. Two periods of physical culture will 
be expected of all students each week unless excused for satis- 
factory reasons ; in October and May outdoor exercises at the 
niverside Recreation Grounds, Newton, may be substituted for the 
gymnasium practice ; each student will be advised with regard to 
her physical welfare by an experienced physician, and the gymnastic 
training will be adapted to her needs. 

The college year will be divided into two terms — October to 
February, February to June — each term will close with exami- 
nations in all departments. The general admission requirements 
are such as may be secured by a four years' course in a good High 
School, but the advanced work in Household Economics is open to 
college graduates without examination, and to others who show 
that they have had the requisite training. A limited number of 
scholarships have been established by the trustees, who have 
also provided other means of affording pecuniary assistance to 
those who are unable to meet the college charges. The fee for all 
regular courses is $100 (£20) a year, payable in two instalments. 
For special students and for evening and Saturday courses special 
and reduced charges are made. The diploma of the college will be 
granted only to those students who have completed the full require- 
ments of one of the regular courses. Certificates may be issued to 
other students, showing the list of studies successfully completed 
and the grades attained in each. Suitable boarding accom- 
modation can be secured for about $7 (£1 10s.) a week ; a 
college dormitory " is also provided for sixty-six students. The 
rooms are arranged in separate suites, each suite is intended for 
two students, and consists of a study, a bedroom, and a bath-room. 



V.S.A .—Private Universities, 



The School 
of House- 
keeping, 
Boston. 



Under certain conditions one student will be allowed to occupy a 
suite ; there are also a few single rooms. Ample and convenient 
dining- rooms are included in the " dormitory," so that students not 
in residence may secure table board. The cost of residence, in- 
cluding board, is from $275 (£55) to $300 (£60) per year, accord- 
ing to the position of the suite ; this must be paid in advance, 
one-half at the beginning of each term. The suites are lighted with 
both gas and electricity, which are furnished at the expense of the 
student ; service is not included. The " dormitory " is under the 
supervision of the Dean ; and one or more members of the Faculty 
will reside in the building. At the present time a part of the 
instruction is given in the buildings hitherto occupied by the 
School of Housekeeping ; while the remainder, including the larger 
])art of the classes in the sciences and languages, is given hy 
special arrangement in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

This School of Housekeeping was founded a few years since by 
the Women's Educational and Industrial Union of Boston. Its 
aim, of which there has been good promise of reahsation, is a 
scientific study of home life, the object being " to save what is of 
permanent good, to discard what is useless, and to bring the whole 
into line with present industrial tendencies and scientific facts — 
social and physical. This study is not to the end that the homes 
of any one class may be bettered, but that the standard of living and 
life may be raised in all homes, in the belief that this would make for 
l)etter citizenship, for a greater country, and for a healthier race." 
The course was first offered as one step in the re-organisation of 
the home on this broader social and scientific basis, and as a tangible 
recognition of the fact that housekeeping is a profession which 
demands scientific training. It was designed to meet the needs 
of young college women and others who Avished to fit themselves 
to manage a household on the best economic and hygienic bases. 
The course consisted at first in the application of known principles 
and facts, scientihc and economic, to the maintenance of a healthful 
well-ordered home ; besides which it included a study of the 
management of the liousehold and expenditure of the income 
according to business methods. The movement received the cordial 
support of the professors of Harvard University and the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology ; on its teaching staff Avere found 
the professors of sociology and physiology at Harvard (Dr. Ed.. 
Cummin gs and Dr. Geo. W. Eitz) and the professors of biology and 
sanitary chemistry at the Institute (Dr. Wm. T. Sedg\v^ick and 
Mrs. Ellen H. Richards). It is anticipated that yet great(;r success 
will attend the incorporation of the course as a department of the 
Simmons College. Hitherto it has covered the following general 
topics : (1) The home in relation to society ; the home in relation 
to public health ; the house — its construction, furnishing, manage- 
ment, and care. (2) The health of the individual (which embraced 
an exhaustive study of foods and dietaries, the hygiene of childhood 
and home nursing).* Original investigation was also undertaken 

* See Appendix G. 



University of Chicago, 



25l 



to increase the body of exact information on household subjects, and 
to stimulate the thought and interest of the housekeeper. 

As an illustration of the practical methods, based upon scientific 
principles, adopted at this school, I may mention that, at the date of my 
visit, each member of a class of eight or ten had been called upon to plan a 
dietary for one week, suitable for the students in residence. This, while 
required to be seasonable, varied and appetising, must not exceed in 
cost a certain sum per head, and must contain the nutrient principles 
in their right proportions to meet the body's needs. A selection was 
made from those submitted, and each compiler, in turn, was called 
upon to superintend the employment of her dietary for one week, in the 
residence attached to the school; she became at once responsible for the 
purchase, cooking, service, etc., of all the articles which entered into her 
menu. The students meanwhile freely criticised these experimental 
dietaries, expressing their views as to the extent to which the various 
meals, etc., fulfilled the requirements; the questions raised were discussed 
with the professor in class ; and each purveyor was expected to offer 
sound reasons for the faith which was in her and which had found 
expression in the planning of food for her companions. 

F. — ^Univeksities. 

The belief that all livuig should be governed by hygienic, ethical, University 
and economic principles, which is the root idea in the Simmons Q^^^gggf^^' 
College Household Economic course, is evidently founded on a Household 
sociological basis. This belief has also constituted the standpoint Technology 
of those responsible for the courses in Household Technology and and related 
related subjects at the Chicago University, for which a place is ^^J^^q ^' 
found in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology. It will be xXXlf. 
remembered that the University of Chicago owes its existence 
chiefly to Mr. John D. Rockefeller, whose generous gifts for its 
endowment date from 1888, and amount to several million dollars. 
The new University opened its doors to students in October, 1892, 
few of its many handsome buildings being then ready for use. 
It includes five divisions— the Schools, College and Academies ; 
the University Extension ; the University lilDraries, laboratories, 
and museums; the University Press; the University affiliations. 
Provision is made for the admission of students at the beginning cf 
a junior college course, or at any further stage of advancement. In 
addition to students in regular standing, provision is made for the 
admission of certain classes of undergraduate students not seeking 
degrees — such are known as "unclassified." Those who have com- 
pleted at least one year's work in a college or university of high 
rank may also be admitted to the College of the University under 
certain definite conditions. Students are admitted to a Senior College 
either after receiving the Junior College certificate from the University, 
or upon the completion of a corresponding amount of work in another 
institution. A Bachelor's degree is granted at the conclusion of the 
required amount of Junior College work. 
The ordinary tuition fee is $40 (£8) a quarter, though it if* 
somewhat influenced by the subject selected ; incidental expenses 
also vary from the same cause. Eight dormitories " have been 
thus far erected in the quadrangle, and it is calculated that $300 
(£60) might, by the exercise of great care, cover board and tuition, 
with all sundries, for thirty-six weeks of annual residence ; though 
S400 (£R0) is nearer tb(> ovf'^'Hge. 



222 



U.S.A. — Private Universities. 



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University of Chicago, 



223 



The special courses described as " Household Technology are Courses in 
offered to meet the needs of the day and the demands of the Household 
students for some training in sanitary science. The instruction ^nd related 
is intended to give men and women a general view of the place of subjects— 
the household in society, to train both sexes for the rational and continued. 
scientific administration of the home as a social unit, and to prepare 
teachers in the subject. Supplementary courses in physics, 
chemistry, physiology, bacteriology, political economy, and the 
Study of Society are provided and required. Of course, these 
subjects are all elective, but they are attended by a fair and in- 
creasing number of students of both sexes. Three months is 
usually devoted to each sub-division, four, or perhaps five, classes 
a week being held. The tabulated particulars supply certain details, 
bat a concise resume of the topics included is desirable to indicate 
the scope assigned to the subject. Courses on Home Sanitation, 
Food Supplies and Dietaries, the Economy of living, and a "seminar" 
in Sanitary Science (designed for students capable of carrying on 
independent investigation) are conducted by Professor Marion 
Talbot, Dean of Women, at the University. The subject of Food, 
a practical course in the principles of Cookery, laboratory courses 
in the Chemistry of Foods and Household Bacteriology, and a 
theoretical course on the evolution of the house are entrusted to 
Professor Alice P. Norton. Professor Edwin 0. Jordan under- 
takes courses in General Bacteriology and in Public Hygiene, studied 
from the standpoint of the bacteriologist ; Physical Chemistry is 
under the charge of Professor A. P. Matthews. The sociological 
aspect of the subject is strongly emphasised throughout. Professor 
Charles E. Henderson himself takes charge of the courses on " The 
Family," the " Group of Industrials," and " Eural and Urban 
Communities " ; while those on " Contemporary Society in the 
United States " and on " American Cities " are conducted by 
Professor Geo. E. Vincent. In the opinion of Professor Hender- 
son, a knowledge of health principles is essential for everyone, and 
is required by him from all his students, many of whom are engaged 
in post-graduate work. The attention of these mature students 
is directed to the special study of such questions as the influence 
upon health of home and school, and kindred topics. In the 
seminar in Sanitary Science, for instance, each student is re- 
quired to carry on some selected investigation, and to report upon 
their work. Such subjects as the use of food preservatives, the 
division of income in household expenses, or the comparative 
])lumbing regulations in New York or Chicago are undertaken. 
The problem of domestic service is entered into fully in the 

Economy of Living." The admirable conditions planned for 
the staff of servants in the Women's Hall of the University by 
Mrs. Ellen H. Richards of Boston, and Miss Sarah Wentworth, so 
long ago as 1893, offer an object lesson in the possibility of an 
eight hours' day for servants, at least in institutional life. 

Professor Jordan's course in Public Hygiene proves both attractive 
and \ alual3le. It deals with the application of bacteriology to the 



224 



U.S.A. — Private Universities. 



University v/ater supply, food supply, and sewage disposal of a city. The 

of Chicago, treatment has hitherto been by lecture and demonstration ; but 

Hoa^^^lio/d ^^^^ autumn he proposed to include practical work, bacteriological, 

Technology chemical, and microscopic, for his students. In their company he 

and related visits model farms and dairies, reservoirs, sewage works, and so 

HUDjects— forth. These expeditions arouse verv marked interest among his 

co>Uuiu^.d. students of both sexes. 

Some prominence is assigned to hygiene in the Department of 
Pedagogy at this University, where the attention of students is 
consistently directed to related courses in biology, physiology, 
neurology, and social science. Dr. Dewey's lectures on the 

General principles of elementary education," and Miss Camp's 
on the " Science of elementary education," require a previous 
elementary knowledge of general biology, physics, and chemistry. 
Miss Harmer, Director of Domestic Arts in the University 
Elementary School, gives two courses on the Educational value 
and uses of the Domestic Arts," in which she indicates the claims 
and place of such work in education and their hygienic influence 
in the home ; while Professor Locke deals with " School hygiene, 
sanitation, and construction." His students are referred to 
schools in Chicago and elsewhere for the practical solution of certain 
problems in heating, ventilation, and lighting; economic problems 
of fatigue, school diseases, faults of posture, etc., also receive 
practical as well as theoretical attention. 

In the Department of Pohtical Economy, Dr. Hatfield's course on 
Social Economics is also useful in the emphasis it lays upon the 
results of hygienic ignorance on the economic conditions of working 
men. Chicago and its vicinity afford abundant materials for the 
practical observation demanded of his students. This recognition 
of the almost imperative necsssity for scientific training on the 
])art of those who assume responsible positions, Avhetlier such 
positions be held as employers, paid ofhcials, or as jjhilanthrojjic and 
lionorary workers, has been instrumental in the introduction of 
other classes in sociology by Professors Henderson and Vincent. 
In each of these the fundamental principles of hygiene are bi'ought 
forward and their iin})ortance is afhrmed. 

I cannot resist mentioning in this connection the valuable Outline 
of Studies for Officers of Correctional Institutions drawn up by Professor 
Henderson, in fulfilment of a promise made at the National Prison 
Association meeting at Cleveland in 1900. The suggested course 
includes the elements of physiology and sanitation ; a study of hygienic 
foods and clothing and a suitable introduction to sociology, psycho- 
logy and pedagogy. It is proposed that such a curriculum should 
constitute a part of the training of all officials employed as prison 
warders, superintendents, assistants, and school teachers in reforma- 
tories and industrial schools. The outline Ct)ntains an excellent biblio- 
graphy arranged for each of the subjects suggested, all of which have 
not been enumerated above, but all of which would contribute toward, 
approaching the inmates of such institutions in a spirit of true philan- 
thropy, based upon a study of the human mind and body, as influenced 
by heredity, environni?n*, md temperament. 



Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. 



225 



In the Correspondence Study Department of the University 
Extension division, sanitary science also finds a place. Courses in 
Foods and in House Sanitation are conducted by Miss Talbot and 
Mrs. Raycroft, which have been turned to account by students 
scattered throughout the States. These are elementary in 
character, but they serve to assist members of Women's Clubs and 
others who have no opportunity, or who cannot devote time, to 
attend a definite college course. 

The last courses of study with which I propose to deal possess Teachers 
an unusual interest, for they find an honoured place at Teachers 
College, Columbia University, an institution of so unique a character (jniversity, 
that its history and aims must be briefly recorded before I pass New 
on to my more immediate subject. Teachers College is the pro- York, 
fessional school of Columbia University for the study of education 
and the training of teachers. It is neither a Normal school nor a 
University Department of Pedagogy, but ranks as a professional 
school for teachers. It maintains University standards, aiming at 
the development of the four qualities held by its Dean to be pre- 
eminently desirable in a teacher; i.e., general culture, professional 
knowledge, special knowledge and skill in teaching. Students may 
be of either sex, and may be engaged in, or preparing for, work in 
elementary, secondary, and normal schools. Opportunities for 
advanced study are available for specialists in various branches of 
school work, as well as for principals, supervisors, and superin- 
tendents of schools. The college was founded in 1888, and was 
the practical outcome of a noticeable discussion on Education 
as a subject of University study," contained in President Barnard's 
reports ; but it only became part of the educational system of 
Columbia University in 1898, when it was transferred to its present 
locality. It now takes academic rank with the Schools of Law, 
Medicine, and Applied Science. The donations tow^ards its develop- 
ment have been most generous, amounting to at least $1,250,000. 
In the early days of the college there was only one course, 
followed by every regular student ; but the work offered in the 
several departments soon increased beyond the capacity of one 
individual, and sub-divisions became necessary. No department, 
however, undertakes work that is done adequately in othei* 
faculties of the University. This original course of study occupied 
two years ; and from the outset a school of observation and practice 
w^as an integral part of the plan. Teachers College now offers 
forty-six courses in Education, among which may be mentioned 
those on the history and principles of education, educational 
administration, genetic psychology and child study, and others on 
the theory and practice of teaching biology, domestic art, domestic 
science, Enghsh, fine arts, languages, manual training, and physical 
training. Qualified students of Teachers College are allow^ed to 
pursue University courses in history, language and literature, 
natural science, mathematics, philosophy, psychology, ethics, 
anthropology, music, economics, and social science. Two Schools 
of Observation and Practice are maintained, one the Horace Mann 



(5400. 



P 



226 



U.S.A. — Private Universities. 



School, the other l)ut just inaugurated, known as the Experimental 
School. The Horace Mann School, with its three departments, 
has been already mentioned. The Experimental School consists of a 
kindergarten and elementary school, also of special classes in 
sewing, cooking, and manual training. 

The requirements for admission to Teachers College are as follows : 
to the two years' collegiate course — compk'tion of a High scliool 
course ; if this be followed by a two years' professional course it 
leads to the degree of Bachelor of Science. To the two yeai-s' 
courses wliich lead to diplomas in elementary and kindergarten 
teaching, domestic art and domestic science, the fine arts, manual 
training, i^c, completion of the colI(»giate course is the quali- 
ilcation for admission, or its equivalent in an approved college, or 
graduation from an approved normal school, or two years of tech- 
nical training, or experience in teaching. To the graduate courses, 
college graduation, or its equivalent, qualifies for entrance. The 
foes for the graduate courses average $150 (£30) ; in other 
courses $100 (£20). The Faculty annually awards five fellowships 
of $050 each, and seventeen scholarships of varying amounts. 

The Dean of Teachers College fully maintains the convictions of 
its founders in his statement that a university " is true to itself uhen 
it undertakes the professional training of teachers ; for the interests 
of public education are as urgent and important as the interests of 
law, medicine or engineering." Dean Eussell has also drawn desirable 
attention to the relation of other university studies to education. 
First, those " which contribute directly to the science of education, 
sucli as biology, which Is concerned with vital processes ; psychology, 
which discloses the nature of the mind ; sociology, which deals with, 
the inter-relations of individuals in society ; and ethics, which seeks 
to establish the principles of right action. Second, all studies, regard- 
less of tlieir innnediate bearing on tlie science of education, may be 
considered as a Jiieans to inform and to develop the minds of the young," 

It is the ])olicy of Teachers College to afl'ord every opportiuiity for 
specialisation : but the faculty insists that the true basis of speciaHsa- 
tiou in education lies in liheral culture, accurate scholarship, and that 
professional knowledge which characteiises tlie intelligent teacher. 
The chief prohlem in the educational administration of Teachers 
College, since it became a part of the l^niversity system, has been to 
devise and conduct courses of study suited to the needs of advanced 
students. The first step was to provide graduate courses for students 
who were capable of undertaking research and investigation in one 
special field ; to this end the course leading to the higher diploma 
was planned for graduate students whose interests were chiefly pro- 
fessional. It is intended to fit teachers of superior ability and of special 
academic attainments for the work of training teachers in colleges and 
normal schools, and for positions in the public school service requiring 
a high degree of professional insight and technical skill. Candidates 
for the higher diploma must be graduates of an approved institution 
of learning — a college, engineering school, a normal school, or the 
equivalent of one of these — and must present satisfactory evidence of 
a high degree of professional ability as a result of the study of educa- 
tion or experience in teaching. The real test of fitness, however, is 
the ability of the candidate to undertake research and investigation 
in one major and two minor subjects. The minimum period of resi- 
dence is fixed at one year, but the necessity for completing some special 
ta?k in line with the major subject, and of putting the results in form 



Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. 227 



for publication make it difficult for the average student to secure the 
diploma in the minimum time. 

The Faculty is constantly engaged in the modification of courses, 
the raising of standards and the revision of curricula. Each year 
increases the confidence that progress is being made in the right 
direction, though it is realised with equal force that the end is not 
yet in sight ; a sentiment keenly experienced by Mrs. Woolman 
and Miss Kinne, who are respectively in charge of the Departments 
of Domestic Art and Domestic Science. 

The courses of study pursued in these departments present many 
points of interest ; year by year they are developed and modified 
in the light of experience gained. Probably considerable changes 
in detail have taken place since my visit ; but the broad lines are 
the same, and I venture to hope that the necessarily imperfect 
notes I present in these pages may nevertheless serve to stimulate 
my readers to secure from headquarters fuller and further infor- 
mation on courses of such value and importance. The wide scope 
and sociological import of the groups of subjects described as 
Domestic Art or Domestic Science is evidently realised by those 
responsible for their selection and treatment. That this point of 
view receives the full support of the entire staff is again evident 
from the fact that students in Domestic Art are required to cor- 
relate their studies either with Domestic Science, with Fine Arts, 
or with Manual Training, while students in Domestic Science are 
advised to correlate their studies with Domestic Art or with 
Manual Training. The details I furnish differ apparently but little 
from those already supplied in regard to Technical School or certain 
College Courses, but in the spirit and methods is recognisable the 
end in view ; not the development of manual facility or even of 
hygienic habits, but " the meaning of the j^hysical, social, moral, 
aesthetic and spiritual conditions of the home to the individual, 
and to society at large. The courees may be descril>ed as applied 
science and art, they do not offer technical training, It is felt 
that in a University these applied courses must have the same 
standing as pure science, and on these lines they are formulated, 
and from this point of view the Schedule of the two courses 
should be studied. For instance, the students of Domestic (a) Course in 
Art are required to practise, early in their training, advanced Domeatic 
basketry and raffia work, as well as to construct a systematic ^.^f^^g 
series of models to cover the ground of plain needlework, not so XXXIII. 
much with the view of acquiring manual dexterity, as Avith the 
aim of thoroughly comprehending how, by such means, to draw 
out and build up a child's ideas ; how to substitute broad, free 
movements in place of fine ptitching for young pupils, how to 
convert the subject into a general means of self-expression for all. 
Students are trained to observe and consider the interests, capa- 
cities and instincts of the child, and to adapt their instruction to 
these at various ages. In support of her methods, Mrs. Woolman 
points out that " early nations used the needle in many 
ways adapted to the use of children, in coarse weaving, in 



0400. 



228 



U.S.A. — Private Universities. 



) Course basketry, in which rigid material was sewed together 
Domestic with softer fibres, such as wool and twisted Imrk ; in mats, 
^'lueT''^ hats and baskets of the raffia }3ahxi fibre, in braiding, knotting, 
twining, netting, etc. All of these early steps in domestic art 
make an excellent foundation for sewing, and may be used to great 
advantage in the primary grades, where the awakening power of 
the child demands work in rapid construction and large adjust- 
ments. The articles should be simple in construction— of a charac- 
ter to appeal to the child's interests — and worth doing." Their 
practice work in the Horace Mann School affords the necessary 
opportunity to the students for testing their own command of this 
method, and for observing its influence on children. The re- 
mainder of the practical work in the Domestic Art Course follows 
accepted lines in the teaching of drafting and cutting of materials, 
dressmaking — elementary and advanced (the Vienna dressmaking 
system is that adoj^ted), and millinery. At Teachers College, as in 
the Technical Institute courses, infinite pains are expended in the 
effort to cultivate a sense of what is appropriate and Ix^autiful in 
design and colour and in developing the power to express this in 
execution. Certain Art courses are obligatory, while the Depart- 
ment itself provides one in Household Art and Design.* Of this the 
aim is to apply general rules of art to the home, in order to foster 
good taste and aj^preciation of beauty in every-day life. It includes 
some consideration of healthful living and dressing ; the colour 
effects and uses of textiles ; and the ])iinciples of home decoi-ation ; 
training in facility to sketch and design with accuracy and rapidity ; 
and the use of the needle in apj)lying these princij)les to articles of 
home and ceremonial use. To fuither strengthen students in 
what seems to be fundamental to their speciality,- they are advised 
to continue their studies along lines calculated to aid in under- 
standing the scope and meaning of art ; the result is evident in the 
bold and frequently artistic sketches made when they are engaged in 
the final stages of dressmaking and millinery. Domestic science is 
not ignored in this Domestic Art course ; the study of foods and the 
processes of their production, manufacture, and cooking are obli- 
gatory subjects, while students are strongly advised to follow 
the course in Household Chemistry under Dr. Vulte. Practice 
lessons in sewing are given under supervision in the Experimental 
School. Here, from the first grade upwards, children are guided 
progressively from the practice of primitive methods of weaving 
and basketry, through varied phases of hand and needlework, 
until this evolutionary method brings them, in the High school, 
to a study of the existing manufacturing system and its 
social influences. Mrs.Woolman's interest in these sociological and 
industrial aspects of her subject becomes very appn,rent in 
her lectures on Textiles. This course covers a study of fabrics ; 
the processes of their manufacture ; the development of these 
processes, and their effect on social conditions, with theol^ject of 
giving students not merely a knowledge of textiles, but of affording 



See Appendix H, 



Teachers College, Columbia VnwcrsUy, New Yorh. 229 







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230 



U.S.A. — Private Universities. 



them suggestions for methods of presentation in connection with 
their lessons in sewing. " The way things are made is of intense 
interest to children," writes Mrs. Woolman, and the skilled teacher 
can easily make their history and manufacture a part of geography, 
school lessons in history, mathematics, etc." Through the right 
presentation of the whole subject, she anticipates also a revival of 
.sympathy with and respect for manual labour. 

In connection with this course on Textiles and that on Household 
Art, visits are paid to the mills, furniture stores, and museums. 
T^ectures on the educational asj)ects of Domestic Art are preceded by 
a course in elementary psychology, given by Professor Thorndike, 
wliich includes the elements of the science, as well as the general 
principles which control successful teaching, so far as these can be 
derived from psychological laws, or from the study of school })rac- 
tice. Its aim is to prepare students for subsequent courees in 
the mtithods of teaching separate suljjects. Professor Monroe 
takes the history of education, which is supplemented by Professor 
Woolman's course on the Theory and Practice of Teaching Domestic 
Art. Here the relationship of l)omesticArt is considered (1) to the 
aims and means of education ; (2) to the best methods of teaching it 
in public and other schools ; and (3) to its correlation with other 
grade work. The planning and cost of courses of instruction are 
also considered. Students are constantly reminded that the per- 
sonality of a teacher is one of the most important factora in her 
work ; " her physical, mental, and moral influence is ever moulding 
her pupils, even without her efi'ort ; her teaching must, therefore, 
be grounded on culture ; she should thoroughly undei-stand the 
problems of modern education. . . . she should be inspired by 
a high ethical aim ... to make the children efficient for good 
in the world, she must study their characteristics and interests ; 
she must see, too, that the child's own will power is at work, and 
that he thinks out for himself every step in connection with the 
article in hand." Bearing this ideal in mind, a study of even the 
condensed outline of the coui-se (Table XXXIII.) will have its own 
interest in showing by what means its realisation is attemjjted. 

Miss Helen Kin ne, the professor of Domestic Science, is imbued 
with the same true educational spirit as Mrs. Woolman, and 
(/>) Course ill ^^^^^^ ladies receive an increasing amount of encouraging co- 
Science, operation from other members of the faculty. The coui-se in 
Table Domestic Science, as defined in the college "Announcement," 

"VVXIV ..... . 

" is even more comprehensive in its allied studies than that in 

Domestic Art. The introductory courses in psychology and edu- 
cation are similar to those in the Domestic Art course, as is also 
the " recommended " course in the Economic and Social History of 
the United States. This last deals with those special topics and 
phases of economic and social history which have direct and prac- 
tical bearing upon the work of students in the departments of 
Manual Training, Domestic Science, and Domestic Art. It gives an 
idea of the nature and purpose of industrial growth ; considei-s in 
detail the various economic and industrial conditions and problems 



Teachers College, Columbia University y New York. 231 



of the various sections of the United States at the present time ; (/>) Course 
and the relation of economic and industrial forces to contem- g^-^^^^!^^^^ 
porary social conditions. A partial study is made of the continued. 
nomic and industrial condition of Eiu'ope in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, as Imsed upon the mercantile system. The 
outcome of these conditions is traced in exploration and colonisation, 
and in the p^rowth of economic industry in the American colonies, 
which culminated in the American Revolution. Attention is also 
directed to the industrial problems of the nation ; and the con- 
temporary social condition and problems are noted as outgrowths 
of economic development. 

Another course common to students of either Domestic Art or 
Domestic Science is that given by Dr. Vulte in Household 
Chemistry. To this he has given much thought, and through his 
courtesy I am enabled to include its synopsis.* It is designed to 
include the study of the principal food products, such as sugars, 
starches, proteids, animal and vegetable fats, water and mineral 
salts. Special attention is given to the changes which take place 
during the operation of cooking, to the analytical tests applied to 
them, as well as to the chemical aspects of fermentation and 
])utre faction, and their prevention by chemical means, and steri- 
lisation. The corrosive action of food constituents, acids, &c., on 
utensils is dealt with, as well as saponification, the action of 
detergents, hard and soft water, testing of milk, butter, cheese, 
water, &c. ; the chemistry of fuels and of illuminants is also 
studied. Dr. Vulte does not lay stress upon expression of 
results in chemical equations, l)ut aims rather that the sub- 
ject should be approached and dealt with from the point of 
view of daily life requirements. He gives the theory in his lec- 
tures, and leaves the carrying out of experiments, in the form 
of problems, to his students, who work under his personal super- 
vision. He also conducts an advanced course in the same subject ; 
here original research is undertaken in the workin<j out of pro- 
blems which arise in the preparation of food, the use of fuels and 
cooking ai)])aratus, and in laundering and other cleansing processes. 
It is intended only for advanced students who have a sound 
knowledge of elementary and organic chemistry. - 

The subject of Foods is taken up exhaustivel}' in the Doniestic 
Science course, and is studied in three courses. The first is de- 
signed to give a thorough knowledge of theory and practice in 
cooking, and to aid the student in arranging matter for teach- 
ing ; it deals with the composition and nutritive value of foods, 
the fundamental principles and processes of cookery, and a com- 
parative study of fuels and of cooking apparatus. Special attention 
is given to scientific methods in kitchen laboratory work, and 
to the adaptation of such methods to schools. The second 
is concerned with the production of food materials, such 
as dairy products, manufacture of flours, cereals, spices, &c., 



* See Appendix H. 



232 



U.S.A. — Private Universiti^$. 



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Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. 233 



as well as with food adulterations and other processes in the Course in 
preparatioii of food materials. The third takes up advanced J'^^!-^^^^'^^!^ 
cookery, the preservation of food, cookery for invalids and continued. 
children, food values and dietaries, the planning, cooking, and 
serving of meals, a waitresses' course, and marketing. The 
cookery practice is made as experimental as it can be, in order to 
enforce and to illustrate fundamental principles. Students are set 
problems from which to gain their ow^n experience, and are trained 
not to rely on that of others as recorded in cookery books. No 
stereotyped set of recipes is worked through ; laboratory 
rather than ordinary kitchen methods are enforced, and such 
variety of problems presented as to demand practical individual 
solution from each member of the class. A tabulated method of 
record is usually employed, by which the effects of heat, of varying 
proportions of materials, &;c., are set out graphically. 

Botany and zoology, under Professors Lloyd and Bigelow, are 
studied in the form of lectures, laboratory work, recitations, 
excursions for field work, and collateral reading. These courses 
are obligatory on Domestic Science students, and must be taken 
before the course in physiology and hygiene, in which the same 
professors adopt similar methods. This latter course covers a 
laboratory study of the structure of cells, tissues, and organs in 
various organisms, both plant and animal, including man, and of 
the fundamental principles of hygiene, personal and domestic. 
Individual hygiene is also studied from the standpoint of occupa- 
tion and recreation, the claims of physical culture receiving atten- 
tion. Home sanitation and economics find a place in the second 
year of study. The course embraces the following subjects : 
situation and structure of the house, water supply, disposal of 
waste, heating and ventilation, Hghtiiig, healthful furnishing, 
cleansing of the house, development and organisation of the home 
and its adaptation to modern conditions, systematic methods of 
housekeeping, the cost of living and household accounts, domestic 
service. The lectures on bacteriology are optional ; they are 
associated with practical laboratory work, in illustration of the 
theoretical teaching which deals with the nature of bacteria, witli 
methods of isolation and recognition of species, the part which 
bacteria play in nature, the industrial uses to which they are put ; 
the bacteria of air, water, ice, milk, and foods generally ; the 
methods of sterilisation and disinfection ; the relation of bacteria to 
disease, and, in connection with this, certain phases of hygiene and 
household sanitation, extending to the care of the sick. This and 
the courses in Home Nursing and Emergencies are so usually elected 
that they enter into the training of the majorit}' of students. These 
last-mentioned subjects consist of lectures, with practical illustrations 
and experiments on the part of the students, and are considered to 
afford sufficient training to enable teachers to present the subjects 
in the schools. Both are conducted by a trained nurse. The 
course in Laundry-work includes both theory and practice. No 



234 



U.S. A . — Priva te Universities. 



(b) Course in laundry is provided, but the practical work is carried out in the 
ici^ce— large kitchen laboratory by means of porta))le equipment, upon 
continued, ^^'hich much thought has been expended. That this has been to 
g(X»d effect is shown by the success which has attended its employ- 
ment not only for the college students, but for public school work 
in poor districts where no " centres '* are yet organised. This 
subject is of recent introduction, and has by no means reached its 
final development. 

Another course descri])ed as " Supervision and Critic Teaching 
in Domestic Science " consists of conference's and practicjd work 
under Professor Kinne. Itati'ords opportunity for practical investi- 
gations of conditions and ])roblems in Domestic Science teaching in 
schools, colleges, universities, clubs, and social settlements ; it also 
includes a study of the development and present status of domestic 
science at home and abroad ; the organisation and management 
of departments ; supervision in city schools ; and critic teaching 
in normal schools. 

The enrolment in both departments is progressing steadily in 
number. During last year 114 students, all women, were 
under instruction in the department of Domestic Science, while 
sixty-six, of whom four were men, were found in that of Domestic 
Art. Miss Kinne and her colleague, Mrs. Woolman, have in view 
a scheme to combine the two-years courses in each of these two 
subjects into one three-yeai's course, especially for the training 
of inspectors ; but, among other dilliculties, they are confronted 
with the fact that the students who select the one or the other of 
these courses of study are usually of temperaments and types of 
mind so diii'erent that for one individual to gain intelligent com- 
mand of all that would be hivolved in such a combined course 
would be a relatively rare attainment. 

A perusal of the preceding pages cannot fail to have impressed 
on the mind of the reader the valua])le impetus given to 
educational progress by the work cari-ied on in the indepen- 
dent institutions of all grades to which this part of the Rej)ort 
refers. It is evident that official coercion is not needed to stimulate 
the zeal which finds an honourable outlet in thus promoting 
studies framed to advance the efiiciency of the nation. It is true 
that much still remains to be done in the develo])ment, multi- 
plication and organisation of these coui-ses, nevertheless, each 
year's work is more full of promise for the future, while at least 
a decade must elapfje before its fruition can reasonably be 
anticipated. 



PART III. 

Social Agencies for the Promotion of Domestic Science 

Teaching. 

That the educational institutions of a country reflect the pubHc Intioduc- 
opinion of its people is an assured, though relatively somewhat tory. 
recently recognised fact. Its acceptance will direct the attention of 
thoughtfulohservers toastudy of the forces active in the formation 
of current national Ijeliefs. Of these, there are two distinct classes : 
the one, by its progressive spirit, moulding the conception of the 
few wise or far-sighted into the ideals of the many; the other 
retarding advisable developments, because the issues at stake are 
allowed to be obscured by the prejudices it fosters. These dual 
factors are constantly at work, and always important, whether 
in the sphere of sociology and philanthropy, or in the scholastic, 
conunercial and professional worlds ; most particularly so when 
the subject presented to the pu])lic for consideration is closely 
linked with daily life. Therefore, this Report on " The Teaching of 
Hygiene and Household Science in the United States of America " 
would be incomplete without a reference, however brief, to the 
social, as well as to the educational, agencies which are responsible, 
to a greater or less degree, for the promising activity of interest 
in these subjects observable in the schools and colleges of the coimtry . 
The provision of a more healthy, happy, intelligent, and economical 
home life is rightly considered to be a national problem ; its solution 
is not relegated to one profession, or confined to one state ; the 
movement in favour of sanitary reform is increasingly general, and 
I could not fail to be impressed with the unfeigned interest expressed 
in it by both sexes in many different centres. In the case of men, this 
seemed stimulated chiefly by their desire for national supremacy ; 
in the case of women, it was more often the domestic side which 
appealed to their symj)athies. It also appeared to me that there exists 
a small percentage of j)rofessional and commercial men, who sin- 
cerely deplore the melancholy corruption which is so serious a 
blight on the country's municipal life. Their hopes for sweeping 
and inunediate reform are not great ; but they look for a gradual 
transnmtation of the base ore of self-seeking into the refined metal 
of zeal for social progress by a succeeding generation, which 
shall l^e trained in the best traditions of citizenship during 
early and impressionable years. Professor Adams has said that 

the requisite of a citizen is that he should be able to appreciate 
and feel and imderstand those forces that touch his life " ; he nuist 
l)e able to grasp something of the import of heredity, and of the 
powerful influences of environment. Apart from sanitary 
science based upon biology, how is this appreciation or 
undei-standing to be fully gained ? Testimony that a study of 
hygiene furnishes one necessary foundation to good citizenship 



V.S.A.—Womeii's Clubs, 



i.s afforded by the fact that in Chicago University, the State 
University of Michigan, and elsewhere, the courses offered are 
the direct outcome of the male students' sense of need ; a sensation 
of sufficient strength to embolden men in some other universities to 
follow Household Science Courses, hitherto confined to female 
students, until provision ia made for courses better suited to 
masculine requirements. 

Sociology and Economics are subjects much discussed just now 
in the States ; increasing attention, for example, is devoted to their 
study in High Schools ; and it would seem to good purpose, if a 
more general demand for and interest in the study of public health 
be the enduring fruit. The mere making of man into a better 
animal is the argument which it must be admitted carries weight 
with the majority in the business world. That Boston merchant 
is by no means unique, who supported the introduction of Physical 
(vulture (to include a knowledge of Hygiene) into the curriculum 
of both boys and girls in the High School of Brookline, on the 
grounds that the clerk w ho knows how to keep himself mentally 
and physically at high-water mark has his financial w^orth to his 
em])loyer materially increased. Thus, though the motives, when 
analysed, may be very mixed, and not always of a high ethical 
standard, their outcome bodes well for the efficiency of the 
nation. 

A. — Women's Clubs. 

Tlielr This awakening to the importance of intelligent civic admhiis- 

ur^jiuisation tration is, however, not confined to men. The records of many 
methods cities testify to the vivid interest taken in " municipal house- 
keeping by women, and to their achievements in that sphere. 
The influence they exercise upon public life in the United States 
is due, among other causes, to the strength derived from co-0])era- 
tion. The social life of the nation is woven into one great web 
by a network of women's clubs. These are federated into large 
organizations, which knit together those units separated by appar- 
ent distance, and facilitate the concentration of an almost irresis- 
tible force upon any selected subject. The significance of the term 
club " differs from that attached to it in this country ; any 
community of interest which links a few women together for some 
common object — for example, the study of art, or of history, or a 
foreign language, or some measure of social reform, o.* some political 
alarm, results in the formation of a " club," or perhaps of a special 
Ijrancli of one already in existence. The clubs of a district, town, 
or city are usually federated under a President, who, while supreme 
in her district, is subservient to the County or State President ; 
the whole organisation finds its focus in the National President, 
elected at definite intervals from among the State Presidents. 
Great independence is characteristic of these clubs ; there may be 
activity or indolence, concentration of interest or diffusion of energy, 
ideals confined to vague theories, or demanding instant realisation 
in practice ; but there is one fact assured, and that is that women 
have it in their power, by this means, to mould public opinion to 



S'pecimen Organisations for Promoting Domestic Science Teaching. 237 



an extent inconceivable in Great Britain. Signs are not wantin$j 
of the realisation that the responsibility thus involved must be 
lived up to and prepared for; among these may be mentioned 
the growing demand for assistance from University Extension 
lectures, and increased attendance at the Summer Schools. 

In addition to periodical congresses, at which the attendance of 
experts gives worth and vitality to the proceedings, it is the custom 
among these women's clubs to meet at frequent intervals, to pursue 
the study of some selected subject. A yearly programme is drawn 
up ; for instance, in the Domestic Science Club, the topics chosen 
range over the whole wide field of personal, domestic, educational 
and municipal hygiene : — House Construction ; Plumbing ; Ice 
Supply ; the Problem of Domestic Service ; what constitutes a good 
Menu ; Household Accounts ; Art in the Household ; Eecreations ; 
School Sanitation ; these are a few culled at random from a last 
year's list. A subject is assigned to each member, who is required 
to study and present a paper upon it at a given date ; free dis- 
cussion follows the reading of this essay. I heard repeatedly of the 
beneficial results which follow this amateur work ; not the least 
of which is the growing interest among mothers as to the teaching 
of Domestic Science in High and Grammar schools. Material assist- 
ance in home and club study is afforded by the system of Travelling 
Libraries, loaned, for six months or longer, to any registered club 
by the Public Library Division of several State Libraries. 

In illustration of the good missionary work possible of perform- Specimen 
ance by a local branch of one Women's Club, I may mention the orjianisa- 
Illinois Association of Domestic Science, though examples could ^^^^^^^^^o- 
be easily multiplied. The ol)jects of this Association are " to Domestic" 
stimulate interest in all that pertains to home-making ; to instigate Science 
the organisation of domestic science associations in order to co- I<?aching. 
ordinate the work ; and to secure the introduction of the study (a) Illinois 
of domestic science into the educational system." The President Association 
and her Committee were animated in the first instance by a desire g^iencT^^^^^ 
to introduce l^etter methods, based upon sound reasons, into 
the conduct of their own home life ; then they desired to interest 
those whose existence is usually hampered by unintelHgent rule 
of thumb " habits, and who are hard to reach in consequence of 
their often isolated dwellings. Stinudated by enthusiasm, these 
women took advantage of the presence of a large number of club 
members on the occasion of the annual meeting of the Illinois 
Farmers' Institute, held at Champaign in February, 1898 ; they 
called a meeting, at which attention was directed to the advantage 
of organising a State Domestic Science Association. In this 
instance, the intention was more particularly to reach the farmers' 
wives ; that is to say, to initiate a movement which should provide 
for them what these Institutes do for the farmers, i.e., a recurring 
opportunity for the discussion of professional questions, and for 
the securing of new hght or reliable information upon doubtful 
points. The support afforded by tlie men was so cordial that, 
from tiie start, the Association ^ams looked upon as a legitimate 



238 



U.S.A.-Womcn's Cluhs. 



{/)) Sanitary 



part of the Farmers' Institute's work ; and, soon after the first 
annual meeting, the Institution Board passed a formal resolution 
by which the Illinois Association of Domestic Science was recog- 
nised as an organisation affiliated to the Illinois Farmers' Institute, 
while a committee of the directors was appointed to look after its 
interests. That the women worked to some jnirpose is evident 
from the endowment three years later of scholarships for girls in 
Household Economics, tenable at the Illinois State University, of 
the same numljer (two to each county of the State) and on the 
same terms as those in Agriculture, appropriated some yeai'S 
previously to young men. 

Foremost in the earnest, intelligent, public service rendered by 
ScVm-e ^ ''^ women has been the Sanitary Science Club of the Association of 
Club of the (/ollege AlinnncP, which is itself composed of graduates from 
Asso.'iation certain selected women's colleges of high standing This depart- 
of Collej:e jj-j^j^^ of w^^^^ Association was orf^anised in lioston twenty years 
Alumnae. i c n • i 

ago, when there were as yet tew college graduates m the country, 

and fewer still at the head of homes of their own. Its object 
was the ))romotion of home sanitation, and for the first two years 
of the Club's existence, its members devoted their time to general 
study of the subject and to research into methods, either in the 
homes of the club members, or in those opened for this purpose 
by friends. Such positive help and satisfactory material resulted 
from this work that two of the members were appointed to edit 
the notes made. The resulting publication, issued in 1887 and 
])rought up to date by subsequent new editions, retains its position 
as an acknowledged text-book, and has influenced large numlx^ra 
for good. With the advantage of that increased knowledge, which 
residts from accumidated and sifted experience, this Sanitary Science 
Club has directed its attention to the betterment of homes of all 
classes ; to the securing of necessary reforms in school and muni- 
cipal sanitation ; and to the introduction of suitable oj^portunities 
for a study of the subject of Home Economics into High Schools 
and Colleges. For some years several of the most prominent 
Club members have been engaged in teaching Sanitary Science 
at the University of Chicago, the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, and other important educational centres. It is regrettable 
t hat the interestmg exhibit of The AYork of College Women for 
the Home " was not more generally observed at the Paris Exhi- 
bition of 1900, for it constituted an instructive record of good work 
done. Plans and descriptions of houses were included, as well as 
specimen details of administrative work carried on by these women, 
and a bibliography of their published writings. A recent exhibit 
in the cause of Home Economics at Boston illustrated in seven 
sections their practical services to the community ; these con- 
sisted of : (i.) Bibliography ; (ii.) Home Economics applied to 
children : (iii.) appHed to Shelter and Furnishings ; (iv.) apj)lied 
to Food; (v.) applied to Clothing; (vi.) applied to Household 
Management; (vii.) suggested applications of the subj(!Cts to 
Public School instruction. The exhibits included useful models, 



Specimen Organisations for Promoting Domestic Science Teaching. 239 



notaljly one of the New England Kitchen at Boston ; a clever 
portable device for the division of an ordinary schoolroom into 
four rooms for housewifery lessons ; examples of hygienic clothing 
for children ; laundry and food exhibits ; dietaries calculated 
at various figures, and some of Mrs. Ellen H. Ricljards' useful 
aids to intelligent and wholesome housekeeping. Indeed, it may 
be justly said, to their honour, that the college women of the 
United States were among the first to see the importance to the 
home of healthful management and environment, and to take 
practical means to secure such conditions. To them is due the 
credit for directing attention also to the true significance of Domestic 
Economy, viz., that it embraces economy of time, of method, and 
of strength, as well as of pounds, shillings, and pence. 

The work and publications of the Sanitary Scienc<^ Club of the {c) The 
College AlumnfjB are undoubtedly largely responsible for the S^*^^']*^, , 
inception of another social organisation, the National Household 
Economic Association. This was actually formed as the direct Association, 
result of a congress held at the Chicago Exhibition, 1893 ; it now 
embraces a large membership in thirty of the States and in Canada. 
Its work lies chiefly among the well-to-do classes, though its 
members assist in the training of women in very poor districts. 
Both sexes are eligible for membership. The Annual Congress, 
held for three or four days in some important centre, serves tc 
stimulate its own supporters, while it arouses interest among 
those previously indifferent to its objects. To awaken the middle 
class to a sense of the dignity, interest, and importance of House- 
hold Economics has been very uphill work. But the President 
can now report hopeful signs of ground securely gained among a 
class often difficult to influence, hedged in as it is by social con- 
vention and the possession of homes, which, because they bear the 
hall-marks of comfort or wealth, are presupposed to possess the sign 
manual of health. However, the Committee are S])urred on to 
persevering efforts by the conviction that the formation of an 
intelligent public opinion on the right conduct of home life among 
these educated members of the community is an indispensable 
factor in its general study ; while, incidental h% they anticipate 
that one outcome may be some promising solution of that most 
vexed problem, the future of domestic service. The Association 
endeavours to work through existing organisations ; consequently, 
it puts itself in touch with the Women's Clubs throughout the 
country, and has successfully secur-^-d the inauguration of many 
a department in this subject, as w^ll a3 organising local com- 
mittees for the conduct of specific lines of study. These local 
committees are urged, in their turn, to influence the Farmers' 
Institutes, School Managers, Factory Girls' Clubs, indeed all 
industrial, sociological and educational organisations ; as a result, 
more attention is given annually to the essentials of successful 
housekeeping, to the right care of children, and to the making 
of attractive and healthy homes. 



240 



U.S.A. — Philanthropic Agencies. 



(d) The The Women's Institute, Yonkers, New York, offers an excellent 
Women's example of somewhat similar work, carried on among another section 
Yonkei?' society, in which also the Young Women's Christian Association 
X Y. ' is satisfactorily active. This Institute was founded in 1880, and 

owes its existence to Miss Mary Marshall Butler ; its membershi}) 
is largely composed of those employed in the factories and mills 
in the neighbourhood. Club membership entitles to the use of a 
lunch-room, where excellent hot food, tea, coffee, and fruit are 
served daily to upwards of eighty or a hundred of these factory 
workers. Evening classes in cooking, sewing, miUinery, and 
dressmaking, etc., are provided at very low fees, usually two 
shillings for ten lessons. Special classes for married women are 
provided in the same subjects ; also courses in invalid cooking for 
nurses from the local hospital, and Saturday classes for school 
children. 

(e) The Civic departure to which I now desire to draw attention 
League. was the foundation, in 1895, of the Civic League, which can 

already show a good record of practical results, attained through 
the active co-operation existing between the membei'S and the 
public authorities. Lectures have been given on The Hygienic 
Care of Milk," Improved Housing," " The Consumers' League," 
"Our Public Schools," "Children's Playgrounds," and other 
kindred topics, which have not only stimulated interest but borne 
fruit. The appointment of a woman Sanitary Inspector in 1900 
is the direct outcome of tactful action taken by this League. The 
approval by the Board of Education of the appointment of a School 
Visiting Committee is another tangible result of its work. This 
committee visits the schools regularly, confers with the teachers, 
and reports concerning hygienic and sanitary matters. Not only 
do problems of ventilation and cleanliness receive their attention, 
but care is given to the physical condition of children in need of 
fresh air, of improved food, or of warm clothing. The teachers 
eminently appreciate the interest displayed by this committee in 
the teaching of civics, of nature work, and of physiology, as well 
as in the suitable decoration of schoolrooms and in the organisation 
of boys' and girls' clubs. Among other hygienic achievements may 
be enumerated the introduction of Cooking into the Evening 
Schools, and the initiation of Kindergartens during the three 
months' summer vacations. 
ifdiiSionar '^'^^^ ^^^^ these numerous social, as distinguished from philan- 
and Indus- ^hropic, organisations which I will mention is the Women's Edu- 
trial Union, cational and Industrial Union. This Union has branches in 
numerous cities, with committees on Domestic Science, Hygiene, 
Physical Culture, and " Kitchen Garci en" work for children, as well 
as on its other numerous interests. The activity of these branches 
is probably a variable quantity ; but annual reports testify to new 
ground broken and fresh seed sown. Reference has already been 
made in Part II, to the special outgrowth of this Union, the 
School of Housekeeping, now a department of the Simmons 
College for Women at Boston. 



Examples of Household and Sanitary Science Courses. 241 



B. — Philanthropic Agencies. 

Before I touch upon the numerous philanthropic agencies whicli 
play a valuable part in the formation of an intelligent public 
opinion upon Household and Sanitary Science, it may be well 
to remind my readers of the influence exercised on the pul)lic 
school curriculum by private individuals and by voluntary 
organisations.* These agencies, when convinced of the social 
advantage to be derived from certain subjects, initiate them at 
first on a modest scale, in the form of free Saturday, evening, or 
vacation classes ; when satisfied that the instruction meets a distinct 
want and is worthy of public recognition, they exert all their 
influence to secure its adoption by the official school authorities. 
Instances are not far to seek of this zeal attaining such proportions 
that private individuals even undertake to defray all expenses for a 
time after the subject has been introduced into the public schools. 

Such pioneer work, along man}^ lines, has been carried on with Exaiiii)les of 
success in Indianapolis for some years past ; indeed, the free Kinder- Household 
garten movement in that city dates back to 1875, and its super- 
intendent reports continuous and encouraging developments. Science 
It would seem that honest efforts are made, even at the early age Couis-s. 
of Kindergarten children, to judiciously prepare the little ones for («) India- 
home and school life and for future citizenship, as well as to provide j^lnder- 
for them conditions of wholesome growth. And so it comes about garten and 
that five and six-year-old children are admitted to what is described Domestic 
as the " Kitchen Garden," or the " Little Housekeepers' School," g^^^J^jf/ 
where the miniature furniture, dishes, brooms, and buckets are 
arranged with special consideration for their capacity and strength. 
Every phase of home work, except cooking and laundrying, is 
taught in these classes. That pleasure and profit is derived from 
this weekly instruction is apparent from the demand for pro- 
motion to the regular Domestic Training School as soon as the age 
limit is attained. This is from eight to seventeen years, although 
coloured students up to tw^enty have gladly availed themselves 
of the opportunity for securing the training in Domestic Science 
afforded by this means. The children of all ages attend at the various 
centres each Saturday at 9.30 a.m. ; that particular hour is fixed 
to give both boys and girls time to assist previously in regular home 
duties, and thus to impress upon them the priority of home claims. 
The training is thoroughly practical in all lines of domestic work ; 
the children are asked to practise these weekly lessons at home, 
and the mothers can themselves have the methods taught to their 
children explained in special classes should they so desire. The 
Domestic Science Course is arranged as follows : — Cooking, seven 
lessons ; practical dining-room and table-setting classes, six lessons ; 
hall and stair-cleaning classes, four lessons ; parlour classes, three 
lessons ; bedroom classes, four lessons ; sewing classes, twelve 
lessons ; laundr5% three lessons ; cellar, three lessons ; elementary 
Sloyd and woodwork, nine lessons ; whitewashing, one lesson. 

* See Introduction to Report. 
(i4t)0. U 



242 



U.S.A. — Philanthropic A gencies . 



(a) India- 
napolis 
Kinder- 
garten and 
Domestic 
Training 
Schools — 
centinued. 



The food cooked so far as possible, that which the children could 
afford to have at home ; they are taught how to choose and use it 
economically and to prepare it wholesomely. They keep their 
own recipe-books, but are required to know their contents suffi- 
ciently well to cook from memory ; incidentally they learn the care 
of the kitchen, pantry, and closets. Right methods of daily, 
weekly, and yearly cleaning arc slowly and carefully inculcated, 
by theory and \\\ practice ; while the practical dining-room work 
includes, besides table-setting and serving, the proprieties of per- 
sonal behaviour and the care at table of a baby or of little children, 
The sewing course has six divisions ; in the first the different stitches 
are learnt, to i^e applied in the doll-dressing department ; there 
is a crochet class (for which the mothers asked) and another for 
tlie mending of garments and the darning of stockings ; the fifth 
is ambitiously described as the Dressmaking School, in which the 
use of the sewing machine is acquired ; and, finally, satisfactory 
results are quoted from the hat and bonnet trimming class, which 
forms the sixth department. The superintendent, Mrs. Eliza A. 
Blaker, reported to me that the result of this training is readily 
apparent in many homes of the districts from which the children 
attend ; and from other sources I learnt what excellent residts 
follow the instruction. It seems as if the aims held in view were 
actually attained. Mrs. Blaker states her objects to be the 
l)rightening of the homes of to-day ; the removal of drudgery from 
home work ; the formation of industrious habits ; the inculcation 
of the great value of personal cleanliness, courtesy, neatness, 
method, clean houses, and well cooked food to others besides the 
individual learner. Attendance is purely voluntary ; it amounts 
to 2,000 annually ; the young pupils flock to the classes because 
they really enjoy the work. The first of these Indianapolis 
Domestic Training Schools was established in 1888, and the number 
of centres has apparently increased at the rate of one a year. The 
students at the Normal School at once volunteered their services 
as helpers, whereupon an unforeseen result followed. In 1894 
practical work in Domestic Training became the regular exercise 
on Friday afternoon in the Normal School, where hitherto the 
students had gained their infoi-mation by theory only. Each 
pupil has, since that date, rehearsed in practice the work she will 
teach to, and require of, the children the following morning. 
No materials were purchased with which to begin the teaching — 
" Had we not rooms to sweep, chairs to be dusted, floors to be 
scrubbed, woodwork to be cleansed ? " Sewing, cooking, table- 
setting, were introduced as occasion offered, and the majority of 
necessary and desirable articles have been given by degrees. 

The organisation of this Indianapolis Society is far-reaching, 
for in this Domestic Science Department alone, in addition to the 
work being carried on for children, fourteen Mothers' Classes on 
Cooking and on the Training of Children are conducted in different 
sections of the city, and the same nubjects are d^alt with in the 
Young Women's Evening Clubs. 



Examples of Household and Sanitary Science Courses. 243 



The School of Domestic Science attached to the Boston Branch (6) Y. W.C. A. 
of the Young Women's Christian Association provides a series of School of 
lessons in Domestic Science for primary school children, described ^Ji^^ce^^ 
as the " Kitchen Garden/^ Here again the course of ten hours' Boston.' 
is devoted to lessons in cooking and to the practice of household 
occupations, by the use of toys and by means of songs and games. 

Another most interesting pioneer course exists at the Louisa (c) The 
M. Alcott Club, started in one of the poorest neighbourhoods Loui.sa 
of Boston by Miss Isabel F. Hyams, as a result of observing on q^^^^^^^ 
all sides the ignorance of how to manage a home. She felt that iJoston. 
to enter each house with a view to training its inmates would 
be, if not impossible, yet a great waste of power, and concluded 
that the young citizen should rather be trained in the principles of 
home-making through a system of " play in earnest," continued 
through several years of life, until the methods learnt would have 
became habitual. She therefore took a house in one of the most 
ivnpromising streets, furnished it brightly yet simply, and 
opened its doors to the children of the neighbourhood. The 
upper rooms are devoted to Kindergarten ; the well-lit basement 
is reserved for these domestic classes. The utensils provided 
jare of such a size and so arranged in the cupboards that they are 
within the reach of the smallest child, and each is entirely 
iresponsible for her own. They are taught to wash the dishes, set 
the table, sweep and dust ; small brooms, dustpans, etc., being 
provided. As the lessons usually succeed the ordinary school day, 
they are rightly limited to one hour in length. This frequently 
necessitates previous preparation of some part of the work, as all 
the processes cannot be carried through in so short a time. For 
instance, if the lesson be on the service and clearing up of a meal, 
the food required must be prepared before the class assembles. 
The first year's experiment was but a qualified success ; too much 
was attempted, and the character of the work proved unsatis- 
factory. The second year's experience was much more encouraging ; 
provision was made for individual, not group, work, evidently 
indispensable to obtain the desired results. The average age of 
the youngest class is eight yeai-s. The kitchen is kept as near the 
home ideal as possible. Miss Hyams hopes eventually to furnish 
a living-room and bedroom in the same way. It must be remem- 
Ibered that the work is carried on in what we should describe as a 
islum district, where ignorance and often poverty prevail. No one 
jin the neighbourhood occupies a whole house ; many families live 
I in dark rooms, with air-shafts only to ventilate the inside bed- 
rooms ; and the children are entirely unconscious of any other 
j possible conditions ; so the first lessons are given to thoughts about 
what constitutes a home. The rooms of a house are talked about 
in turn and their uses considered ; then the children think out and 
decide the names and uses of the simple kitchen utensils provided. 
Next, they fill their own linen chest, a famous incentive to conquer 
tlie use of the needle. A start is made with cheese-cloth dusters, 
.after which towels, napkins, and table-clotbs are hemmed, e;ich 

6490. 



244 



U.S.A. — Philanthropic Agencies . 



article being on a scale proportioned to its maker. This introduces 
the need for lanndry work, to which the children take very kindly. 
The subject of cooking is approached through the consideration of 
some seasonable, familiar, and simple food, e.g., the potato ; few 
of the children can at first trace its origin further back than the 
shop ; so a sprouting potato is examined, compared with other 
])lants, and planted, to be finally compared with a picture. By 
this and other means their eyes are gradually opened to the realisa- 
tion of the many agencies needed to provide the boiled potato 
which forms so common an article of daily diet. All the lessons 
and their subjects are taken up in this way ; a method w^hich 
Miss Hyams feels to be best in this instance, as it widens the 
children's horizons and exercises their imagination and observation, 
while it guides them into more wholesome and intelligent habits 
The whole object of this particular club is to better the home 
conditions of a very poor neighbourhood, to further w^hich a class 
for elder girls in cooking is also carried on. At first the preparation 
of a whole meal was tried with them, but time limits obliged this 
to be too hurried ; so at last the existing plan was devised. The 
lady in charge supervises the preparation of and gives the recipe 
for the dish selected at one lesson, while on the next occasion the 
girls are required to come in, set about and carry on the entire 
j^rocess alone, though their instructor remains in the room and 
assists where help proves necessary. This method, while making 
no serious demand on the children, leads to the exercise of attention, 
forethought, and good method. 

Much care and ingenuity have been devoted to the equipment 
of this children's kitchen, which impressed me particularly by its 
practical completeness, compact arrangement, and the advantages 
it offers for the acquirement of orderly habits and a desirable sense 
of personal ownership. Three wooden shelves are fixed below the 
windows, right across one end of the room. These are sub-divided 
by partitions into ten cupboards, each two feet high by one foot 
wide ; in these are kept, respectively, a half-pint saucepan, bowl, 
baking-dish, tin plate, vegetable knife, fork, spoon, and other 
small ware. On the long shelf which forms the top of the series 
of cupboards, and on the wall above, are placed the articles less 
frequently used, such as scales, spice boxes, meat cho])per, etc. 
The children have also an extension table for cooking and little 
chairs of the right height for meals, a refrigerator, a chest of 
drawers to hold table and kitchen linen, a china closet and gas 
range, etc., all small, but perfect in detail. The means for washing 
and ironing have also been provided ; tubs, trestle tables, irons, 
ironing boards, and so forth ; bare necessaries, no luxuries, but 
everything bears the impress of being used and kept decently and 
in order, 

id) Free The educational value of all this private enterprise in good habit 
Lectures. training, with its eventual influence on public health, is not lost 

upon the Boards of Education in the cities where it is at work ; 

while its social worth is recognised, though as yet vaguely, by 



Examples of Household and Sanitary Science Coiirses. 



245 



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246 



U.S.A. — Summer Schools. 



(e) People's 
University 
Extension 
Society, 
N.Y.C. 
(/) Univer- 
sity Settle- 
ments. 



(g) Vacation 
Schools. 



many of the community at large. Some city Boards of Education 
have Saturday Morning Classes in Cooking and Sewing for girls, 
while these and Evening Classes for girls and adults are offered 
by practically all the Technical Institutes and in some Manual 
Training High Schools. The subjects of Physiology and Hygiene 
being obligatory in schools do not depend for their introduction 
upon outside agencies, but that an interest in them is manifesting 
itself among adults is evident from the fact that courses of instruc- 
tion in them are becoming more general in the published schedules 
of Eree Lectures ; especially has this been the case in the boroughs 
of Manhattan and the Bronx, New York City. The Superin- 
tendent of the " Eree Lectures to the People," Dr. H. M. Leipzinger, 
brought forward some interesting facts in this connection in his 
last Eeport. After drawing attention to the large and steady 
attendance at most of the centres, and to the discomfort frequently 
but cheerfully suffered by the crowded audiences (old men and 
women, after climbing sixty-five steps, obliged to sit on benches 
meant for children, etc.), he enumerates in order the subjects 
which excite this thirst to learn, and which, in one season, held 
the attention and awakened permanent interest among more 
than half a million middle-aged people. Physiology and Hygiene 
head the list ; Civics appear in company with History and Geo- 
graphy, while Sociology closes the roll of first favourites, follorring 
after Music and Art. By means of illustrations, where possible 
by experiments and lantern views, the eye, ear and brain are 
stimulated and trained ; so that he feels it to be now justifiable to 
plan a four-years' course in several lines of study, of which Hygiene 
is to be one. Those who wish to pursue a definite course will thus 
be enabled to get a general and well-defined outlme of their subject ; 
at the conclusion of the period they will be entitled to receive a 
certificate, which shall possess a genuine value. 

Hygiene teaching on simple lines is undertaken by the People's 
University Extension Society of New York ; while similar educa- 
tional lectures are given by competent teachers at many University 
Settlements, among which special mention should be made of 
those at Hull House, Chicago. I must not omit to mention that 
domestic subjects are also included in the classes offered to l)oys 
and girls in most of the social settlements in New York City, 
Chicago, Cleveland, 0., Columbus, 0., and elsewhere. These, 
with many other branches of manual work, prove, exclusive of 
the excursions, the most popular features at the various schools 
carried on by voluntary agencies, in an increasing number of 
cities, during a part of the three months* sununer vacation. It 
would be beside the mark to dwell at length upon these Vacation 
Schools, with their ideas, methods and influences ; though it has 
quite recently been proved in London, that the short holidays 
usual in England among the class of children they are designed 
to benefit, does not prevent the possibility of tlieir successful 
introduction into this country. 



Typical Domestic Science Courses. 



247 



C. — Summer Schools. 

The case of Summer Schools for adults is somewhat different. Typical 
These are also held during the long cessation of school work, rendered Domestic 
desirable by the intense heat of a climate very diverse from the Q^^^^^g 
English. They are attended by a great number of teachers of all 
subjects, so that the scholastic element is well represented ; but a 
large body of their students is furnished by members of other 
professions and by the leisured classes. Mothers of families will 
speak in a matter-of-fact way of the number of consecutive summers 
which have found them at one or other such school, in pursuit 
of knowledge either to equip themselves better for their household 
duties, for their social position, or to make them more intelligent^ 
companionable to their sons and daughters. These Summer 
Schools correspond somewhat to the University Extension Meetings 
held at Oxford and Cambridge, but are on a much larger scale ; 
their programmes oft'er a considerable range of practical courses 
in the arts and sciences ; while a feature is made of opportuni- 
ties for consecutive study. These schools are attached to the 
greater number of Universities and Colleges, as well as occupying an 
independent position, as, for instance, the world-renowned Chau- («) Chaut- 
tauqua. Professor Herbert B. Adams has given a vivid and g^^ool of 
exhaustive exposition of the popular enthusiasm for this class of Domestic 
education in his monograph for the Department of Education at the Science. 
Paris Exhibition. (Monographs on Education in the United States, ^^]^y 
No. 16, Summer Schools and University Extension".) The 
courses average six weeks in length, and, by judicious arrange- 
ment and selection, very real work can be accomplished. This 
possibility is illustrated by the comprehensive practical course in 
Household Sci^^nce at Chautauqua.* 

To illustrate that the civic side also is kept in view in these courses, (b) Chicago 
I may mention those available for summer students at Chicago University. 
University. The Department of Sociolog}^ heads its list of Summer 
School lectures with the " Citizen as Householder " (the house 
as a factor in public health, the control of the householder by the 
State, his duties in relation to sanitation and food supplies) ; while 
the second course is on " Food Supplies and Dietaries " under the 
same professor, Dean Marion Talbot. Eight alternate courees 
are detailed, of which four are largely concerned with sanitary 
science, viz.. the two just enumerated and two more, of which the 
titles are ** The Elements and Structure of Society " (a study of 
the economic, physiological, social, aesthetic, intellectual and moral 
elements in American Society), and " Municipal Sociology.'* 

The School of Education attached to the University also has (c) Chicago 
classes in Home Economics and Art, and in Applied Art in its University 
Summer School. These are, however, practically Normal, not ^^^^^^^.-^^j^ 
general classes. Their end is the illustration of educational prin- Table 
ciples in connection with the subjects selected for study, with XXX VI. 
special reference to the needs of those who are already engaged 
in teaching ; the subject matter of the classes falls, therefore, 

* See Ai)i)endix .J. 



U.S. A . — -University Extension, 



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ing tuition 
fees) $69 
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Length of 
Course. 


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terms. 




Entrance 

RlX^UIREMENTS. 


Open to all, 
but intended 
especially for 
teachers and 
teachers elect. 


Course of 
Instruction. 


Summer Term 
of the School 
of Education. 


President : — 

Will. Rainey 
Harper, 
Ph.D., D.D., 
LL.D. 





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System of Instruction in Domestic Science Subjects 249 



within the fields of elementary and secondary education, treated 
from the point of view of philosophy and pedagogy. The course 
in Home Economics consists of lectures and laboratory work in 
Applied Chemistry, the Study of Food Principles, the Chemistry of 
Food Fermentation, Detection of Food Adulterants and Preserva- 
tives, etc. Cooking and Sewing, as introduced into the primary 
grades, are discussed also in another course on Applied Pedagogy. 

So widespread is this system of Summer Schools that it is quite 
impossible to do more than thus concisely indicate the attention 
their organisers devote to the study of Domestic Science and 
Art, an attention rendered necessary by the demand, not among 
members of the teaching profession only, but among the public 
in general, who find in them a useful and feasible means of ac- 
quiring information and practical experience. The fees, natur- 
ally somewhat variable in amount, are distinctly reasonable ; 
the teaching staff is, as a rule, chosen with care, and of a high 
quality. 

D. — University Extension. 

The University Extension system of instruction in these subjects illustration., 
is also successful, and has developments of detail in the several of System 
States to meet local and particular needs. It acts in more ways Instruc- 
than one as a support and a stimulus to the Women's Clubs, the J^o^^^^^ic 
Farmei-s' Institutes, and to similar organisations for self and com- Science 
munal improvement. When employed, as is habitual in this Subjects, 
country, its lectures furnish the expert's standpoint, desiral)le 
in the study of any subject, but especially so where the students 
are drawn from those whose sphere and experience are some- 
what limited and along similar lines. When active chiefly by means 
of its Travelling Libraries it brings the written views of leading 
authorities into the homes of those who, owing to narrow means 
or to home claims, are imable otherwise to come in touch 
with this suggestive material. If this agency for education be 
" extended " into a reading course, controlled by some depart- 
ment of the University with which it is connected, correspondents 
are guided in their studies, encouraged to submit practical problems 
to their directors, and to persevere in one line of work until a degree 
of thoroughness has been attained. The Travelling Library method 
is specially well organised in New York State, under the leader- York State 
ship of Mr. Melvil Dewey, State Librarian of the New York Travelling 
Library at Albany. Compliance with the rules he has framed library, 
requires, for instance, that one subject must be studied for at 
least ten weeks ; continuity to this extent is insisted upon. Ex- 
cellent printed outlines of the topics included in the selected sub- 
jects are prepared by experts, and are supplied at nominal fees. 
Members are expected to submit occasional written exercises for 
criticism, and occasional conferences with qualified lecturers are 
advised. The admirable syllabus on " Home Economics is 
reproduced by kind permission in Appendix L., and gives an 
insight into the care and skill lavished upon these publications. 



250 



U.S.A. — Domestic Service Problem. 



(b) Cornell Cornell University has also organised Heading Courses, in which 
University it is customaiy to send short especially prepared lessons to the 
Coursef for ^^^dents, followed after a biief interval by a paper of questions. Each 
Farmers' subject is under the charge of a professor of wide practical experience. 
Wives. Eor example, the general supervision of reading courses for farmers' 
A\ ives is entrusted to Miss Martha Van Kensselaer, who, as a result 
of her sympathetic work, has a large and constant correspondence 
among her flock ; this enables her to give individual advice on 
questions which arise out of their perusal of the "Reading Lessons," 
and opens her mind to the needs, aspirations, and limitations of 
her correspondents, a souice of valuable guidance in the prepara- 
tion of her quarterly " Bulletin." Each quarter also sees a useful 
Supplement, issued gratuitously to the 6,000 members, on some 
home question, sanitary, economic, etc., freely illustrated, abso- 
lutely practical, eminently suggestive. That for January, 1900, 
was entitled, " Saving Steps." It is so full of useful hints that it 
is hard to resist the temptation to reproduce it in its entirety. 
The text taken is, " All household improvements which can be 
provided to conserve a woman's strength will add to her power 
and efficiency." The exposition suggests a hundred feasible 
ways for the attainment of this end, while the illustrations graphi- 
cally depict their practical application in kitchen and parlour. 
Similar in tone and value is " Home Sanitation," issued in April, 
1901 ; not the least interesting part of which is, " What our corres- 
pondents say " — an appendix consisting of the comments, suggestions 
and criticisms elicited by the previous number. It would be tedious 
to enumerate further the subjects and methods of treatment in 
these Bulletins; that they meet a need is evident, that they are 
doing valuable work in the formation of an intelligent public 
opinion is unquestionable. They awaken the minds of farmers 
and their wives to the usually unrecognised fact that housekeeping 
is a fine art, and that women possess the ability to change much 
that is passively permitted to prejudice the health and happiness 
of a family. They direct thought and attention to modes of 
healthful living, and teach that to minister to the bodily, intellectual, 
and spiritual needs of humanity is the highest type of world's 
work. They show that to accomplish this it is unnecessary to 
sacrifice either woman's health or comfort ; for by intelligent 
thought and skilled practice mountains of tacitly existing diffi- 
culties and prejudices may be surmounted or removed. The 
circular of suggestions for initiating such Reading Courses in new 
districts is worthy of attention from those who recognise the opening 
which exists for similar work in this country.* 

E. — The Domestic Service Problem. 
With the energy characteristic of their nation, the women of 
the Eastern States have set themselves seriously to study that 
acute problem, the Domestic Service question; fortunately for the 
cause in which they are interested they are animated by a spirit of 
dogged determination which remains undaunted by the discourage- 



* iSee Appendix K. 



Existing Conditions, 



251 



ments which attend their investigations. That the complexities 
which are encountered should be intricate and well-nigh innu- 
merable appears inevitable in the conduct of an inquiry where 
social, economic, professional, and domestic interests are all con- 
cerned ; that the difficulties are very real is recognisable, when the 
conditions incidental to the collection of accurate information on 
so delicate a subject are taken into account. To grumble and 
remain quiescent is an old-world monopoly ; to grimible and find 
therein a spur to action of some sort appears to be instinctive 
among the members of a younger race. As the activity, in this 
instance, first arose amongst the most highly educated women 
it assumed a sound form. Careful observations of existing con- 
ditions, under which domestic service becomes increasingly 
unpopular, were succeeded by a series of carefully-conducted 
investigations, upon which reliable statistics might be based, and 
certain assertions and conclusions tested. The Massachusetts Mas.sachu- 
Labour Bureau has prepared and published three studies of g^^^jj^f'^^'^^^ 
considerable interest upon this subject, consisting of information Bulletins 
collected by the Women's Educational and Industrial Union of showing 
Boston and the School of Housekeeping. Of these the first was existing 
issued in 1898, entitled, ''The Hours of Labour in Domestic 
Service " ; the second appeared in 1900, under the title of '* Social 
Conditions of Domestic Service ; " the third was made public in 
1901, and deals with some " Social Statistics of Working Women." 
The inquiries were in each case hampered by the very pei-sonal 
relations of mistress to maid, which lead the former usually to 
resent requests for explicit information ; the result of this attitude 
is that deductions have to be made from relatively small numbers. 
The first bulletin, for instance, embodies the analysis of returns 
from 184 different famihes in which 289 persons were employed ; 
though few in number, these were found to be decidedly repre- 
sentative of the general conditions obtaining in Boston. It 
appears that the average length of a day's Avork for all branches of 
domestic service somewhat exceeded twelve hours ; that, although 
the employees nominally had a ''day out," the full amount of business 
time on that day amounted to but three hours less than the daily 
average for the entire week ; and on Saturdays about four hours less ; 
and that restrictions existed as to the employment of " free time " 
(reception of visitors ; meals not to be served to friends ; stated 
hour of return usually 10 p.m.). All these facts su])stantiate 
some of the invariable objections raised to this occupation, viz., 
the difference between the number of houi*s required in domestic 
service and the amount and character of free time afforded, as 
compared with conditions which obtain in factories and some kinds 
of mercantile employment, plus the indefiniteness of the hours, 
which many consider to be an insuperable drawback. In the 
1900 bulletin, attention is directed to the unfortunate "social 
stigma " which attaches to domestic servants. 

" No criticism is intended, either direct or implied, of either mistress or 
servant. The fragmentary character of the data, and the comparatively 



252 



U.S.A. — Domestic Service Problem. 



Ej^isting limited field covered by the inquiries may be at once admitted. It is, 
Conditions, however, beyond question that while certain social opportunities are enjoyed 
— continued, by those who are employed in the factory or the shop, due, in a measure, 
to unity of action on the part of the workers, and to generally accepted 
customs growing out of the employment, in domestic service there is 
neither uniformity of privilege nor recognised social status. There is 
neither clear recognition of mutual responsibility and reciprocal rights 
and duties which marked the old relation of mistress and servant, nor 
the equally well defined relations which in industrial or mercantile employ- 
ment exist between employer and employee. The domestic has ceased 
to be a servant as that term was formerly used ; she has not yet become 
an employee as that term is now used in industrial occupations." 

Inquiries addressed to 181 families included the following 
topics : — What church is attended, and to what extent does it 
play a part in the social life of your servants ? What opportunities 
do you offer for intellectual improvement ? What is the character 
of the reading they affect — is the servant allowed access to the 
library, or given newspapers ? When not on duty, what oppor- 
tunities for enjoyment are open to her (playing on a musical instru- 
ment, attendance at a choral class, etc.), is she permitted to enter- 
tain visitors ? Is she afforded opportunity to do her personal 
sewing ? Is she given facilities to attend lectures, entertain- 
ments, or classes for self-improvement ? " The data collected 
exemplified every possible variety of treatment of, and interest in, 
the welfare of the servant concerned ; to tabulate or work out 
percentages is impossible, but it would seem that the words used by 
Professor Mary Roberts Smith in a recent number of the " Forum " 
might be considered to their advantage by many employers. 
" Whatever is done for manners or morals must be done, as for 
other working girls, by establishing friendly relations with them, 
and by winning them to more refined conceptions of life. The 
want of rational social pleasures and of opportunities for self- 
education is the result of all the conditions just discussed, to 
which must be added the one most fatal of all, namely, the want 
of aspiration. With the improvement of other conditions, this will 
remedy itself. But the desii-e for some social and intellectual recrea- 
tion may be stimulated through clubs, books, and amusements. 
To all these the mistress can at least contribute the stimulus of her 
own culture and friendly interest." 

The following conclusion, quoted from the last published investi- 
gation, suggests that in some respects at least, the conditions of 
domestic service in England and the United States have a good 
deal in common : " The social and economic conditions prevailing 
in domestic service place it quite apart from other groups. It 
appears that houseworkers have less free time and fewer vacation 
privileges than the women in other groups ; that these employees 
are generally foreign bom ; and that they have had fewer edu- 
cational opportunities than the others. The conditions of their 
employment, especially when but one employee is engaged in a 
family, often isolate them from other workers and tend to a 
narrower point of view. Their home surroundings, and, to a 
large extent, their social environment, must vary greatly, sinci; 



Proposed Remedies. 



253 



these are dependent on the conditions prevailing in the families 
in which they are employed and are largely governed by the will 
of the employer, and their content of life mnst be correspondingly 
affected. On the other hand, housework has a decided advantage 
from the standpoint of healthfulness ; and the food and general 
surroundings of the employees in housework are frequently some- 
^^hat better than in other employments. Makmg due allowance 
for board and lodging, the wages of the houseworkers appear to 
Ije better also ; at any rate, they seem to have a larger surplus. 
A fairly skilled houseworker is in little danger of being out of 
employment for any length of time. The consideration which 
more than anything else leads women to prefer factory, shop, or 
restaurant work to housework, appears to be the greater inde- 
pendence enjoyed in these employments." 

The next point considered has been the possible sources of relief Proposed 
for the tension which now exists. What are the remedies proposed Remedie . 
]jy our neighbours ? It seemed to me they are broadly divisible 
into three gi'oups : — • 

I. Those which are directed to the organisation of domestic 
service as a profession or skilled trade. 

II. Those which would dignify domestic service, as a necessity 
coincident with the growing desire to elevate home life in all depart- 
ments. The supporters of this view would not confine training 
in household occupations to one section of its members ; their 
scheme requires the intelligent co-operation of all. 

III. Those which, seeing in the discontent of the servant class 
a part of the evolutionary process going on throughout the ^^'orld, 
and viewing it as a process of preparation for new developments 
(incidentally disagreeable, because society is not yet wholly rip(; 
for the change), recommend intelligent adjustment to new 
conditions. 

The supporters of the first opinion point out that the old rela- («) House- 
tion of master and servant has passed away, and that of employei^s ^^^^ Pro^^^ ^ 
and employee must be established. fession. 

Miss Haggenbotham has usefully summarised what this involves in 
a paper she read at the semi-annual meeting of the Housekeeper's Alliance 
at Philadelphia, May 30th, 1900. She said : — " Women must frankly 
accept this situation and strive to understand what mutual obligations 
this relation (of employer and employee) imposes ; and what changes must 
be made to meet the new conditions. The new relation cannot be at once 
established — it must be a growth — an evolution from present conditions — 
not a revolution. No movement can be made to-day that will to-morrow 
lift household service at a bound to the plane of other forms of labour. 
Much progress may be made, however, if women, everyAvhere united 
into some such association as the Housekeepers' Alliance, will agree upon 
certain principles and certain general measures in the conduct of the house- 
hold, which may be advocated as advantageous to the relations between 
the housekeeper and her domestic labourers. A few suggestions are 
offered in the hope that they may provoke discussion and form the basis 
of a movement towards establishing household service on business prir ciples 
so far as is consistent with the very large personal element that enters 
inio it. 



254 



U.S.A. — Domestic Service Problem. 



-continued. 



(a) House- 1. We claim that the employer should offer fair conditions for efficient 

liold Service and faithful service ; and that the employee on his or her part 

as a should recognise that efficient and faithful service should be 

Profession ^ rendered for fair wages and just conditions. 

Some standard should be fixed. It rests with the employer, being 
presumably the better educated and equipped of the two, to prove that 
the interests of employer and employee are the same, and to lead the way 
in reasonable, business-like action. Let the employers consider what may 
be regarded as ' fair conditions,' and frankly state them and agree to 
hold to them even at the cost of some personal inconvenience. Let them 
then invite the consideration of these conditions by the employees, and 
also in return let them consider what rights and privileges they (the em- 
ployees) have to ask for themselves. Everywhere, except in the household, 
mutual interests are drawing together ' for consultation, for economy 
of forces and resources, those engaged in the same activities.' 

" 2. ^ standa rd of worJc and wages should be established. 

" Here again the employer must lead and stand firm. So long as the 
unskilled worker can command as much as the skilled worker, so long 
will employees be indifferent to the advantages for improvement offered 
by the Schools of Housekeeping. There should be a discrimination in 
Avages paid, according to the length of time for which the employee is to 
serve. Much unreason exists on the part of both employer and employee 
on this point. A domestic whose work is worth say $3.50 per week, 
may, through the desperation of some employer, obtain a place at ^5. 
Of course she loses the place as soon as a more competent person can be 
found to replace her. But for ever after the $3.50 person will contend 
fr>r $5 — declaring ' that is what I have had ' — and for days and weeks 
she will lose all wages until she has consumed many times the difference 
between her real value and the fictitious one. Employers, on the other 
hand, will frequently refuse to pay for those whom they know they shall 
need for only eight or ten months in the year, more than others are paid 
who have employment all the year round. This is not paralleled by the 
custom in any other field of labour. The man who has permanent work 
of any kind does not expect to receive the same pay as one who is employed 
only temporarily, or for a fraction of a year. 

"3 A fair amount of time should be allowed for rest and recreation. 
Stated times of absolute freedom should be agreed upon and the 
privilege should be accorded, within due limits, of receiving 
and entertaining friends. 

*' There are still many ' mistresses ' who object to the ' afternoon out * 
and to the visitor, forgetting that change and recreation are absolutely neces- 
sary to the preservation of normal conditions in the human being ; and 
forgetting that servants are mentally and socially constituted very much as 
their masters and mistresses are. The best domestic economy in the world 
would dictate the wisdom of ample provisions for change and recreation. 
It is unfortunate that most houses are so constructed that there is no con- 
venient place for the servant to receive her friends outside of the kitchen. 
If, however, public sentiment recognises the need of such provision, future 
architectural schemes will take it into account. 

" 4. Everything reasonable should be done to lessen the ' drudgery ' 
in housework. 

*' In proportion as intelligence and skill are ofi'ered on the part of the 
employee, employers should provide labour saving machines and all appur- 
tenances that will lessen the irritation and nervous strain of striving to 
make bricks without straw — in other words, of striving to perform the 
work of the household without the proper equipment.- 



Proposed Remedies. 



255 



'*5. As steps towards lessening the disadvantages of household services^ 
employers should give their attention to the subject f bakeries 
and laundries. 

"It is an enormous waste of strength and of money to carry on a hundred , 
family washes with a hundred separate fires, yet the lawlessness of laundries ' . 

is a serious menace to health ; and the conscientious housewife rightly 
hesitates about patronising them. The same may be said of bakeries 
in general. These institutions should be established under sanitary regu- 
lations, and placed with dairies and food supply institutions under restriction 
of the law. Household employers should see that these things are done. 

" 6. As a further aid in raising the standard of household service and 
making it a business, it is suggested — 
" To abolish private employment agencies and intelligence offices, 
and substitute either Government employment bureaus or reputable 
business institutions, like the employment bureau of the Housekeepers^ 
Alliance, which shall be conducted with intelligent regard for the 
office they assume to fill. 

" The ordinary intelligence office is responsible for a large part of th?. 
degradation of household service." 

These ideas underlie the experiments being now, I beheve, 
made at Chicago and Boston ; they consist in an undertaking 
to supply servants from a central bureau for days of eight hours, 
the bureau holding itself responsible for the uninterrupted service 
of its clients on strictly business lines. At present English home 
life could not easily adapt itself to such a method of service ; the 
more active part taken by the mistress and family in the domestic 
duties of the average American household rendei-s possible, if 
not desirable, what would be at present impossible here. Never- 
theless, the conception of domestic service as a profession, and the 
reasonable proposals of Miss Haggenbotham merit full consideration. 

With reference to the second point of view I enumerated (the restoration (/^) Restora- 
of dignity to domestic work), the writer just quoted comments upon " the tion of 
aversion to household labour, both inside and outside of the home, as a J)ignity to 
marked characteristic of the present generation. Children are reared to Domestic 
despise the arts of the household, and to treat with scant respect those Work, 
who practise them. Wage earners who can find any other avenue of 
employment shun that of household service, though it offers moral and 
material advantages that belong to no other employment. Young people 
enter upon married life not only ignorant of the necessary work of the 
household, but without any clear conception of the ethical relations involved 
in the family community, and without the faintest idea as to how the family 
income ought to be spent — what percentage may be paid for rent, food, 
clothing, etc. The man does not manage his business that way, but it 
never seems to occur to him that his housekeeping is a business ; or, if it 
does, he concludes that it is his wife's special domain ; and his only duty 
is to look with indulgent eye upon her ignorance and failures .... 
It has been justly said that 'a very large part of the wealth produced 
in the world is consumed in the household, yet neither those who 
produce nor those who consume know on what principle it is done.' . . . . 
" Public sentiment does not yet demand the preparation of the M oman 
for what is commonly claimed to be her ' heaven-appointed ' mission — the 
wife and the homemaker. It is vaguely believed that when the necessity- 
arises, some domestic instinct will quicken in her, and enable her to ad- 
minister the duties of her office without previous thought or training. 
This is an anomaly that exists in no other walk in life. But a household 
cannot be run (Su the inspiration plan any more than can a factory, h 



256 



U.S.A. — Domestic Service Problem. 



(b) Restora- steel plant, or a department store. Household service can never become 
tion of a business (or trade) and command the same respect as other forms of 
Dignity to labour, until there is a better general conception of household affairs from 
Domestic an ethical, sociological and economic standpoint. With tliis conception 
Work — will come a greater respect for the household and those who work in it ; 
continued. and then will come also a demand for the better equipment of the employer 
and the employee, aiiid for the application of the scientific and business prin- 
ciples needful for the organisation of the modern household." . . . . 
*' This conception can be attained only by the greater prevalence of educa- 
tion in the true sense of the word. In addition to the mental training 
which the so-called ' higher ' education is striving to give, there must 
be, for all classes, from the lowest to the highest, for the poor 
equally with the rich, an education in the true standards of living, in 
what constitutes better homes, more comfortable conditions ; and in a 
clearer perception of those tendencies towards mere imitation and luxury 
which lead to the degeneration of mind and body." . . . . " Social 
training in ethical ideals, and the inculcation of the belief that home- 
making must be the woman's profession, for which she requires a power- 
giving knowledge, must become accepted factors in the education of every 
woman, rich or poor." . . . . " Women are especially responsible 
for the promotion of this better education through which alone can ha 
accomplished a readjustment in household organisation in accordance 
with modern conditions." 

I quote Miss Haggenbotham's words because the patience of my 
readers must have been taxed by the frequent presentation of the 
same idea, in my own language, throughout this Report. Let the 
thought but once permeate the people that all which conduces to 
the fullest development of the human being is honourable in the 
highest degree ; that the knowledge necessary to this right care 
demands the exercise of the best intellectual faculties and is no mere 
illiterate " rule of thumb " drudgery ; and a different complexion is 
placed upon domestic service. But with its removal from^ the 
ranks of unskilled labour comes the question of pay. Will those 
who desire assistance pay for skilled woi-k ? W^ill they combine to 
demand it, and be courageous in the endurance of inevitable 
difficulties during the period that this changed attitude on their 
part is being realised by a class, whose capacity for duties assumed 
has not been hitherto tested by any defined standard ; whose 
members, indeed, from the pressing need of employers have in 
most cases been accepted at their own valuation ? Miss Haggen- 
botham refers to the " ethical, sociological, and economic " aspects 
of household service as being yet but imperfectly apprehended by 
either employers or employees ; and I think with justice. Con- 
sidered from tlie ethical standpoint, the mistress owes a duty to her 
maid, the maid to her mistress ; in thousands of instances this is 
fulfilled in a measure ; in thousands it is ignored. Suitable and 
wholesome conditions and opportunities for self -improvement are 
the due of each member of a household. Conscientious per- 
formance of duties undertaken is the return rightly demanded for 
wages paid ; damage to food or furniture resulting from ignorant 
assumption of positions for which no qualifications have been 
acquired, slovenly evasions of routine work agreed to at the time 
of engagement, are acts of dishonesty ; they constitute a breach of 



Proposed Remedies, 



257 



ethical duty. The sociological standpoint I shall refer to mider 
the opinion of Group III. The economic standpoint is as yet 
dimly grasped by either party concerned in a calling which has not 
progressed in company with almost all other means of Hvelihood 
in the industrial and commercial worlds. There are members of 
the directing classes who refuse to recognise that a trained worker 
must be worth more than an untrained ; who deplore " education " 
as the undoing of domestic service ; who do not anticipate the day 
with any satisfaction when training will be insisted upon, and rate 
of pay regulated by other rules than the needs of a large family or 
the pressing inconveniences which often lead to the overpayment 
of the undeserving. To develop a comprehension of the economic 
point of view employers should have a more than theoretical acquain- 
tance with the work in question ; they should know the time neces- 
sarily absorbed in some processes ; the immense saving of time to 
be effected in others through skill, or the use of labour-saving 
appliances, or the thoughtful rearrangement of kitchen and 
pantry. They must be trained to appreciate the better class of 
work which coincides with judicious recreation and suited diversity 
of interest ; and they should study the history of combination and 
the advantages to be derived from co-operation, if employees are to 
be guided into the right conception of their relation to employers. 
The simpler social life in the United States undoubtedly facilitates 
this self-discipline of housekeepers, while the larger proportion of 
highly educated women has already led to a modicum of recognition 
of the imperative claims of these ethical and economic considerations. 
Not that the period of discomfort incidental to a stage of transition 
is passed ; the present pangs are sharper than with us, but a few 
tentative efforts are being made to gain relief, based on scientific 
o])servation of the past and intelligent adaptation of the knowledge 
so acquired to the needs of to-day. A few mistresses are submitting 
themselves to courses of training ; unremitting efforts are being 
made by a small number of thoughtful women to induce girls to 
train and employers to make it worth their while to do so. In an 
annually increasing number of schools, colleges and institutes, the 
dignity of ministering with intelligence to the needs of the body is 
impressed upon the young people. Nevertheless, some years must 
necessarily elapse even in that country of mercurial activity before 
it will be possible to gauge results of these tentative reforms with 
any degree of accuracy. 

My report of the opinions held by Group III. must be very con- (c) Recon- 
cise ; the grounds upon which they are based are detailed with j^J^^^g^'J-^. 
some elaboration in an article by Miss A. S. Vrooman on the " Ser- Lif|!^^'^ 
vant Question," pubhshed in the "Arena" for June, 1901.- 
This lady points out that the acute stage of her subject, from wliich 
society is suffering, is in reality the effect of a great force, actively 
contributing towards the preparation of humanity for a full co- 
oijerative life. The process she admits is far from agreeable. Those 
who share her views maintain that the home of to-day presents in 

6490. R 



258 



U.S. A, — Domestic Service Problem. 



miniature a picture of " society in its strife, its unequal division of 
labour and enjoyments, its suppression of some for the luxurious 
self-indulgence of others." The process of home destruction evident 
to some eyes in the rapid growth (in New York City and elsewhere) 
of the " apartment house " is antecedent in her opinion only to 
construction on sounder lines. The apartment house " in its 
present form is but a milestone on the road of domestic evolution ; 
in its methods may be seen the crude beginnings of a new system, 
that of co-operative housekeeping. 

Miss Vrooman writes very helpfully upon one point, namely, the some- 
what unwise use made of their liberty by domestic servants when all re- 
strictions are removed from the employment of their leisure hours. 
The latitude they permit themselves is a favourite argument with employers 
against the granting of periods of recreation. " First effects of emanci- 
pation usually appear as an argument against it ; a fact familiar to the 
student of sociology ; therefore patient forbearance needs to be exercised 
with the servant class ; only after long emancipation from restraint is the 
sense of personal responsibility and self-control developed ; yet both a sense 
of responsibility and the power of self-control are essential qualities to 
honest intelligent service." 
Miss Salmon *Miss Salmon has rendered a real service to the cause of 
on Domestic Domestic Service by the scholarly methods in which she presents 
Service. j^-^ j^^ ^^iQ first instance she draws attention to the omission of 
domestic service from previous theoretical, statistical and 
historical discussions of economic problems, for which she accounts 
mainly because (1) the occupation does not involve the invest- 
ment of a large amount of capital on the part of the individual 
employer or emplo^^ee ; (2) no combinations have yet been found 
among employers or employees ; (3) the products of domestic service 
are more transient than are the results of other forms of labour. 
After an interesting enumeration of various subsidiary explanations 
of the failure to consider domestic service in connection with these 
other forms of labour, Miss Salmon concludes that these are all in 
reality but different phases of one fundamental reason — the 
isolation that has always attended household service and household 
employments. Though the facts revealed in her historical sketch 
of Domestic Emjjloyments in the United States are not identical 
with those which a similar study would bring to light in this country, 
the}^ deserve our attention and point to conclusions to which 
analogous inquiries in Great Britain would probably lead, viz., that 
the question is one of preparing for the next step in the process of 
evolution, not of retrograding towards a condition imj)ossible 
to restore. Domestic service is not only amenable to some of the 
general economic laws and conditions Avhich affect other occupations, 

*A most valuable epitome of her scientific and thorough study of this 
servant question is found in her book on "Domestic Service," by Miss 
Lucy M. Salmon, Professor of History at Vassar College. In this volume 
she approaches her subject as part of the general labour problem ; the 
first real attempt to treat it from the historical and economic, rather than 
from the personal standpoint. Her comments suggest that in the rccog' 
nition of the professional aspect of the problem lies its solution. 

The book is publi^;hed by Macmillan & Co. 



Miss Salmon on Domestic Service. 



259 



but is also governed by economic laws developed within itself. 

The difficulties that meet the employer of domestic labour both in 
America and Europe are the difficulties that arise from the attempt 
to harmonise an ancient, patriarchal industrial system with the 
conditions of modern life. Everywhere the employer closes his 
eyes to the incongruities of the attempt and lays the blame of 
failure, not to a defective system, but to the natural weaknesses in 
the character of the unfortunate pei*sons obliged to carry it out. 
The difficulties in the path of both employer and employee will not 
only never be removed but will increase until the subject of domestic 
service is regarded as a part of the great labour question of the day 
and given the same serious consideration.'* (Chapter VI.) Miss 
Salmon devotes some space to the consideration of the advantages 
of domestic service, which, though patent, are unequal to counter- 
balancing the industrial and social disadvantages which she dis- 
cusses. More to my immediate purpose is her enumeration of the 
popularly prescribed remedial measures which she truthfully des- 
cribes as " doubtful," and of which she disposes one by one, for 
the good reasons that they do not touch the economic, educational, 
and industrial difficulties, or that they run at right angles to general 
economic, educational and industrial progress. 

They include the application of intelligence by the employer ; the recep- 
tion of the employee into the family of the employer ; increased employ- 
ment of negro or Chinese labour ; the licensing of domestic employees by 
municipal corporations ; the system of German service books ; the abolition 
of public schools above the primary grade, on the ground that girls are edu- 
cated above their station ; the introduction of housework into all public 
schools, a proposition which ignores the fact that it is the function of the 
public school to educate, not to supply information on technical subjects ; 
and the establishment of training schools for servants, a plan which Miss 
Salmon considers in opposition to present political and social tendencies ; 
lastly, co-operative housekeeping. 

She points out that relief from present difficulties must be sought 
in accordance with certain social and economic tendencies ; among 
which she mentions the concentration of capital and labour in 
large industrial enterprises ; specialisation in eveiy department of 
labour, and the training this necessitates ; the association for 
mutual benefit of persons interested in special lines of work ; the 
growth of productive and distributive co-operation ; greater 
industrial independence on the part of women ; finally, that 
result of the systematic study of social conditions which aims at 
the amelioration of seme of the conditions under which woi-k is 
l)erformed, not at the cessation of the work itself. The ai)plication 
of these pi-inciples has led to wiser charities, to the Chautauqua 
movement, to University Extension, to working girls' clubs, to 
enlarged opportunities everywhere for every class, ..." they 
mean that ultimately the position in society of every person is to 
depend not on his occupation, but on the use he has made of these 
increasing opportunities for self help and self improvement ; they 
mean that in time all social stigma will be removed from eveiy 
occupation, and woi'k will bo judged by its quality rather tban its 



6490. 



260 



U.S.A.— Domestic Service Problem. 



nature ; that in time, for example, a first-class cook will receive 
more honour than a second-class china decorator or a third-class 
teacher." 

Miss Salmon concludes this portion of her book as follows : — 
The general remedies nmst include a wider prevalence of educa- 
tion in the true sense of the word, not its counterfeit, information ; 
til at mental education which results in habits of accuracy, pre- 
cision and observation, in the exercise of reason, judgment and 
self-control ; and that education of character which results in the 
ability constantly to put one's self in the place of another. There 
nmst be scientific training and investigation in economic theory, 
history, and statistics, especially in their application to the house- 
hold, and a a increased popular knowledge of all scientific subjectb 
concerning the home. . . . The educational forces must ' pull 
fi-om the top ' and draw domestic service into the general current 
of industrial development." (Chap. XI.) Miss Salmon looks with 
hopeful anticipation for the future to improvement in the social 
condition of employees ; to specialisation of household employ- 
ments so far as possible ; and to education in household affairs, i.e., 
the careful, systematic education of housekeepers, through the 
study of art, chemistry, economics, physiology, psychology, and 
history. " Housekeeping must advance," she maintains, and must 
become " on its own part an active creative force." She also traces 
the prevalent inactivity in all household affairs to three causes, 

(1) the belief that a knowledge of all things pertaining to the house, 
homo, and family, " unlike anything else, comes ])y instinct " ; 

(2) the assumption that household affairs concern women only, 
whereas, " when the fact is everywhere recognised that both men 
and women have a vital concern in the affairs of the house, the 
relation between the different parts of the household will become an 
organic one, and its highest development reached "; (3) the erroneous 
conviction that all women have a natural taste for household affaii-s, 
which without cultivation grows into positi\'e genius for carrying 
them on." Systematic and scientific training in, and professional 
investigation of, all matters appertaining to the household, this is a 
concise summary of Miss Salmon's Recommendations, each of which 
she considers to be essential to lift the subject " out of the domam 
of sentiment and to transfer it to a realm where reason and judg- 
ment have control." The chapter entitled " Conclusion " is too 
condensed to be further summarised ; in the space of ten pages the 
])roblem and its solution are compi-essed into the proverbial nutshell. 
Space is also found to touch upon several complications which 
tibtain in this country as in hers ; for instance, the growing wealth 
(tf the nation and increased luxury in hving ; the natural con- 
sei-\'atism of many women ; the desire of both employers and 
employees to get ever}^thing for nothing — the largest expenditure 
of woman for the smallest expenditure of money " ; the many 
elements of uncertainty which enter into a woman's life. Miss 
Salmon claims no novelty or originality for her riemedial proposals, 



Miss Salmon on Domestic Service, 



261 



l)ut we are indebted to her for a clear statement of a complicated 
case, wherein lies my excuse for detailing somewhat in extenso views, 
which, after all, can only be adequately digested by their study in 
her own pages. One strong conviction, which she reiterates, has 
so close a connection with the subject of this Keport that its 
proper introduction would alone justify this lengthy presentation 
of her views : — One thing, and only one thing, will turn the house- 
hold into the channel where every other occupation has made 
advancement. This is the establishment of a great professional 
school, amply equipped for the investigation of all matters pertaining 
to the household, and open only to graduates of the leading colleges 
and universities of the country. . . . Professional training and 
investigation must supplement home and collegiate instruction in 
the case of the housekeeper, as the professional school supplements 
private and collegiate instruction for the physician, the lawyer and 
the clergyman." Indications are not wanting that this desired 
opportunity will be presently afforded in the United States ; times 
in England are not perhaps yet lipe for such a movement, even 
were funds and other essentials available for the purpose : but, 
meanwhile, we can profit by the inquiries, experiences and inves- 
tigations of a less conservative people. At least we can begin to 
set our own ideas in order, and endeavour by judicious method^, 
at school, at technical institute, and at college, to open the minds 
of all classes to the economic, social, hygienic, and industrial prin- 
ciples, upon a due recognition of which depends any feasible 
solution of the domestic service problem. 

While fully alive to the fact that the diver-se sociological con ■ pl^'^^^^^ij^^'j^^i 
ditions which exist in the two countries demand diverse treatment England, 
of a difhculty which confronts both, I still believe that a thoughtful 
study of the writings of our American sisters upon the subject will 
prove instructive and suggestive to those called upon to grapple 
with its comi)lexities ; and I confidently look to a measure of 
success being attained here as there by the same means; viz, 
the suitable training in their duties of both parties to these engage- 
ments ; a more extended and intelligent study of the economic 
side of housekeeping (economy of time, labour, strength, and 
money) ; and a consistent and sustained national effort to dignify 
home life and all the term comprehends. The college women of 
the States are foremost in this movement of reform. They pride 
themselves upon their skill in the performance of daily domestic 
duties equally with their achievements in literature and history, 
or in their selected branches of science. It behoves the " educated " 
women of England to bring their skilled minds and trained bodies 
also to the aid of their less intelligent or capable sisters, in ordei- 
that the period of unrest and waste of energy may be shortened 
and the necessary adjustment made to the changes consequent upon 
social evolution. To attempt to remedy the increasing troubles, 
the whole situation must be studied from the Ijottom ; the same 
patient and scientific method must be used as in the interpretation 



2G2 



V. S. A. — Summary of Enquiry. 



of an obscure fjict in luitural history, or in tlie decision upon a 
vexed question in the history of nations. Trained minds must be 
brought to bear on the subject, inteUigent heads and wiUing hands 
must all work together. The responsibilities of all concerned 
must be recognised ; rank does not release from obhgation, neither 
does the possession of exceptional mental ability or of abundant 
means reheve from liability. Were the efforts to solve the 
domestic service problem now being made in England accorded 
the intelligent and active su})port furnished to similar movements 
in the United States, the outlook would assume a brighter aspect 
than is at present apparent to an interested observer. 

Summary of Enquiry. 

Prior to my visit to the United States, in 1901, 1 was provided for 
my guidance with certain Suggested Heads of Enquiiy," in- 
tended to cover, more or less, the scope of my commission. A brief 
resume of the resultant Ileport, reproduced in the order of these 
instructions, suggests itself as a suitable form of conclusion ; for 
while it should serve to gauge the thoroughness with ^^'hich I 
executed the commission entrusted to me, it will, at the same time, 
focus tlie main points to which reference has ]3een made in the 
pr eceding pages. 

SV'ope of The first of these Suggestions " detailed the subjects into the 
J^.nquiry. position and teaching of which I was to enquire, all of these ])eing 
included in this coimtry under the title of Domestic Science, viz : — 
Cookery, Laundry Work, Housewifery, hicluding learning to pur- 
chase commodities, the Elements of Domestic and Personal Hygiene, 
Needlework, Dressmaking, Millinery, Care of the Nureery, andof 
Children. The general practice in che United States is to divide 
the above subjects into three groups : — (1) Cookery (which always 
includes some practical Housewifery), Laundry-work, and the Care 
of Children, which are all comprehended under Domestic, or Home, 
or Household Science, as it is variously described ; (2) Needlework, 
Dressmaking and Millinery, which are classified as Domestic Arts ; 
(3) Personal and Domestic Hygiene, which is invariably based upon 
I^hysiology, and forms a part of the ordinary State school curri- 
culum ; as such being studied co-educationally by all children, boys 
and girls alike. In many Elementary Schools, and in some Secon- 
dary, cookery and needlework apj)ear under the designation of 
Manual Training, being used with that intention for girls, Vvhile 
Ijoys are engaged in wood or iron work. " Household Economics " 
is a term much favoured when the broadest aspect of the whole 
subject is intended ; that is to say, when technical skill in the 
domestic applications is based upon a sound knowledge of the 
fur.damental sciences and arts, supplemented by a comprehension 
of the ethical and economic principles involved in their intelligent 
employment. 

Th(i second " Suggestion " dealt with the classification of the differ- 



Extent of Domestic Science Teaching. 



eiit g;rades and types of institution in which these subjects, under Classifi 
whatever designation, are taught, e.g., Primary Day Schools, ^^^^^ ^'^d 
E\ ening Continuation Schools for pupils from thirteen to sixteen Educational 
3^ears of age or older, Secondary Day Schools, Technical Institutes, Institutions. 
Ti-aining Colleges for Teachers in the above various types of schools 
and Universities. 

The fact is familiar that English methods of school nomenclature 
vary from those adopted in the States ; Elementary Day Schools 
are there habitually described as Grade Schools (Grades I. to VITI. 
or IX.) ; and this term I have usually employed. It includes 
certain sub-divisions — as a rule, but two — Primary and Grammar ; 
but occasionally there are three departments — Primary, Inter- 
mediate, and Grammar. The expression " Evening Continuation 
School " is not in use, but Evening Schools are connected with 
Grade and High Schools in most, if not in all, cities. No restrictions, 
so far as I could learn, are placed, upon the age of pupils. High 
Schools of various types and for both sexes do not exactly correspond 
with our " Secondary" Schools; they are a sequence to the Grade 
Schools, the entering age is fourteen, and no fees exist. Certain 
departments of State Agricultural Colleges, and of the great Tech- 
nical Institutes endowed by private citizens, permit of classification 
under the one head of Technical Schools ; in these teachers of 
Domestic Science and Art most usually receive their training, 
though half of the State Universities and one or two Normal Colleges 
also ofier Household Science courses. Columbia, Chicago, Leland 
Stanford, Michigan, and one or two more Universities of the first 
rank have initiated courses in Sanitary or Household Science ; some 
of a special character, as at Teachers College, Columbia University, 
but more usually open to all students. 

Cooking and Sewing may be described as now generally taught in Extent of 
Grade Schools ; these subjects have been introduced in a still limited yc^eJfce^^.J,i(i 
but steadily increasing, amount in High Schools ; they are studied Hygiene 
to a very consideral)le extent, on exhaustive and elaborate lines, in Teacbiiig. 
Technical Institutes as Avell as more simply in Evening and Saturday 
classes. This latter type of instruction is also prov ided Ijy such 
agencies as the Young Women's Christian Association and Girls' 
Clubs. Laundry-work is almost unknown as a sulDject in Grade 
Schools, but is usually included in Domestic Science as taught in 
High Schools, while it finds a place in the courses at Technical Insti- 
tutes and Normal Colleges. Dressmaking and Millinery are 
popular subjects in Manual Training High Schools, Technical 
Institutes and in Evening Classes. With few exce})tions, definite 
artistic training in design, form, colour and the use of brush and 
pencil constitute an im]jort ant feature in these latter courses. I*er- 
sonal, Domestic, and Civic Hj gienc^ appears, though to a variable 
extent, in the programmes of all schools, colleges and Technical Insti- 
tutes, [t is at ])resent, in conjunction with physiology, an obligatory 
subject in the Grade Schools of nearly all the States ; in the High 
Schools it is usually oj)tional ; but it is again practically obligatory 



264 



U.S.A. — Summary of Etiquiry. 



ill the majority of colleges, for it constitutes the theoretical study- 
required to accompany, and to give intelligent impetus to, the 
Physical Culture Courses required of all students. The jjeculiar 
educational advantages it offers, especially as the outcome of Nature 
Study and Biology, to which much attention is now paid, leads to 
its voluntary inclusion in the curricula of both High Schools and 
Colleges. The Care of Children is specifically taught in relatively 
few schools, but incidentally the subject receives attention in. the 
study of hygiene. The case is different in institutions for higher 
education ; in these Child Study, Psychology, Ethics and Sociology 
all serve to bring the question of child hygiene before students. 

The " commenchig age " in Grade Schools for instruction in any 
of these subjects, except Hygiene, varies from ten to thirteen years ; 
twelve may be taken as the average age for Cooking classes ; nine or 
ten for Sewing. I think the age selected for the cooking classes is 
especially influenced by the consideration that increased physical 
capacity (i.e., muscular strength and height) and intelligence (i.e., 
the power to use the reasoning faculty) are secured by placing it as 
late as possible in the curriculum. Where, as is now very often the 
case, girls receive equally with boys actual manual training in wood 
or chip carving and in clay modelling, dexterity of manipidatioji is 
acquii-ed previously ; this is found materially to influence the 
amount of good gained during the subsequent coui-se in cooking ; 
observation, accuracy in detail, and so forth, having become to a 
greater or less degree habitual. The average age for city children 
to leave school is certainly later than in England ; most gir-ls remain 
until fully thirteen ; a growing number stay till they are fourteen, 
and then pass on to the High School for at least two years more ; 
so that a large proportion receive the benefit of this instruction, 
even where thirteen is the commencing age. These facts are taken 
into account in planning most Domestic Science Courses. In cities 
where industrial conditions and economic considerations shorten 
school life, I found that the age for attendance at cooking classes 
was earlier— eleven years, or even ten, being fixed in some instances. 
Domestic Science is not taught in rural schools ; these serve, as a 
rule, very scattered districts, and are usually somewhat under- 
staffed ; consequently, much division into separate classes is not 
possible, especially as the co-educational system requires, under 
such circumstances, that the instruction shall be adapted throughout 
for mixed classes. 

Sewing, w^h ere taught, almost without exception precedes Cooking. 
There is a marked divergence from English methods in this connec- 
tion ; one or two years is the usual length of time apportioned to 
weekly or bi-w^eekly lessons in needlework, either in Grade or High 
Schools — a great contrast to the five or six years devoted to its 
practice in our elementary schools. This may be attributed to several 
causes ; for instance, it has proved difficult to break down public 
prejudice against devoting precious school hours to so " homely 
a subject ; consequently, short courses could only be introduced 



Extent of Domestic Science Teaching. 



205 



tentatively, almost apologetically, though this is a fast-vanishing 
stage. There is also a strong and prevalent objection to wearying 
children with the constant and often monotonous repetition of very 
similar processes, or to requiring fine muscular movements and 
concentration of sight upon near objects for too long a period. I 
was frequently assured, and I confess my eyes substantiated the 
assertion, that if this subject be but presented at the right time in a 
child's development, it will be rapidly and more satisfactorily 
acquired than when attempted prematurely. Tn children whose 
eyes and hands have been systematically trained from Kindej-garten 
upwards, two years of needlework practice produces ven^ promising 
results. As a whole, I considered these to hold their own w^ith those 
attained by the longer practice common in England ; but accurate 
comparisons are almost impossible, because the United States Grade 
Schools are frequented by children of all social grades, so that the 
general standards of inteUigence, nutrition and energy should be, 
and are, higher than in our English Elementary Schools. It would; 
however, be intei'esting to test by experinient here a method wfiich 
seems well worthy of consideration and fair trial from the results 
gained in that country ; among other advantages claimed are the 
wider variety of interest and occupation afforded to the children, and 
the development of alarger number of muscles in the practice of the 
diverse manual exercises for which time thus beoomes available. 
Sewing, too, is so commonly classed as Manual Training that it 
readily falls into rank with the other exercises included imder that 
title. The great interest in and rapid progress made by High School 
girls in needlework, both elementary and advanced, bodes well for 
the future housewifely of the country. The subject is held in 
special esteem educationally at the High School age, on account of 
the valuable training it affords in method, neatness, cleanliness, 
discretion, good taste, and economy ; while it lends itself admirably 
to home application. 

Domestic Science subjects are taught to deaf and blind children 
of both sexes at New York, Boston, Providence, and elsewhere, 
with i-eported excellent results. The one school I was able to visit 
(Horace Mann School, Boston) amply confirmed the testimony I 
received ; deaf lads, of fifteen and upwards, as well as girls, become 
in some cases so thoroughly proficient with their needles and such 
really good cooks that they are fit for w^age-earning situations. 
The nimiber of feeble-minded children is very small ; special pro- 
vision is made for their training in most States, but time did not 
permit me to secure information from personal observation. 

The High School courses in Household Science and Art have 
only this in common, that they are all conducted along very jn-ac- 
tical lines ; they vary in length from ten months to four years ;• 
they may be correlated with work in the laboratory or studio, or 
may be complete in themselves. With rare exceptions, no branch 
of Domestic Science is taught to boys in Grade Schools, but attend- 
ance at courses on House Sanitation is occasionally optional in 



266 



U.S.A. — Summary of Enquiry. 



Position of 
Domestic 
Science in 
8cliool and 
College 
Curricula. 



liigb Schools. Physiology and Hygiene are studied co-echica- 
tionally througliout school and college life. A marked interest in 
these sul^jects is evinced by school boys ; Avhile the demand for 
a knowledge of Sanitary Science on the part of a small proportion 
of male students at some colleges and universities has warranted 
the hitroduction of courses to meet it. 

The " General Courses " in Household Economics at High 
Schools, Technical Institutes and at half the total number of State 
Universities serve as admirable schools for training young women 
as home-makers ; a very considerable number make use of these 
ojjportunities before marriage. The Sunmier School and Technical 
Institute courses serve a similar pur'])Ose for those who do not 
realise till after marriage the need of such preparation for, or 
assistance in, their domestic duties. It is also now the object of 
University Extension organisers and of Women's Clubs to secure 
suitable instruction, though necessarily of a more limited character, 
for farmers' wives and others whose place of residence or home- 
claims prevent their attendance at a prolonged course of study. 

I was further desired to give sj^ecial attention as to the present 
])osition of Domestic Science teaching in school and college curri- 
cula ; and was also invited to make observations as to the methods 
em])loyed, the equipment provided, and other essential details. 
This Suggestion " necessarily implied a study of other important 
points, viz., to what extent are teachers allowed a free hand in 
shaping the courses of instruction ; must syllabuses be rigidly fol- 
lowed, and how far is Domestic Science correlated with othei* sub- 
jects in the time-table, e.g.,^ '\t\\ Natural Science,Arithmetic, Reading 
and Drawing. The authorities I consulted were practically unani- 
mous in their opinion that Domestic Science is now spontaneously 
assigned a much more important and honourable place in school and 
college curricula than was the case until quite recent years. Its 
claims to recognition on the grounds of its high educational, ethical, 
and sociological value are proved true, and each session sees its more 
general introduction, under one or other of its many titles, into 
(xrade and High Schools, as wtII as into College cour-ses. This 
Report contains a large number of specimen Tables, which illustrate 
how the necessary time is found for the various subjects ; and I 
again desire emphatically to draw attention to the invaluable oppor- 
tunities thus afforded for linking learning with life. That Teachers 
College, Columbia University, includes both Domestic Science and 
Domestic Art in the post-graduate courses l^eara high testimony to 
the estimation in which these subjects are held ; the fact that the 
degree of B.Sc. is offered in Universities of good and recognised 
standing to graduates in Household Economics, equally with other 
sciences, is a valuable proof of the support accorded to its introduc- 
tion by the resi)ective faculties. The presence of highly-educated 
college women as students in these courses at the leading Technical 
Institutes attests to the intellectual as well as to the utilitarian 
attractions of Household Economics when efficiently organised. The 



Methods of Teachitty bomedw Science and llijgiene in Grade Schools. 267 



growing demand for instniction in Sanitary Science among male' 
students testifies both to the interest aroused by the elementary 
teaching in Physiology and Hygiene obligatory in Grade Schools, 
and to their own practical realisation that the possession of still more 
advanced information is an essential equipment for the student of 
economics, for the inteUigent citizen or for the social reformer. 
The principals of sevei-al widely -separated High Schools told me that, 
from the purely educational standpoint, Physiology and Hygiene 
for both sexes, and Domestic Science and Art for girls, prove of high 
value — ethically, sociologically, scientitically, and as manual exer- 
cises ; and on these grounds an honourable place is assigned to them 
in their school programmes. Not that this opinion is as yet univer- 
sal ; in some cities these subjects still receive scant and contemp- 
tuous consideration ; but those chiefly responsible for what has beeji 
accomplished are full of hope for the future, and are content \\ itb. 
even prefer, slow progress, if it be but sure and steady. 

Many details of methods of teaching have been given in Parts 1. Methods 
and 11. of this Report, so that I now merely propose to emphasise jj^^^^^^^^^j"^ 
certain points which might be overlooked in the previous pages, gfjigj^^e and 
The following remarks bear upon the teaching of Domestic Science Hygiene in 
and Hygiene in the Grade Schools. It will have been observed that Grade 
instruction in these subjects is common to the children of all classes Schools, 
of society. It may still be said that there are no social distinctions 
in the national system of education. The children of the profes- 
sional man, merchant, clerk, artisan and mill-hand sit side by side 
at the school desk, and no distinction is made in the curricidum 
they pursue. I was told the interest aroused in and desire to 
apply the knowledge gained in these studies were mutually 
strong ; while " good breeding " w^ill often show itself in the 
voluntary assumption of the less pleasing duties in connection, 
for instance, with the cleansing of cooking utensils by the moi-e 
delicately-nurtured child. It is hoped that this mutual training 
in home duties may eventually assist in the solution of the existing 
difficulties wdiich have to be faced in domestic service and other 
industrial problems. 

A study of these Grade School Household Science courses shows 
the sustained efforts to teach underlying principles for w^hat is done ; 
this is as apparent in the Sewing as in the Cooking classes. Two 
characteristics of the American child, as I obsei-ved him, are an 
insatialjle thirst to know the " reason Avhy " for all he does, and an 
admirable (though not invarialjly an apropos) energy in the applica- 
tion of new knowledge. These characteristics facilitate the teacher's 
work to a great degree, but they also necessitate broad-minded, 
well-cultured instructors, to whom sufficient scope nmst l^e given 
for the legitimate satisfaction and direction of these qualities. Much 
confidence is usually reposed in his staff by a principal. It is rare 
to require the accomplishment of a definite anioimt of instruction 
in each lesson ; elasticity of method, if it promote the children's 
good, is freely permitted, and time for revision is accorded, even at 



268 



U.S.A. — Summary of Enquiry, 



Methods of 
Teaching 
Domestic 
Science and 
Hygiene in 
Gi-ade 
Schools — 
continued. 



the sacritice of a part of the syllabus, if considered necessary. It 
must not be assumed that irregularity and incompleteness rule in 
these schools. I saw no such tendency ; but I did notice much 
intelligence among pupils, a good comprehension of the *' reason 
why," and tangible examples of the results of the active interest 
aroused in the shape of excellent specimens of home practice. 

In the teaching of cooking, our English system of alternate 
demonstration and practice is entirely disapproved, as i« also owr 
custom of defraying a part of the cost by the sale of the food prepared 
by a class. Against the first method it is argued that few girls of 
eleven or twelve are intellectually capable of profiting by j)rolonge(i 
obsei'vation unrelieved by active participation in the processes under 
demonstration. They may be interested, but to what extent are 
they informed ? Constant practice under supervision, immediately 
subsequent to, or, if necessary, interrupted by, a short demonstra- 
tion, is the generally approved plan. With regard to the sale of the 
food cooked, rather than its consumption by those who had prepared 
it, the feeling was unanimously adverse ; without exception, all 
authorities on the sul)ject maintained that the cause of failures, as in 
deficient beating of a cake, or the fact of possible improvement — as 
in the seasoning of a dish, for instance — cannot be realised ])y the 
inexperienced cook unless results be tasted when the whole ])rocess 
is complete. It is also held that the strength of interest can be 
hardly equal in the two cases ; the desire to improve is but poorly 
stimulated, and a practical difficulty will thrust itself into promi- 
nence, viz., that the tastes of possible purchasers may be occasionally 
consulted, rather than making the rigorous inculcation of principles 
b}^ practice the first consideration. The use of printed reci})es is 
advocated, on the plea of the valuable time thus saved ; these are 
preserved in books specially provided, which contain, in addition, 
directions, &c., dictated by the teacher when necessary, or made by 
the child herself. As a whole, these special teachers are well trained 
and of a high stamp ; most usually I found them to be interested in 
the correlation of both cooking and needlewoi'k with other school 
work. One of their chief difficulties in this respect is met with in 
the common custom of " centres," by which children are taught 
these sn})jects by teachers not in touch with theii- ordinary work. 
In the case of one school used as a " centre," I found the special 
teacher overcame this difficulty by conferences with her fellows : 
but this could not be managed for the majority of her pupils 
when these numbered several hundred and were drawn from per- 
haps nine separate schools. 

In respect of sewing I would like to remind my readers of the 
good results which have followed, in a few cities, this teaching to boys, 
as well as to girls, from the age of nine to ten or eleven years. In 
addition to its practical and educational values it is said to promote 
community of interest, wliile small boys take to it most kindly and 
apply it readily. Great diversity of opinion prevails as to the use 
of the specimen" system of teaching needlework; I should say 



Methods of Teaching Domestic Science and Hygiene in Grade Schools. 269 

unhesitatingly that the best results I observed were attained where 
it was not in force, or only to a modified degree ; for instance, where 
the specimens of stitches for preservation formed the conclusion of 
the whole course. The interest of the children is markedly greater 
where they learn to sew on some article for which they see an 
immediate purpose ; but in all my comments, it is necessary to bear 
in mind that my personal observations were necessarily limited. 

In the Grade School teaching of Personal and Domestic Hygiene 
(Physiology and Hygiene, as it is invariably described) the best 
teachers lose no opportunity to inculcate ideas of duty to one's self, 
duty to one's neighbour, duty to one's country. They impress 
that the body is worthy of, and well repays, intelligent care ; that 
without this good work cannot be accomplished. Children are led 
to see that no one has a right to injure his neighbour by his slovenly, 
ignorant, or filthy habits ; and that the State demands that her 
children shall maintain her prestige by their efficiency and good 
health. Such practical physical morality comes within the daily 
observation of children ; it throws a new light on the daily bath, 
the orderly back yard, the decent habits ; it sets before them as an 
ideal the conduct of a self-respecting, self-controlled citizen. 

The evidences of home application of Cookery, Housewifery, 
Sewing, and, last but not least, the practice of good habits are quite 
evident. Great stress is laid upon the encouragement of such 
applications, though it is reported to be usually spontaneous ; 
indeed, it appears to have been the means of breaking down much 
parental opposition to Domestic Science teaching, and has served, 
in some cases, to form the first connecting link between home and 
school fife. What impressed me even more than the specimens of 
home productions brought for inspection at the cookery classes, 
were the corresponding examples of home needlework, especially 
where the making of a simple blouse and skirt forms part of the 
course. These spoke of sustained perseverance and of practical 
ability, as well as of lively interest. It would be wearisome to 
c)uote instances of the influence exercised on personal habits and 
family life by the instruction in Physiology and Hygiene ; but I 
must mention that this seemed to be very noticeable among boys, 
in whom, also, I was told, this teaching, when well conducted, 
serves the useful purpose of developing the latent sense of civic 
responsibility. 

So far Domestic Science has had a somewhat difficult position 
to face in some cities. These difficulties are, however, described 
as diminishing, and are usually short-lived . It is habitual to entrust 
the organisation of manual training in city schools to an expert, 
and though this expert is not necessarily a woman, the interests 
of girls are not as a rule overlooked, the funds at a Superintendeiit's 
disposal for purposes of manual work (under which Co<:)kery and 
Needlework are grouped) being equally distributed. In High 
Schools, so far as my observations extended, no financial probletns 
have presented themselves. With regard to equipment, I have 



270 



U.S.A. — Summary of Enquiry. 



already said that the " centre " system is usual in the case of Grado 
Schools ; but institutions for higher education have each their own 
kitchen laboratories and work-rooms. The equipment, in respect 
to the provision of specially planned and fitted tables,"*^ has been most 
carefully thought out, and presents certain definite advantages ; 
some of these have been dealt with in Part I. of this Report. 
Teachers are trained to be very resourceful in the matter of appa- 
ratus, though the cost of equipment does not usually present in- 
surmountable obstacles, there is too much a})preeiation of the neces- 
sity to provide all that contributes to the efficiency of the schools. 
To trammel work, for want of financial support, in which the 
]^iiblic has faith, is contrary to general American practice. Those 
responsible for the organisation of education continue their repre- 
sentations until private or public funds are found for the desired 
purpose. Nevertheless my informants emphasised the encourage- 
ment given to judicious simplicity and to the employment of home 
made " apparatus. The use of text books is unusual in any course, 
in any grade of institution ; training in the right use of books of 
reference is the prevalent method ; and the teacher causes careful 
notes to be kept of the theory she supplies, which usually precedes 
practice. Only very rarely is adherence to an entire syllabus 
rigidly required, it is usual to repose confidence in the teacher's 
judgment, and no cases of abuse were reported. The teachers 
habitually consult upon this point with their principals or inspec- 
tors, and the plan is found to w^ork well for all concerned. Much 
time and thought is evidently expended upon wuse correlation of 
Domestic Science with other school subjects. The presentation of 
all knowledge in a form to permit of its speedy application is very 
present just now in the minds of school authorities, and the children 
seem so genoi-ally anxious to turn what they study to some im- 
mediate use, that their enthusiasm acts as a spur to the teacher, 
and introduces a very pleasant atmosphere into the schools. 
Household In High Schools all courses in these subjects are of a more com- 
Science and prehensive and scientific character than those in the lower grades, 
iri Hi"h They usually include a fairly thorough treatment of cooking, 
Schools. housewifery, needlework, dressmaking and millinery ; laundry 
work also almost invariably finds a place. Where Household 
Science is taught, house sanitation is generally introduced, but 
hygiene in its personal aspects is reserved for the courses in I^hysi- 
ology. It is usual to accompany this training by a study of fund{> 
mental principles in laboratory and studio. There appear to be 
two weighty arguments m favour of adopting Household Science 
and Art into the curriculum, which counterbalance all the objec- 
tions ; the one, that these subjects afford an unrivalled field for co- 
relation with and application of other studies, literary, artistic, and 
scientific ; the other, that much advantage is gained from the variety 
of occupation incidental to the active practical work they necessitate , 
that better results aresecured in these other studies, even though they 

\See Fig. VIII. — — 



Household Science and Hygiene in High Schools, 



271 



l ig. viir. 



I 

<0 



2-3// 



TILE 



Z)l RACK OF 

IRON RODS 



I BUNSIN 
BURNER 



KNEADING 



BOARD 



=b=fc 



D R.A W E R 



I I 
I I 
I I 

' I 
I I 
I • 
I I 
• I 
f I 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 




T — T 
I 




WORKING DRAWING OF COOKING TABLE, 
School Kitchen, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York. 



272 



U.S.A. — Summary of Enquiry. 



Household are pursued for shorter periods than are assumed to be desirable where 
and iene ^^^^^^^^^^^^ Science is not in favour. In his article on High Schools 
in High " Pratt Institute Monthly " for April, 1901, Dr. Luther Gulick 

Schools. emphasises yet another argument in its favour, viz., that " in the 
—continued, teens there is a great accession to the capacity for, and dehght in, 
reason. This fact is so generally recognised that it needs no par- 
ticular discussion. The High School programme should be defi- 
nitely related to the increasing capacity to reason. Facts should be 
continually put into relation with one another. This is the time 
for the laboratory method, which is well worked out in physics, 
chemistry, physiography, and in certain respects in biology. It 
needs to be, and can be worked out in history, mathematics and 
art." Under his interested supervision the girls' High School 
course in Household Science, pursued on lines consonant with 
these developing faculties, has well justified its existence at the 
Pratt Institute. To Dr. GtiHck this term, " laboratory method," 
means that process by which " the pupil discovers his own facts ; 
comes to his own conclusions in regard to them, and formulates 
for himself the laws that grow out of these facts "—a different 
form of procedure from that which often goes under this designation. 
Nevertheless, Professor Francis E. Lloyd, of Teachers College. 
Columbia University, recognises the danger which accompanies 
careless use of this laboratory method, and sounds a note of timely 
warning when he points out that it is valuable, " just in proportion 
as it trains in careful methods of observation, and cultivates a 
scientific habit of mind. It succeeds when it trains a pupil in 
inductive reasoning ; it fails, at least in school Hfe, when it becomes 
an end in itself." To guard against this perversion of its worth, 
and to stimulate the development of the reasoning faculties by its 
judicious introduction, seemed to me the guiding principles of those 
in charge of the best High School courses I observed in Household 
Science. Thus on educational grounds alone the subject justifies 
its introduction into the curriculum of Secondary Schools ; but 
there are other foi'cible arguments which appeal to those not 
immediately concerned with the training of young people. There 
are few who have not noted that it is at the High School age es- 
pecially that girls' ideas of life are apt to be falsified ; they become 
discontented with their environment, and often .ashamed of family 
claims or relationships. Observation shows that a rational study 
of Household Science helps to bind the girl to her home, to centre 
her interest there, and to show her the worth and beauty of family 
life. It has been well said that this subject, above all others, 
forges the facts of science and art into practical tools, by whose 
aid the home's efficiency in the production of health and character 
is materially increased. It would seem, at least over a certain 
area in the United States, as if this conception of domestic dignity 
has a fascination for the growing girl, who appears to he also un- 
expectedly alive to the communal and economic aspects of the 
subject. Her mind receives ideas readily concerning the duty 
of right hving, and its eiiect upon the community. She is easily 



Household Economics and Hygiene in Colleges. 



273 



aroused to realise the responsibilities of each individual home as a 
social unit, whose character inevitably assists to determine the 
composition of the whole mass. She is impressed by the thought 
that home and school together form the social workshop, in which 
are moulded the citizens of the future. The economics of con- 
sumption also exercise an attraction which was not anticipated. 
When the topic is judiciously introduced, girls exhibit eagerness 
and perseverance in learning the right use of energy, health, time, 
and money. Speaking generally, it seemed to me that the aspects 
of Household Science and Art most emphasised in High School 
courses are the sound theoretical and scientific bases which under- 
lie household duties ; the opportunities for immediate application 
afforded in home life for artistic training ; the increased mental and 
physical efficiency which follows upon a wise economy of time and 
an intelligent expenditure of money ; and the claims of civics and 
patriotism upon those responsible for the rearing of the race. In 
Physiology and Hygiene, where the boys and girls work together, 
continued stress is laid upon the close relationship of living con- 
ditions to health and working power. Here, as in Domestic 
Science, the method employed is almost exclusively that of lectures, 
followed by periods of laboratory w^ork. My observations, and the 
information I gained, convinced me that, under the best professors, 
the teaching is based upon the fines defined by Dr. W. Townsend 
Porter, of the Harvard Medical School, in an article entitled, " The 
Teaching of Physiology," pubfished in the Philadelphia " Medical 
Journal," September 1st, 1900 : — '' Deal as far as possible with the 
phenomena themselves, and not with the descriptions of them. 
Where the fundamental experiments cannot all be performed, fill 
the gap with the orginal protocols from the classical sources. 
Associate facts which the student can observe for himself with 
those which he cannot observe. Use as the basis of instruction, 
where practicable, the facts and methods to be used by the student 
in earning his living. Teach the elements by practical work. 
Let the student state his observations and results in a laboratory 
note-book. Control his progress, and remove his difficulties, by a 
daily written examination and a daily conference, in which the 
instructor shall discuss the observations made by the student, and 
supplement them from his own reading. Stimulate the student 
by personal intercourse in the laboratory, by glimpses of the re- 
searches in progress, and by constant reference to the original 
sources. From the beginning to the end of the instruction hold 
fast to concentration, sequence, and election." 

Of an interest equal to these Higli School courses are those Household 
in the State Agricultural Colleges ; not alone those concerned fj^^^fj^^^-^^g 
with Household Economics, but the lectures on Hygiene associated \^ Colf^es.^ 
with active physical culture, which enters compulsorily into the 
curriculum of students of both sexes. Mrs. Ellen H. Richards, 
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has pointed cut 
on more than one occasion that Household Economics rest on two 

6490. S 



274 



U.S.A. — Summary of Enquiry. 



chief corner stones — economy of health and economy of wealth. 
Economy of wealth appeals with force, and receives implicit, if 
not explicit, attention from students engaged in equipping them- 
selves for their future calUngs in life. That their attention should 
be directed with equal emphasis to the study of the economy of 
health, in a coi^ntry where the pursuit of money is considered 
a national characteristic, augurs well for the race ; it speaks 
volumes also for the common sense attitude of a people Avhose point 
of view is occasionally obstructed by the excitement and effervescence 
incidental to the rapid progress of a new country. The claim 
that these subjects have for a recognition from college authorities 
is again based upon their comprehensive and educational character. 
Household Economics and Hygiene are neither the one nor the other 
separate sciences or arts to be taught by one person with a specialist 
training ; all departments of a University can and should contri- 
bute to their right presentation. Where the experiment has been 
tried the results are most emphatically favourable. It is also 
stated that in no other instances have such valuable and successful 
efforts at co-operation been established between faculties. The 
leaven is manifestly at work for the spread of this movement 
in colleges. Some college presidents are standing with open minds, 
waiting for a longer observation of existing courses before formu- 
lating a definite opinion ; but all are apparently inquiring as to the 
attitude of their confreres. Many professors show a disposition 
to accept the subject under the plea that college teaching of Eco- 
nomics, Sociology, Pedagogy, History or Sanitary Science, must 
include the relation of the family and the household to society ; 
and that distinct advantages accompany practical demonstration 
of this truth by the work carried on in a department set apart 
for the purpose. It is true that the accomplishments of women 
in Chemistry, Physics, or Biology, have not yet inspired men with 
full confidence in their power to successfully attack a new problem 
in a consistently scientific spirit ; but, though somewhat less 
unanimous upon the definite adoption of Household Economics 
as a distinct college subject, than upon its inclusion under some 
branch of Sociology, college professors are as a whole favourable to 
some place being assigned to it on the grounds of its great import- 
ance : so far women have justified any confidence reposed in them 
in respect of the organisation of such advanced courses. 
Domestic A further point to which I was directed to give special attention 
Science as was the extent to which Domestic Science is regarded as an early 
s'^b^^t^^^^' instalment of technical education, inserted in the Primary or 
*^ * Secondary School curriculmn. " How far is an attempt made 
(and, if made, how far is it successful) to deal with the subject as 
part of a liberal education — i.e. for its value as an educational 
discipline as distinct from its practical utility ? In practice, does 
the aim in view affect the course of instruction, and has it been 
found possible to combine the benefits of disciplining the intelligence 
and the reasoning power with those of increased manual and prac- 



Domestic Science as a Technical Subjects 



275 



tical skill ? " Such were mv instructions. There seemed to me 
no tendency to introduce the subject into elementary schools 
as a preliminary stage in technical education. To fit their charges 
for life, not for one means of earning a livelihood, is the aim of 
all the best superintendents and teachers at the present day. The 
leading idea, much emphasised by educationalists, is that the early 
periods of education should be essentially devoted to general culture 
and not to premature specialisation. The poise " or well-balanced 
characters which it is desired to form by school education, can 
only be developed by an all-round training of the mind and body, 
and not by early concentration upon any one branch of study to 
the exclusion of others. I learnt that the early efiforts made to 
introduce Domestic Science into schools were, more or less, leavened 
with the trade school idea, but the later realisation of the true scope 
of education and more enlightened methods of instruction have led 
to the virtual extinction of this misapprehension. It is true that 
inculcation of the principles, that is of the fundamental laws of 
matter and form, with enough practice to illustrate them, play 
an important part in the High School courses ; but there is no 
ulterior object of training children technically for domestic service 
or as juvenile dressmakers ; the idea is to bring the teaching of 
Domestic Science into harmony with the broad, scientific, and 
educational theories characteristic of the time. 

In Manual Training High Schools, the technical, as distinct 
from the educational study of Household Science, is naturally 
brought into more prominence than in others. During the last 
two of a four year course, girls of sixteen have attained an age 
when specialisation is admissible ; and the fact that they have 
sought their education in a Manual Training rather than in an 
ordinary High School indicates that their intention is to select some 
form of occupation in the future in which the hands are to be as 
active as the head. But a study of the time-tables will make clear 
that the first two years of these courses are emphatically " general " 
in method ; indeed the necessity of supporting a special subject 
by means of coincident, systematic study of other branches of 
knowledge is clearly realised by those responsible for the schemes 
of technical training in Household Science and Art at all the Insti- 
tutes and Colleges, as well as in Manual Training High Schools. 

It would be superfluous for me to reiterate the success which has 
attended efforts to deal with these subjects as part of a liberal 
education. Indeed, it is on account of their peculiar value in this 
connection that they find favour in the eyes of some who other- 
wise would not countenance them as either school or college subjects. 
Their sociological, ethical, and economic as well as their industrial 
values are of quite recent appreciation ; but, as I have pointed out, 
now that students of these sciences clearly see the intimate relation 
of family life to the whole social and industrial order, they deem it 
right, not only to devote some of their precious hours to a study 
absolutely essential for intelligent life under twentieth-century 



6490. 



S2 



276 



U.S.A. — Summary of Enquiry. 



Training of 

Teachers in 

Domestic 

Science. 

'l^lble 

XXXVTT. 



conditions, but desire that an early interest shall be awakened 
in those who may be unable to pursue the subject at a later period 
in their lives. 

A further request was made that I should give careful observation 
to the methods of training and quahfications of teachers of Domestic 
Science. Readers of this Report will have observed what stress 
is laid upon the preparation of well-equipped teachers for this 
su Inject, and what liberal opportunities are offered for their train- 
ing. Dehnito qualifications are required of all teachers of Domestic 
Science, and each year the standard of tliese is raised. The accom- 
panying comparative Table sets forth in detail the subjects included 
in what are recognised as among the best tniining (jourst^s now avail- 
nhlc in the United Slates, and the. length of time (lexoted i-especl ively 
to tlie xarions studies. A\'hal, howexer, iiu I;!l)ula1ed statenienl 
can show is the method upon which successful results depend. 
However, it will be noted that the general scope of the courses is 
somewhat broader in the United States than in this country ; 
that considerable time is devoted to the careful study of the 
theory which underlies all practice ; and that importance is attached 
to a practical study of the scientific and artistic principles basal 
to that technical skill, to the attainment of which the training is 
directed. For these reasons the Domestic Sciences and Arts are 
almost always studied in two distinct courses ; time does not 
permit of a command of both being acquired by the same student 
in the three years she can invest in the special preparation for her 
profession. There is a feeling, at least in one Institute, that the 
scientific side of Household Science has been slightly over empha- 
sised. Probably the fact that this is recognised and that already 
definite efforts are being made for the more accurate adjustment 
of values, indicates that if the danger exist it Avill soon be averted. 
The weak points which would probably immediately present 
themselves to an experienced eye, will be want of teaching practice 
in some of the American Normal Courses, and the very short 
time devoted to laundry training. It must, however, be borne 
in mind that each year sees modifications of these courses, as 
experience sliows their strength or weakness. The ideal set forth 
is very high. The directress of one of these departments said to 
me that it is set so high they sometimes feel disheartened — it seems 
beyond human attainment ; yet, each year, the Lake Placid Con- 
ference of experts, men and women, spurs them on to renewed 
exertions by reiterating from some new standpoint the enormous 
importance to the individual and to the nation of this work of 
home-making. Evidence of good preliminary preparation in 
elementary science or art, in addition to a sound general education, 
is demanded of all students. As a fact, college women are preferred 
to those who have had only the advantage of a high school educa- 
tion, on account of the greater breadth of culture they will bring 
to their class work. In all cases, general information and physical 
well-being are not allowed to suffer during the special training. 



Training of Teachers in Domestic Science. 'Ill 



The type of woinaii attracted to the Normal Courses is distinctly 
{^ood, and when ijuahfied she takes rank with teachers or professors 
of any other subjects taught at school or college. The dignity 
which attaches to the teaching profession in the Onited States 
is also conducive to a selection of these subjects by independent 
and well-bred women, who do not thereby feel that they in any 
way diminish their social status. I found them resourceful, 
interested, and possessed usually of considerable enterprise and 
independence of thought. Many have had considerable diffi- 
culties to encounter in their work, as the prejudices of parents, 
and even of members of Boards of Education, have died hard ; 
but enthusiasm is i-arely lacking, and the excellent results observed 
from their exertions in each grade of educational institution serve 
apparently as a sufficient stimulus to continued efforts. 

Very great account is taken of personal equation in all Normal 
students, and greater stress is laid upon the estimate formed of 
their daily work than upon the results of a final examination. 
The teaching staff' meet periodically to discuss and to compare 
notes as to the students' dispositions, progress, and conduct in 
their various classes ; this study of individual character is taken 
into careful account by the examiners. The fact that applications 
for training so far exceed available vacancies permits a careful 
sifting in the first instance. At present about a fifth or sixth 
only of those who seek training in the best Normal Courses can be 
admitted. 

Diplomas are usually, if not invariably, given upon the successful 
completion of a whole course of training ; they are not dependent 
upon the results of a final examination. As has been stated above, 
estimates of efficiency are based upon the general character and 
work ; small importance is attached to a single examination, 
howe\er practical, which demands chiefly presence of mind, a 
good memory, and manual dexterity. It is quite unusual for 
an outside examiner to conduct any tests. Periodical examinations 
ai'e made at intervals by members of the staff, as, for instance, 
at Teachers College, Columbia University, where each professor 
examines his or her own students in theory and practice at various 
periods in the course, and considers the results in consultation 
with his colleagues. In some States there is a Central Examining 
Board, which conducts entrance examinations for teachers before 
admittance to its schools : this is the case in New York State, but 
the custom is not general. It will be thus realised that diplomas 
have different values. The ])restige of a school or college is main- 
tained by the work of its graduates ; and it is considered that in 
this lies the guarantee for the maintenance of a high standard 
in its teaching. Were the students insufficiently trained 
or graduated unfairly their work would rapidly reveal the fact, 
and the whole institution would suffer. Probably it is the diffi- 
culty of attaining or maintaining the required standard which 
accounts for the gi-adual dying out of the short, pioneer, priv:ite 



278 



U.S.A. — Summary of Enquiry, 



Training of Normal Courses in 1 Jomestic Science, now being superseded as 
Teachers in unsatisfactory. Normal diplomas are not granted for separate 
Science — subjects, but only for specified groups, under the comprehensive 
continued, title of Domestic Science or of Domestic Art ; the studies are carried 
on concurrently, and proficiency in the whole scheme is demanded. 
This is one of the broad distinctions in the United States between 
Normal and Technical courses ; in Technical courses certificates are 
granted separately for each subject, a group of which constitute 
the complete Normal course. There is very Httle inspection of 
normal courses by outside experts ; those conducted in primary 
or secondary schools are under the supervision of city or state 
inspectors ; the general courses in Technical schools are practically 
independent of inspection, as these institutions are chiefly under the 
control of private bodies. 

It has been found difiicult, in some cases, to prevent teachers 
of the hiunanities, whose tastes are purely artistic and literary, 
from disparaging the important and intellectual attractions of 
Household Science ; and, as I have mentioned, there is also a danger 
of speciaHst teachers treating it in so complex a manner as to 
dissociate it from daily life. Efforts to meet both tendencies 
are constantly at work ; and I learned that the introduction 
of a Household Arts Department into institutions attended by 
teachers going through a hterary or general course of study has 
had the result of converting those who previously depreciated 
Household Science into its interested supporters. Information to the 
same effect was furnished me by professors under more than 
one important Board of Education ; general teachers disposed to 
look upon the study and practice of cooking and sewing unfavour- 
ably, because of the time so taken away from other studies, have 
become advocates of such work when pains have been taken to 
investigate its claims. The principal of one State College mentioned 
to me particularly that the male professors had become the 
warmest supporters of the Household Economic course. 

There is a strong feeling among some superintendents in favour 
of removing these subjects from the hands of special teachers in 
Grade schools, owing to a tendency to lose the right sense of pro- 
portion in the lessons. They argue that a young specialist teacher 
has too narrow an experience of life to enable her to interpret 
her special knowledge in the light of common things, whereas 
it is most essential that it should be so presented to the children. 
This is used as a strong point by those who advocate the pursuit 
of all special training, normal or otherwise, in general colleges, 
where work is not confined to one special line and much assist- 
ance is available in attaining and maintaining a broad and open 
outlook. It seemed to me that the constant interchange of opinion 
and experience common in the school world of the United States 
is in any case favourable to the breaking down of prejudices and 
contributes to the maintenance of that sense of proportion hard 
to attain when working in an isolated position. Two good features 



Influence of Domestic Science on Social Conditions, 



279 



in all its educational work, which balance some of the exaggera- 
tions to which the enthusiasms of the people are inclined to lead, are 
the ready recognition of mistakes made and an open mind towards 
suggested reforms. In these qualities hes the promise of strength, 
which bids fair to develop eventually the necessary sense of pro- 
portion and right values. 

State or Municipal Boards of Education encourage Domestic Financial 
Science by allotting to it a suitable proportion of the money voted Support 
for educational purposes in their respective districts. The same i)Q^egtic*^ 
system supports the work in State Agricultural Colleges. The Science, 
appropriation, granted by the State, is subdivided according to the 
needs of the different departments. 

In conclusion it was suggested to me to collect information Influence of 
under the following heads : — " Is it felt to be necessary for schools Domestic 
to provide an increasing part of that education which used to 
be more generally furnished by home life ? Is there a feeling Conditions, 
that there is a danger of an actual decline in household skill owing 
to the conditions of modern city life, or to the increasing employ- 
ment of women in houses of -business? Is it felt that the school 
should attempt to arrest this decline ? Are people at all concerned 
by any observed or suspected tendency in primary education, 
as now organised, to make girls wish to be typewriters, clerks, 
shop assistants, etc., rather than housekeepers or domestic ser- 
vants ? " 

The following remarks embody the result of the extended 
inquiries I made in fulfilment of this part of my commission : — 
(The changing social conditions which demand rearrangement of 
former expenditure of time and energy are recognised as a factor 
in the evident need to secure for young people in school that which 
a previous state of society permitted to be gained in the home. 
That the integrity and dignity of home life must be maintained 
as a coefficient of national prosperity is widely accepted ; that the 
power and interest necessary for the realisation of this ideal have 
been weakened has been slowly dawning upon the few for more 
than a quarter of a century. That this conception is now reaching 
the many seems evident from the great increase of attention devoted 
to the whole question during the last five or even ten years, credit 
for which is largely due to the Association of College Alumnae 
and the Women's Clubs. I should place as the most powerful 
motive, held perhaps unconsciously but nevertheless tenaciously, 
by the majority of the population, the determination that the 
United States shall be foremost among the nations. This deter- 
mination leads a people, instinctively interested in the study of 
cause and effect, to observe wherein lies their weakness and in 
what direction may be found their strength. The stress and 
strain of professional and commercial life soon test the vigour of the 
physical as well as of the mental constitution of those subjected 
to it, and thus turn the thoughts to the essentials of physical 
well-being. The constant inroads of immigrants, whose habits 



280 



tl.S. A. Summary of Enquiry ^ 



Influence and staTulard of existence are a menace to their neighbout^, have 
s!neni™^on^ also stimulated many minds to a study of Sociology and Economies, 
Social condi- neither of which can nmch progress be made without some 
knowledge of Sanitary Science. The trahied intelligence of college 
women has also been dii-ected by circumstances too numerous to 
detail to the economic effects of ignorance, carelessness, or indif- 
ference in the conduct of homes or of cities. Among their sisters 
whose minds are more immediately centred upon daily domestic 
difficulties, interest in the subject is arising fi'om. the desire to do 
something to make housekeeping easier ; their efforts being fii*st 
inspired by probably no higher motive than to secure alleviation 
from the troubles Avhich spring out of the present chaotic state of 
domestic service. The expression given to their views by repre- 
sentatives amongst these different classes has exerted an influence 
upon public opinion, which causes it now to demand that schools 
shall provide for children such training in citizenship and home 
making as shall i*aise up a strong race of Avell-nurtured people, 
skilled not alone in the right conduct of their own lives, but impa- 
tient of the existence of any conditions unfavourable to the health 
of the community. Among these conditions would rank decline 
in household skill and a weakening of the maternal instincts, 
both, Avhen apparent, being traceable results of the increasing 
employment of women outside their homes. The false sense of 
shame associated with domestic service, impatience of the so-called, 
uneventful life of the young mother engaged in household or 
family cares, are prevalent on both sides of the ocean ; but I am 
able to report that in the United States determined effoi-ts are 
now being made to combat these erroneous sentiments. In many 
directions, in the east and west, systematic efforts are evidently 
and spontaneously active, directed to enhance the dignity of house- 
hold service, to point out the beauty and intense responsibility of 
motherhood, and to encourage all women to consider that their 
education is incomplete unless they are practically acquainted 
with household management, which must necessarily include 
knowledge of child hygiene. 

The reader of Part III. of this Report cannot fail to realise the 
admirable spirit animating some among the leisured Avomen of 
the community to set personal example of the strength of their 
convictions in respect of home dignity and worth. Direct acquaint- 
ance with, and practice of, domestic duties stinmlates their minds 
to consider and to introduce improved methods and labour-saving 
apphances. Their sympathy with the difficulties dej)endent upon 
dirt, inconvenient dwellings, and futile expenditure of time and 
strength experienced by the less well-to-do, ceases to exist as 
sentiment, but finds expression in urging on responsible autho- 
rities the absolute importance of housing and similar reforms. 
Their perception of the bearing upon domestic processes and 
national health of municipal regulations concerned with cleanli- 
ness of streets and markets, adulteration of food, provision of 



Influence of Domestic Science on Social Conditions. 281 

safe supplies of water and of means for i-efuse disposal, has 
resulted in raising the level of public admin isli-alion, as \'isitoi'S to 
certain cities rapidly recognise. 

Professor James L. Hughes, Superintendent of the Public 
Schools at Toronto, has well expressed the sentiment, now hapj)ily 
common to a considerable section of society, that the Home is the 
most comprehensive influence in deciding a child's qualification 
for sustained and effective work in adult life. The child's whole 
life power, in its essential elements of physical, intellectual, and 
spiritual vitality, is influenced directly and indirectly in the home. 
If the best conditions of physical power, and the apperceptive 
centres of true and rich intellectual and spiritual development are 
not established in the home, no other agencies can raise the child 
to the richest and truest manhood or womanhood. A dwarfed 
or undeveloped childhood necessarily results in impaired power 
and defective life. Every child has a right to the best conditions 
known for childhood by the highest civilisation. Full growth, 
]>hysically, intellectually and spiritually, is possible only in the best 
conditions. The ' lost waif ' will never cease to disgrace civilisation 
so long as homes are less efficient than they should be. The im- 
provement of homes does not demand greater expense so much 
as better training and more practical common sense. The aims 
of progressive workers in securing improved home conditions are, 
not to spend more money, but to get greater returns for the money 
spent; not to increase labour, but to make labour more effective 
in promoting health, comfort, and happiness. The true home 
maker considers every element that influences the life of the family 
physically, intellectually, and spiritually. The physical conditions 
especially require careful attention from the most advanced scien- 
tific minds. The schools and some of the churches have recog- 
nised the fundamental fact that physical culture is a ver}^ im- 
portant element in the development of human character. The 
quality of intellectual and spiritual power, and the capacity for 
sustained intellectual and spiritual eftort depends to a large extent 
on the perfect growth of the body. The higher the character of 
the physical life the more completely it aids in the development 
and the expression of intellectual and spiritual energy. Rousseau 
taught the great truth that the more perfect the body the more 
readily it obeys the intellect and will ; but the perfect body does 
more than respond to the mind and spirit ; it contributes to their 
power and fuller growth. It is, thei-efore, of vital importance to 
consider all subjects related to the proper construction and sani- 
tation of the home, and the whole range of domestic science, 
including the correct choice and proper preparation of foods. 
Pure air, proper lighting, and sanitary cleanliness in the home 
are essential elements in promoting health, comfort, and happiness, 
and these are the conditions in which man's best nature develops 
most rapidly, most naturally, and most harmoniously. The 
highest success demands harmonious development. Bat even 



282 



U.S.A. — Summary of Enquiry. 



Influence with these conditions in a high degree of efficiency we require the 
Scien^oV^ most perfect possible nutrition in order that each individual may 
Social be raised to, and sustained in, the best condition physically, intel- 
Conditions lectually, and spiritually for effective work without unnatural 
—continued. ^-^^ therefore destructive over-fatigue. The ' wear and tear ' o{ 
life results not from overwork, as is generally believed, but from 
work under improper conditions. Most men and women work 
at a rate under their capacity rather than over it. Men wear out 
quickly because they are not properly nourished. They wear 
out most quickly when they take unnatural stimulants to over- 
come the lack of energy resulting from imperfect nutrition, and 
thus force their enfeebled bodies to do work under pressure beyond 
the natural fatigue point. Under these conditions the ' wear 
and tear ' is mevitable, because work then is an unnatural strain 
on the physical and intellectual power, and because work 
done beyond the fatigue point destroys the reactive 
tendency to rest that results from fatigue under normal con- 
ditions. The basis of intemperance is largely physical. The 
nervous systems that are not kept in comfortable working 
order crave something that for a time will bring exhilaration. 
Unnatural exhilaration is always debilitating. Natural ex- 
hilaration, resulting in appropriate and well-cooked food 
eaten in proper quantities and at proper times, is always 
productive of greater power along life's broadest and highest 
hues of effort. When school children become nervous and irritable, 
and feeble, the schools are continually blamed for these evil con- 
ditions. Sometimes the schools have shared in the causes that lead 
to such undesirable results by long hours and inadequate ventila- 
tion, by the substitution of pressure for natural interest, by con- 
tinuous sitting, and by lack of play ; but the homes have done the 
greater part of the wrong to childhood by failing to send children 
to school in a proper condition for work. The true remedies for a 
weak, nervous system are food suitable for nerve and brain building, 
and physical exercise, especially free play. One of the fundamental 
thoughts in Domestic Science is a new and higher ideal of the 
higher meaning of digestion. Digestion should be regarded as 
the transmutation of material things into physical, intellectual, 
and spiritual energy. This function of elevating food into the 
highest forms of human power is the true work of digestion, but 
it has been almost universally degraded. The selection and prepara- 
tion of foods has loeen regarded as one of the baser departments 
of household economics. The systematic study of foods and their 
scientific preparation for the table have been carefully conducted, 
chiefly to provide gratification for unnatural appetite. The true 
study of foods and their scientific preparation should be conducted 
in order to find what foods are best for all conditions and ages of 
humanity — for sickness and health, for infancy, childhood, vigorous 
adult and declining age ; for brain building, nerve strengthening, 
muscle development, and bone growth ; for promoting- or retarding 



Co-Oferation of the Sexes Essential to National Well-being. 283 



the storing of fat, and for aiding the functional work of all the 
vital organs, and preserving the harmonious balance of man's 
powers. This study is now recognised as a most important depart- 
ment of the science of human evolution. Domestic art is a necessary 
part of the study of scientific home-making. Our mental and spiri- 
tual conditions, and therefore our physical life, are directly 
influenced by the nature of our environment. Calmness or irri- 
tation, hopefulness or despondency, joyousness or moroseness, 
definiteness or carelessness, prospering ambition or lack of vital 
interest, may depend to a greater extent than is generally realised 
on the colour of the walls, the ceilings, and the carpets in our homes. 
The study of pictures and furniture, and furnishings, and gardens, 
and the beautifying of front yards, and especially of back yards, 
will lead to a true aesthetic culture, and promote the happiness 
and the broader and higher development of the race. The new 
century will elevate the character of household work, cleaning, 
cooking, and all departments of service, by making them more 
scientific and more systematic ; and with this elevation of the service 
will come a corresponding elevation in the qualification of servants, 
and in the greater recognition of their rights." 

I employ this lengthy quotation as my conclusion, because it Oo-operation 
is the accurate embodiment by a British subject of the sentiments the sexes 
his prolonged personal acquaintance with the educational world of national 
the United States has led him to recognise as inspiring its leaders, well-being. 
I have also selected it because it is the expressed opinion of a member 
of that sex, which, in England, is disposed to release itself from 
any direct responsibility in the promotion of a higher level in 
home comfort and family life. Only by co-operation of the sexes 
can the ideal standard be attained. It has been well said that 
co-operation for a common aim creates a spirit of mutual helpfulness. 
The common aim of all who are concerned with the affairs of men, 
personal, domestic, communal, or national, is the physical, moral, 
and intellectual development of each child born into the w^orld. 
Upon women, properly and naturally, devolve the care of the young 
and the right conduct of the home for all whom it shelters. Upon 
men, as naturally, devolve the provision and maintenance of such 
conditions in connection with, though outside, the home as shall 
secure the means without which women's special duties are seriously 
hampered or even rendered impossible of fulfilment. To this end 
boys and girls should learn together as they do in the United States 
the essentials to a healthy existence, and be familiarised Avith 
the broad, general principles upon which life and its functions 
depend for their continuance. In subsequent years, oi' even 
concurrently, girls are introduced to the processes of home 
making, which are indispensable to domestic well-being and 
happiness ; while boys are encouraged to a study of the duties 
of citizenship, with all these mean to the welfare of the 
community. At college, as at school, opportunities for this wise 
preparation for their future lives are offered to the young men 



284 



U.S.A. — Summary of Friquiry, 



and women ; it speaks well for the influence of the teaching pro- 
fession that tlie numbers of those glad to seize these opportuniti<^s 
show annual increase. Public (and parental) opinion is gradually 
giving intelHgent heed to the growth of a movement which promises, 
if wisely controlled and intelligently fostered, to yield a harvest of 
rich national results ; for, to quote Mrs. Browning's words — 
the " multitude of leaves " will hold — 

" Loves fihal, loves fraternal, neighbour-loves 
And civic — all fair petals, all good scents. 
All reddened, sweetened from one central Heart,"* 

inspired with the belief that " man is made in God's image," aiul 
as such must be freed from all conditions which hinder the 
expression of his inherent powers. 

It now remains for me to express, though most inadequately, 
my deep sense of gratitude to those whose generous response to 
inquiries, ready sacrifice of valuable time for the promotion of my 
object, and sympathetic interest in my commission are mainly 
responsible for its execution. Their number is so large, the 
evidences of their cordial co-operation so numerous, that individual 
acknowledgment becomes impossible. The debt of gratitude which 
stands in my name would be overwhelming in its extent were it 
not rather a national than an individual liability. Not to the 
Commissioner of small account, but to the old Mother Country, 
was the gift of experience, experiment, theory and practice so 
freely tendered. Though social and other diverse conditions 
necessarily militate against any proposal to adopt or to imitate in this 
country methods of proved worth in the United States, it is never- 
theless of immense advantage to all concerned with the public 
health and prosperity of Great Britain to become acquainted with 
the measures designed to promote these objects in other thriving 
communities. That this necessarily imperfect Report of the 
educational means devoted to these ends in the United States 
should achieve even a partial degree of success or of completeness, 
is entirely the outcome of the stimulus and assistance received 
from my generous friends in that country. 

I have spared no pains in the effort to be impartial, accurate, 
and consistent in the sifting and employment of the mass of material 
I collected ; if, therefore, there be misrepresentation, exaggera- 
tion or culpable omission in the preceding pages I would offer my 
sincere apology to those whose cause 1 may thus most uninten- 
tionally wrong. That some errors of observation and of com- 
prehension should have occurred in the course of my eompulsorily 
short visits to a large number of centres in the Eastern and 
Middle West States appears to me to be inevitable. In spite of 
much concentrated effort on my part and of most valuable 
assistance rendered me in the form of ]:)ersonal and written 
explanations and of jDrinted matter, it would be presumptuous 



* " Aurora Leigh," IX., 884. E. B. B. 



Co-operation of the Sexes Essential to National Well-heing. 285 

to imagine I could grasp in a few hours all the points in 
courses of study, the evolutions which have constantly cost 
years of thought and experimental practice, and which are also 
adapted to social conditions diverse from our own. 'For all these 
reasons I have abstained from critical analysis, preferring to 
present my Report in a descriptive form, in which I hope it may, 
in spite of its many shortcomings, prove stimulating and sug- 
gestive. 

Of all my readers I will ask for kindly forbearance and for 
lenient judgment on a work which has been fraught for me 
Mirougliout with a lively sense of responsibility, not alon« 
towards those by wliom the commission was entrusted to me, but 
towjirds thosi; whose aspirations and attauuneiits were gi\cii into 
my hands to present, as well as to my fellow teachers whose 
methods in practice or whose estimate of another nation's 
educational standards may be influenced by the perusal of the 
preceding pages. 

Alice Ravenhill. 

May, 1903, 



286 



U.S.A. — Appendix A. 



APPENDIX A. 

EQUIPMENT FOR GRADE SCHOOL COOKERY COURSES. 

The following exhaustive list of the equipment recommended for use in 
Cookery Courses is reproduced by kind permission from " The 
Economics of Manual Training" Teachers' College Record. Vol. IL, No. 
5. November, 1901. It is presented as a model ; considerable modifica- 
tions are compatible with efficiency, and discretion would dictate suitable 
selection according to the class and grade of school for which equipment 
is to be provided. The United States of iVmerica Coinage has been con- 
verted for convenience into English money. 

Cooking. 
Kitchen Equipment. 

£ s. d. 

Table for 15 pupils, with drawers for provisions and 
materials : cupboard, closed with roll-front, sliding 
board, and tiled top made of quartered oak, about 100 

Table for 15 pupils, with one drawer for each pupil, 
made of Georgia pine, white pine or stained white- 



wood, from £31 5s. Od. to 52 1 8 
Kitchen tables may be used where funds are extremely 

limited, but are not advisable, about - - 6 

Individual stove equipment for tables £6 to 15 12 6 

Coal or Gas ranges £3 to 6 13 4 

Utensils. 

(Two for each pupil.) 

£ s. d. 

Bowl, 1 pint, earthen or granite - - - - - 3 

Tea-spoon, nickel or aluminium - - - - - 5^ 

Towel, 1 yard long, crash - - - - - - 8"' 



£0 1 4^ 

(One for each pupil.) 

Baking dish, 1 c^uart, earthen or granite - - - 4 

Bowl, 4 quarts, earthen or granite - - - - 10 

Bread board, small wood - - - - - - 10 

Dish cloth or mop - - - - - - - 5 

Egg beater, medium, wire or iron - ' - - " - 5 

Frying pan, small, iron - - - - - - 7| 

Kitchen fork, steel, wood handle 2* 

Kitchen knife, steel, wood handle - - - - 2| 

Mat, 8 inches square, linoleum - - - - - 2^ 

Pepper shaker, glass 5" 

Plate, granite or tin - - - - - - - 7^ 

Salt shaker, glass - - - _ . - 5 

Salt-spoon, bone - - - - - - - - 2^ 

Saucepan, with cover, granite - - - - - 9 

Table-spoon, nickle or aluminium - - - - 7^ 

Vegetable brush, small, wood back - - - - 2| 

Vegetable knife, steel, wood handle - - - - 5 

Measuring cup, ^ pint, block tin - - - - - 5 



£0 8 2 

(One for each two pupils.) 

Biscuit cutter, block tin - - - - - 3 

Bread pan, medium, block tin - - - - - 8| 

Colander, medium, block tin ----- 1 4 

Double boiler, 1 or ^ pint, block tin or granite - - 2 1 



Eqtdj)ment for Grade School Cookery Courses. 287 



(One for each two pupils) — continued. 

Flour dredger, block tin - - - - - 
Floar sifter (revolving handle) block tin 
Grater, medium, block tin - _ . _ 

Nutmeg grater, block tin - - - - - 
Potato-masher, wire, wood handle 
Rolling-pin, wood- 

Scrubbing brush, large wood . - - _ 

Skimmer, small, block tin - 

Strainer, medium, block tin _ _ _ . 

Teapot, 1 pint earthen (Japanese) 

Thermometer ------- 



(Three or four for class of twelve.) 

Apple-corer, block tin 

Chopping knife, steel ------ 

Chopping tray, wood 

Coffee pot, 1 quart, granite or tin 

Japanned tray, medium ----- 

Mixing spoon, large, wood - - 

Muffin pan, 12 in a pan, block tin - - - 

Pitcher, 1, 2 and 3 quarts, earthen 



(Two for a class of twelve.) 

Cake pan, medium, block tin - - - 

Double boiler, 3 pints, granite - - - 

Griddle, medium, soapstone _ - - 

Griddle cake turner, iron - - - - 

Kettle, 6 quarts, granite - - - - 

Lemon squeezer, glass - . - 

Saucepan, 2 quarts, granite - - - - 
Strainer, 3 pints, block tin - 
Toaster, wire ------ 



(One for a class of twelve.) 
Bread knife -------- 

Can-opener -- 

Coffee-mill - - - - - 

Corkscrew -------- 

Egg beater (Dover), large, iron - - - - 

Fruit jai s, 1 doz., 1 quart, glass - - - - 

Fruit jars, 1 doz., 1 pint, glass - - - - 

Frying kettle, large, iron 

Funnel, medium, block tin - 

Ice cream freezer (Packer's standard), 3 quarts - 

Jelly glasses, 1 doz. ------ 

Knife sharpener - 

Larding needle - - - 
Measure, 1 quart, block tin - 

Measure, 1 pint, block tin 

Meat broiler, medium, iron 

Meat knife - - - 

Pot chain -------- 

Pudding mould, 3 pints, block tin - - - 
Scales, to 10 pounds ------ 

Skimmer, large, tin - - 

Steamer, medium, block tin . - . - 

Tea-kettle, large, iron, granite or aluminium 



£ 


s. 


d. 








5 








11 








5 








4 


r\ 
U 


u 


A 1 








3 
















4 








6 





1 


Oi 





3 


14 


£0 12 


6 








2i 





2 







1 


8 





1 







1 























1 


6 


£0 


9 


8 





1 


Oi 





4 


9 





4 


8 








5 





7 


Q 








H 





2 







1 


o| 








5 


£1 


3 


4 





2 


1 








5 


Q 


4 


8 








5 








5 





4 


8 





3 


1* 





7 


7^ 








7i 





9 


4| 





2 


1 





2 


3J 








10^ 








10 








2* 





2 


1 








10 








3^ 





1 


3 





9 


4 








5 





2 


3i 





2 


u 


£2 


18 


3 



288 U.S.A.— -Appendix A. 

Utensils for Housework. 

£ s. d. 

Blacking brush - - - - - - _ . 2^ 

Broom - - - - - 1 

Clieese-cloth duster - - - - - - . 5" 

Dust brush ---------005 

Dust pan 7^ 

Floor brush --------- o 3 H 

Lamp cloths - - - - - . . . o 5^ 

Mop ---------- 1 01 

Pail, indurated fibre - - - - - - . 1 li 

)Scrubbiug brush - - - - - - . . 1 o" 

Whisk broom - - - - - - . . 5 

Window cloths etc. - - 5 

£0 10 3 

Store-room Equipment. 

Bread cloths o q 5 

6 crocks, large, earthen - 10 5 

6 crocks, medium - - - - - - - o 8 4 

4 flour pails, wooden - - - - - - - o 8 4 

Ice bag, 1 yard, duck - - - - - - - 3^ 

1 dozen jelly glasses, with covers - - - - 13 

6 2-quart Mason jar^--, for coffee, glass - - - - 5 

Strainers, 5 yards, cheese-cloth - - - - - 1 O5 

Strainers, 1 yard, flannel - - - - - - 10^ 

Cupboards for provisions, utensils and 

dishes £4 3 4 to 10 8 4 

Refrigerator, medium size - - - £3 2 6 to 4 3 6 



£9 1 9 to £16 7 9 

DiNiNG-BooM Equipment. 

Canton flannel cloth £ 5. d. 

1 dining table and 6 chairs - - - £4 3 6 to 6 13 4 

2 table cloths and napkins - - - - - - 2 18 

Enough dishes for setting table and 

serving a simple meal - - - - - - 2 18 

Knives, forks, sj)oons, glasses, etc. - - - - 4 3 4 



£12 10 2 to £15 
(If a sideboard is added, the cost would be about £5 16s. 8cZ. additional.) 

Summary of cost of equipment to accommodate twelve pupils at 

A TIME. 

Kitchen Equipment. 

£ s. d. 

Table with cupboards, etc., stools, stove, 

range and sink _ . - . £113 15 to 135 8 4 

Utensils, as per detailed statement - - - - 17 17 9^ 
Store-room equipment - - - - £9l9tol679 

Dining-room equipment - - - £12 10 2 to 15 



£153 4 8i to £184 13 lOi 



U.S.A.— Ap]X'nd{:: T. 



289 



APPENDIX 11 

STATE MANUAL TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL, 
PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND. 

Tlic Year is nominally 40 Weeks, excluding- Vacations 38 Weeks. 



DOMESTLC SCIENCE COURSE. 
First Year. 



'Academic. 



Elementary rhetoric. 
English composi- 
tion. American 
antliors by Bran- 
der Mathews. 

38 weeks. 



Alf^ebra 
ratics. 



to quad- 
38 week.^. 



Vhysical {geography, 
Laboratory work 
in physical charac- 
ter of minerals. 

19 weeks. 



Book - keeping. \ 
Sadler's sys- 
tem. 

' Physics. Dy- 
n a m i c s of ) 
liquids. Dy- 
namics of 
gases. Sound, 

19 weekt 



'Lessons are in 45 
minute periods 
daily, unless other- 
wise indicated by 
a numeral to show 
number of days 
])er week. 



Domestic 
Science. 



fHousehold Art 
and Manual 
Trainins. 



Carpentry : — GO 
hours. Elemen- 
tary carpentry 
and joinery. 
Making of use- 
ful articles :— 
Model of hand 
loom. 

Basketry :— 60 
hours. Woven 
bfi..<k'-.ts of rat- 
tan, fc'ewed bas- 
kets of raffia, 

(a) Plain. 

{b) Coloured. 

Sewing : — 112i 
hours. Hand- 
machine work, 
undergarments, 
cooking apron 
and cap, hy- 
gienic clothing, 
economics o f 
buying, study of 
textiles, includ- 
ing study of 
h b r e s and 
methods of man- 
ufacture. 
Simple weaving 
on model loom, 
made in car- 
pentry. 

N ote book work 
supplements 
the English 
work. 



Millinery 



i2A 

hours. Bows, 
rosettes, facin;.'s, 
shirred linings. 
Braid, sew and 
trim rallia hat 
after indiv idual 
design, 
|-Manual and house 
hold art classes 
are l.Jj hour 
periods on alter- 
nate days. 



tArt, 



Lettering, Geo- 
metrical figures, 
woiking draw- 
ings used in 
carpentry. 



Drawing from 
models, U i s- 
toric ornaments, 
elementary de- 



Application 
basketry. 



t Art work is in 43 
niinute j)erio(i3 
daily during the 
four years. 



290 



U.S.A.— -Appendix B. 
APPENDIX ^.—continued. 



DOMESTIC SCIENCE COURSE. 



Second Year. 



Academic 



Domestic 
Science. 



^Household Art 
and Manual 
Training. 



Alt. 



English composition, 
alternating Avitli 
Englisii history 
with especial refer- 
ence to American 
institutions. 

19 weeks. 



Ancient and Mediae- 
val History alter- 
nating witli Ger- 
man. 

19 weeks. 



Geometry, plane. 

38 week^ 



Civil Government 
alternating with 
pliysics, dynamics 
of solids, work- 
energy, magnetism, 
19 weeks. 

General chemistry 
alternating with 
science of cooking. 

38 weeks. 



Science of cooking. 
Application of 
laws of heat : 
Avater,fire. Ap- 
l^lication o f 
chemistry to 
cookery of pro- 
teids, albumin- 
oids, starches, 
sugars, fats. 

38 weeks. 



Yeast and l:)aking 
powder used in 
flour mixtures. 
Dietary stan- 
dards, calculat- 
ing daily dietary 
for a family of 
six. Cooking 
and serving of 
breakfast, lun- 
cheon, dinner, 
thus planned. 



V isit to the public 
market to see 
meats cut, and 
inspect vege- 
tables. 



Note books in 
students' lan- 
guage and 
essays aid in 
English com- 
position work. 



Teriods are H 
hours alternate 
days for 38 
weeks. 



Millinery (winter 
hats). Alter- 
nating with 
sewing : — Cot- 
ton dress or 
blouse, and un- 
lined skirt. 

45 hours. 



Modelling in clay 
and wood from 
nature ; casts 
and designs. 



Brief study of the 
ornament of 
local buildings. 



Historic orna- 
ment used iu 
wood carving 
designs. 



Values in light 
and shade. — 
Still life. 



Charcoal from 
casts. 



Pen and ink. 



ITime given per 
day the same as 
in first year. 



State Manual Training High School, Providence, RJ. 
APPENDIX V^.-^-^continued. 



291 



DOMESTIC SCIENCE COURSE. 



Third Year, 



Academic. 



English literature 
(as required for ad- 
mission to Ameri- 
can colleges. 1 

(2) 38 weeks. 

German — 

(3) 38 weeks. 
Algebra — com pleted . 

19 weeks. 

Geometry — solid, 

19 weeks. 

Physics, light, elec- 
tricity. 

19 weeks. 



Botany — structural 
preparation of bac- 
teriology : cultures 
from air, water, 
milk, clothing, 
hands. 



Domestic 
Science. 



Chemistry of foods 
and physiology 
of digestion. 

19 weeks. 

Food for the 
sick. 

I. Water analysis. 

II. Proteid analy- 
sis. 

III. Albuminoid 
aral} sis. 

IV. Sugar analy- 
s s. 

V. Starch analy- 
!-is. 

VI. Fat analysis. 

Analysis of milk, 
meat, some baby 
food 

VII. Digestion ex- 
periment. 

VIII. Practice in 
cookery for the 
sick . 

IX. Diet in special 
diseases. 



Household Art 
and Manual 
Training. 



Dressmaking. 

19 weeks. 

Drafting, cutting, 
fitting, making 
lined bodice and 
lined skirt the 
sketch for which 
has been made 
in the Art de- 
partment. 



Art. 



Water colour : — 

I. Still life. 

II. Design in wall 
paper, rugs, 
hangings. 

III. Sketching 
from nature. 

IV. Costume de- 
sign. 

Design in em- 
broidery sten- 

Pyrography. 



6490. 



292 



APPENDIX B.— continued. 



DOMESTIC SCIENCE COURSE. 



Fourth 1 car. 



Domestic 

Sim on/>rk 



Household Art 
and Manual 



Art. 



Academic. 



English literature 
"College English." 

(2) 38 weeks. 

German, 

38 weeks. 
Trigononietry. 

(3) 19 weeks. 
Analytical chem- 
istry, Study of five 
groups. Analysis 
of minerals studied 
in first year. An- 
alysis of unknown. 

19 weeks. 

Psychology, in part 
experimental. 

19 weeks. 

Electivcs for those 
who are to take 
the teacher's train- 
ing. 

19 weeks. 

Keview arithmetic 
alternating with 
review English 
grammar (Elective) 
19 weeks. 

Photographic science. 



Sanitation. 

19 weeks. 

House : soil, foun- 
dation, floor 
plans, plumb- 
ing, finishings, 
heating and 
ventilating sys- 
tems. 

V^isits to house in 
process of erec- 
tion to study 
details. 

Plan a house. 

Food supply : — 
Purity in foods. 

[a) Adultera- 
tions. 

[b) Plant life, 
bacteria, 
moulds. 

[c) Insects. 

AirSuppl5\ Kate 
of entrance of 
fresh air ; bac- 
terial cultures 
of air. 

^V^ater. 

Disinfection (ex- 
peri ni e n t on 
germ life.) 

Theory of disease. 

II o m c-nu rsing 
(vit^it to hos- 
pital). 

Cost of living. 



Training. 



Electives. 

19 weeks. 

Advanced dress- 
making. 

Wood carving, ap- 
plied historic 
ornament. 

Advanced car- 
pei:try — design 
in furniture. 



Charcoal from 
the antique. 

House plans : — 
11 o o r plans 
drawn to scale. 

Theory of colour. 

Household deco- 
ration ; colour 
sketches of in- 
terio! s. 

Illustrations, pen 
and ink. 

liook covers. 



U.S.A. — Appendix C. 



293 



APPENDIX C. 

COMPREHENSIVE EQUIPMENT FOR HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 

IN DRESSMAKING AND LAUNDRY WORK. 

The following is reproduced by kind permission from " Teachers College 
Record." Vol. II., No. 5, November, 1901. "The Economics of Manual 
Training." (TheUnited States of America dollars have been converted for 
convenience into English coinage.) 

(1.)— Dressmaking. 

Equipment for Class of Fifteen Girls. 



(1) Drafting and dressmaking room. 





£. 


s. 


d. 


8 tables 


- 12 


10 





Mirror 


£3. 2g. Gd. to 4 


3 


4 


Pedestal 


1 


7 





Screen ------- 


1 


13 


4 


1 gas stove, 3 burners - - - - 


1 





10 




n 


o 
o 


ft 


8 irons, 4 heavy, and 4 long narrov^^ 





8 


4 




£5. 4s. 2d. to 8 


G 


8 


15 chairs ------ 


6 


5 





15 high stools ----- 


1 


11 


3 


Clothes tree 





14 


7 


5 sewing machines - - - - 


£31. 5s. Od. to 57 


5 


10 


4 ironing boards ----- 





16 


8 


Board for curved seams 





3 


9 


15 boxes for materials - - - - 





4 


4 


Paper roll holder ----- 


1 





10 


18 yard sticks 





17 


10 


18 tape measures ----- 





3 


5 




1 


1 


10 







6 


3 


2 skirt forms . - . - - 


1 


5 





£71. 


10s. 3d. to £101 


14 


5 


(2) Sewing room, to accommodate thirty pupils. 




.d 




£. 


s 


Roll front case for materials for 90 pupils 


- 10 


8 


4 


Tables to accommodate 30 pupils 


£6. 5s. Od. to IG 13 









10 





30 footstools - - - - - 


- 12 


10 





36 boxes (6 large and 30 small) - 





17 


6 







8 


4 



£42. 19s. 2d. to £53 7 8 
Total cost of equipment - - £114. 9s. 5d. to £155 2 1 



294 



U.S.A. — Appendix C. 



Cheaper Equipments for Fifteen in Dressmaking and Thirty in 

Sewing. 

Dressmaking and Sewing Room combined. 

£. s. d. 

8 tables, 5 foot kitchen 4 14 

(An even less expensive table arrangement may be 
obtained of boards supported on saw-horses, when the 
two kinds of work are practised in the same room. A 
convenient plan for the dressmaking tables is to have 
these hinged to the wall, so as to drop down when not 



in use.) 

30 chairs at £1 lis. 3d. per doz. - - - - - 3 18 1 

1 stove (3 burners) and tubing 15 7 

6 irons ...-.----063 

4 ironing boards - - - - - - - - 15 

Wardrobe - £'1 Os. lOd. to 4 3 4 

4 sewing machines - . - - £25 Os. Od. to 45 16 8 

Screen - - - - - 12 6 

18 yard sticks - - - 0174 

33 scissors C3 of them buttonhole) - - - - 1 19 2 

6 large boxes at Is. 5|d. - - - - - - 8 9 

30 small boxes at Shd. ------- 8 9 

Total cost - - - - £40 iGs. 3d. to £64 15 5 



Average cost of maintenance for the work in the High school, if the 
pupils furnish their own garment materials, is about 6d. per pupil. 

(2.)~Laundry Equipment. 
E(iuipment for class of eight pupils. 



£. s. d. 

Large fibre tub - 3 5| 

Double boiler for starch - - - • - - 4 3^ 

Tea-kettle 040^ 

12 small fibre tubs 1 10 

Small fibre pail 10 

Granite soap cooker 2 8^ 

Yellow earthen bowl, 1 quart 6 

Yellow earthen bowl, 2 quarts 8 

Yellow earthen bowl, 4 quarts - - - - - 18;^ 

8 yellow earthenware bowls, 1 quart - - - - 18 

2 tin measuring cups 10 

G table-spoons 2 

6 tea-spoons 013 

Knife 005 

Wooden spoon -------- 2i 



Carried forward - - £2 14 7 



Equipment for High School Course in Dressmaking. 



295 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 2 14 7 

100 feet of clothes line -------039 

Clothes pins o 5 

Towel roller - - - - - - - - 5 

Skirt board covers : 

10 yards unbleached cotton cloth - - - - 3 4 

4 yards cotton felting, 54 inches - - - - 8 4 

1 yard white flannel 18 

Safety pins --------- 1 0^ 

3 roller towels (7^ in., linen-towelling) - - - 3 8 

Dish pan, 14 quarts - - - - - - - 2 7i 

Universal wringer, large - - - - - - 17 8^ 

2 universal wringers, small 1 10 

Tin dipper --------- 10 

Oval clothes basket 5 2^ 

Oval boiler --------- 5 2^ 

6 4-foot benches -------- 1 2 G 

8 4i-foot skirt boards, with adjustable supports - - 2 10 

8 small wash boards, two-thirds usual size - - - 12 6 

2 clothes horses (4 feet high, 4 folds) - - - - 7 4 
Fringe brush -------- 2 7j 

3 soft brushes -------- 4 9 

3 whisk brooms, for sprinkling - - - - - 2 3 

4 flat irons, 7 pounds - - - - - - - 9 2 

8 flat irons, 5 pounds - - - - - - - 0108 

8 flat irons, 4 pounds - - - - - - - 13 4 

4 flat irons, 3 pounds - - - - - - - 5 10 

(Cheaper irons may be had at twopence per pound.) 

8 Troy polishers - - - - - - - - 15 

8 iron stands -------- 1 8 

8 iron holders (asbestos) - - - - •• - 14 



£14 8 7 



Maintenance. 

£. s. d. 

3 dozen ivory soap G 3 

Starch 13 

Blueing - - 10^ 

Beeswax 018 

Borax - - - 10 

Ammonia - 0010 

White wine vinegar ------- 5 

Salt - - - 2i 



Cost per pupil Is. G^d. - - £0 12 G 



21)6 



U.S.A. — Appendix LK 



APPENDIX D. 

HOUSEHOLD SCIENCE COURSES IX BOSTON HIGH 

SCHOOLS. 

A Course of Twenty Lectures for High School Students 



Miss S. Maria Elliott, Boston, Mass. 



L Choice of a Home. 



1. Requisites and conditions — air, light, situation, soil, etc. 

2. Heating, ventilation, lighting — health, comfort, etc. 

3. Drainage— purpose, dangers, etc. 

4. House inspection — health, convenience, economy of energy. 



11. Furnishing the House. 

5. Dust, a study of —the foundation for. 
G. The Science of Cleanliness. 

7. House furnishings -sanitary, artistic, economical. 



III. Care of the House. 

8. Removal of dust — sweeping, dusting. 

9. Care of woodwork— cleanliness and preservation 

10. Care of metallic, mineral surfaces and fabrics. 

11. Special sanitation and disinfection. 



IV. Food. 

1 2. The five Food Principles. 

13. Food materials. 

14. Food combinations. 

15. (Diet and dietaries 

1 6. \ applied to different ages and conditions. 



V. Health and Hygiene. 

17. Emergencies. 

18. What to do for the invalid and sick. 

19. School and public hy/^ienc. 

20. Disposal of refuse. 



Household Science Courses in Boston High Schools. 



297 



A Course of Twenty Lessons for High School Students. 

1. Necer,sities of a house — location, soil, etc. 

2. Building materials and general healthful construction. 

3. Elements in house-building — arrangement, size, mechanics, etc. 

4. Heating and ventilation. 

5. Drainage systems. Water supply. 

6. House inspection. 

7. House furnishings — principles of sanitary, artistic, economical fur- 

nishings. 

8. Study of dust and its dangers. 

9. Construction and form applied to furnishings. 

10. Colour. 

11. liemoval of dust. 

1 -2. Study of woodwork. 

13. Care of woodwork. 

14. Study of metals and mineral surfaces. 

15. Ca;e of metals and mineral surfaces 

16. Study of fabrics. 

17. Care of fabrics. 

18. Principles of laundry-work. 

19. Houseliold insects. 

20. Care of plumbing. Disposal of refuse. 



The Evolution of the House. 



A Course of Lessons for High School Sti^dent 



Miss Maria Elliott, Boston, Mass. 

Shelter— protection from animals and elements. 

I^rivacy — safety of person and possessions. 

Necessities of a house. 

Luxuries of a house. 

Care of necessities. 

Care of luxuries. 

Personal hygiene. 

School hygiene. 

Public hygiene. 

Duty to self. 

Duty to friends. 

Duty to public at large. 

Bacteriology. 

Chemistry applied to food principles. 




298 



U.S.A. — Appendix E. 



APPENDIX E. 

COURSE IN HOME DRESSMAKING, PRATT INSTITUTE, 

BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. 

Two lessons a week ; five terms of three months each. 

Entrance Requirements. — Students are required to be over 
sixteen years of age, to have a knowledge of hand and machine 
sewing, to be able to use the tape measure, and to make simple 
garments and cambric dresses as taught in the sewing classes. 

CounsE OF Study. 

First Grade. — Draughting skirts and bodices. Exercise with 
practice material in fitting and designing and in making dress 
trimmings and finishings. Study of colour, form, line and texture. 

Second Grade. — Draughting and making walking skirt. Cutting 
fitting and making lined bodice. Study of the contour and poise 
of the body. 

Third Grade. — Matching stripes and plaids. Draughting and 
making princess gown. Practice in designing : study of artistic 
principles. 

Fourth Grade. — Draughting, cutting, and making jacket. 
Draughting child's dress and coat. Study of woollen textiles. 

Fifth Grade. — Draughting and making evening gown. Practice 
in designing gowns for home and evenmg wear. 

Drawing, Water-colour and Elementary Design — Practice in the 
use of the pencil and of water-colour. Appearance of objects, 
bows, gowns and drapery. Outline and proportion of the human 
form. Study of historic costumes : designing: of gowns. 



U.S.A. — Appe^ndix F. — /. 



299 



APPENDIX 

COURSES OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE AND ART AT DREXEL 

INSTITUTE. 

{Drexel Institute of Art, Science, and Industry, Philadelj^hici.) 
I.— NORMAL COURSE OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

Applicants to enter the Normal Course in Domestic Science are requested 
to give the following information : — 

Name (in full) ■. 

Address , 

Date of birth 

What is your general health 1 , 

Have you any noticeable defect of any kind as in sight, hearing, or any 
other defect ? 

From what school, or college, or courses of study have you been 
graduated ? 

Year of graduation ? , 

Have you taught ? 

In what grades 1 

Where ? 

How long ? 

What year or years ? 

Have you any knowledge of cookery 1 

Do you intend taking this course to fit yourself as a director or instructor 
of Domestic Science ?.., 

Remarks 

Applicants to enter the Housekeepers' Course are requested to give the 
following information : — 

Name (in full) 

Philadelphia address 

If not a resident of Philadelphia, also give home address 

Age 

From what school, or courses of study have you been graduated ? 

What has been your occupation ? 

Have you any knowledge of cookery ? ., 

Do you intend taking this course to fit yourself to take a position as 
housekeeper or matron ? 

DEPARTMENT OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 
Normal Course. 

The following additional information concerning the Normal Course in 
Domestic Science will answer a large number of the questions made by 
inquirers : — 

Examinations.— entrance examination is required. For admission 
at least a high-school education or its equivalent is necessary. Age, 
education, previous experience, personal fitness, etc., are considered in the 
selection of applicants. 

Expenses. — There arc no free scholarships. Tuition fee .^80 (£16) per 
year, text-books and stationery, $10 (£2). Board may be had near the 
Institute at prices ranging from five to eight dollars ])er week. 



303 U.S.A.- -Appendix F.- -[. 

The following articles are required for work — 

For Kitchen Laboratory. 

Black woollen skirt. 

Four plain white blouses. Not a thin material and without tucks or 
insertion. 

One dozen white linen collars. 
Narrow tie of any colour. 
Black belt. 

8ix aprons: — White cambric, 36 in. wide ; use one and a half widths, 
finish with a five-inch hem ; length three inches from the bottom of skirt. 
Band, one and a half inches, finished. Bib, eight inches by nine, finished, 
with a hem of half an inch. Straps, one and a quarter inches wide, 
finished ; fasten to upper corners of the bib, pass over shoulders, and 
button on waist button. May be bought at the Institute. 

Six pairs of sleeves ; seven inches deep, finished ; one inch hem top and 
bottom. May be purchased at the Institute for ten cents a pair. 

Caps : Must be purchased at the Institute as needed, 15 cents each. 

Holders : Four thin holders with tape 27 inches long, with a loop to pu t 
on apron band. 

Towels : Five towels made of glass towelling, 18 inches long, with a tape 
loop to put on apron band. 

Gymnasium Suits. — Black serge, made into a simple bloase with a 
rolling collar and a divided skirt. 

Length of skirt, from waist to ankle. Divided two inches above the knee 
and an eight-inch gusset inserted. It requires four widths of 42-incli 
material, two widths in each leg ; or three widths of 56-inch goods, with one 
and a half widths in each leg. Put elastic at the bottom of each leg. Skirt 
opens in front. 

Blouse and skirt must be buttoned together by no less than six buttons. 
Black tie. 

Black stockings. Black rubber-soled shoes, bought at 25 North 13th 
Street, Philadelphia. 

Positions. — The school docs not guarantee positions to graduates, but 
assists them when it can. Salaries depend upon the kind of work done, 
the responsibility involved, the capabilities of the applicant, etc. 

Outside TForZ:.— Students have no time to engage in outside work, and 
cannot, therefore, earn any money while taking the course. 

There are no summer, evening, or correspondence courses for Normal 
Students. 

students' house. 

A Students House has been organized in connection with the work of the 
Department of Domestic Science. Board and room may be obtained at %.b 
per week. Board alone $3.50 per week. 

Applicants wishing to have a place in the house should send in their 
names and they will be put on the waiting list. 

The three following Courses are taken by Normal students, House- 
keepers, and General Students. 

The First Course is given by Normal students as Practice Classes to 
children. 

First Course in Cookery. 

1. Combustion, building fire, scalloped oysters. 

2. Food principles, water, tea coffee, chocolate. 

3. Starch, white sauce, milk toast. 

4. Vegetables in white sauce, celery, cabbage, carrots, stulFed potatoes. 

5. Soups without meats, cream of potato, potato, croutons, crisp crackers 

6. Cereals, sugar, steamed apples, apple sauce, avena, steamed and boiled 
rice, wheatena. 



Nonnal Course of Doyncstic Science, Drexel Institute. 301 



T. Fats and oils, caramel, beef drippings, fried oysters, cranberry jelly. 

8. Fish balls, baked apples. 

9. Proteids, eggs cooked in water, plain omelet, flour omelet, poached 
egg, soft cooked egg. 

10. Milk, cup custard, floating island, pasteurized milk, rennet. 

11. Cheese, souffle, welsh rarebit, cheese straws. 

12. Meats, cuts for broiling and roasting, roast, broiled chops, lemon 
jelly, Hamburg steaks. 

13. Meats, cuts for soups and stews, soup stock, scalloped mutton, baking 
powder biscuits. 

14. Corn beef hash, corn muffins. 

15. Bread, large quantity. 

16. Small loaves of bread, hash with gravy. 

Second Gouese in Cookery. 

1. Parker house rolls, bread sticks, buns, cinnamon buns. 

2. Brown bread, fruit pudding, hard and lemon sauces, butter balls. 

3. Plain griddle cakes, waffles, fricassees, oysters. 

4. Fish, baked fish with stuffing, tomato sauce, Hollandaise sauce, steamed 
fish. 

5. Poultry, draw a fowl, truss for roasting, cut for fricassee. 

6. Cooking in deep fat, alternate rice and chicken croquettes, crumpets. 

7. Soup lesson with white stock, cream and potato, clam puree, soup 
sticks, noodles. 

8. Review meat, veal cutlets, noodles with cheese. 

9. Pastry, apple and lemon pie. 

10. Desserts, snow pudding, soft custard, coffee cream, sponge cake. 

11. Cake, plain, cream almond frosting, 

12. Cookies, strawberry shortcake. 

13. Salads, potato, French dressing, cole slaw, boiled dressing, stuffed 
eggs. 

14. Opening a lobster. Mayonnaise dressing. 

15. Luncheon, served on desks. 

16. Ice cream, chocolate cakes. 

Thied Couese in Cookeey. 

1 Preserving, general rules, canned peaches, crab apple jelly, spiced 
pears. 

2. Preserving continued, ketchup, quince preserve, grape juice, grape 
jam. 

3. Heed birds. Bavarian cream, stuffed peppers, black bean soup. 

4. Devilled crabs, chocolate cake, boiled frosting, chocolate filling. 

5. Sweetbread patties, Swedish timbales, breaded mutton cutlets, Cul»an 
sauce, potatoes for garnishing. 

6. Caramel Charlotte, Charlotte Ptusse, bombe glace, jumbles, macaroons. 

7. Fillet of beef, mushroom sauce, mock turtle soup. 

8. Lobster cutlets, sauce tcu'tare, rolled wafers. 

9. Candy, candied orange peel, peppermints, glace, salted almonds, mint 
leaves. 



302 



U.S.A. — Appendix F.—I. 



10. Roast duck, potato stuffing, gravy, plum pudding. 

11. Boned chicken, tomato salad, brandy sauce. 

12. Puff paste, cream horns, condes, patties, tarts. 

13. Terrapin, cream puffs. 

14. Ginger ice cream, white sponge cake, meringues, grape frappe'. 

15. Nesselrode pudding, plain cake, ornamental frosting, sjwnge fingers. 

16. Marketing. 

NoEMAL Domestic Science.— Work in Senior Year. 
Advanced Cookery. 



Veal croquettes. 
Creole soup. 
Buns. 

Molasses cookies. 
White corn cake. 



Clam chowder 
Smelts. 



Jelly roll. 
Chicken cutlets. 
Macaroni croquettes. 

Banbury tarts. 
Puff paste. 
Can n el on of beef. 
Yorkshire pudding. 
Queen fritters. 

Roast turkey. 

Cost $1.25. 
Oranges. 

Germea. Sugar, cream. 

Halibut. Potato balls. 

Waffles with syrup. 
Butter balls. Bread. 
Coffee. 

Prepared by four members of the class and served to eight members of the 
class. 



2. Calf's foot jelly. 
Duchess soup. 
Ox tail soup. 
Consomme. 
Boiled fish. 

3. Breakfast. 



4. 



Oyster croquettes. 
Fish chowder. 
Guinea fowl. 
Veal loaf. 
Jumbles. 
Rabbit. 



Capon. 
Orange puffs. 
Chocolate Charlotte. 
Orange sauce. 
White mountain cake. 
Fig filling. 



6. 



Braised tongue. 
Roast pork. 
Boiled leg of mutton 
Caper sauce. 
Cream puffs. 

Luncheon. 



7. 



Ginger pudding. 
Molasses drop cake. 
Custard souffle. 
Cranberry pudding. 
Sterling sauce. 

Cost $ 1.50 (about 6s.). 
Cream of tomato soup. 
Soup sticks. 
Salmon cutlets. 
Potato soufHe. Corn pudding. 

Lettuce. 

Crackers. Cheese. 

Grape frappe. 
Cake. Coffee. 
Olives. 

Sally Lunn. Bavarian cream. ^ 

Chicken pie. White sponge cake. 

Lemon pie. Cream puffs. 

Mock terrapin. Salmon croquettes. 

French rusks. Peptonized beef broth. 

Brown bread. Squab in paper. 

Tomato jelly. 



Normal Course of Domestic Science, Drexel Institute. 303 



Aladdin cooker used for following dishes : — 

Stewed chicken. Baked potatoes. 

Stewed tomatoes. Chocolate bread pudding. 

Rolled almond wafers. Devilled scallops. 

Chocolate wafers. Meat cakes. 

Coffee mousse. Chestnut puree. 

Loin of veal with vegetables. 



9. Luncheon. 
Cranberry pie. 
Coffee cake. 
Planked shad. 
Spring lamb. 
White corn cake 

10. Dinner. 



Cost $ 2.00. 
Peach short cake. 
Coffee mousse. 
Spring chicken. 
Lemon pie. 
Ice rice pudding. 

Rice cream. 

Cost $ 2.50. 
Mock turtle soup. 
Bread sticks. Radishes. 
Boiled trout. 
Potato roses. 
Baked chicken. 
Brown gravy. Asparagus. 
Brain patties. 
Lettuce salad. 
French dressing. Cheese. 
Crackers. 

Wafers. Frozen strawberries. Coffee. 



CouESE OF Demonstrations. — One Term. 
Senior Class. 

Subjects. Demonstrations. 
L -------- Instructor in Cookery 



4. Eggs --------- Student. 

5. Milk --------- 

6. Invalid Cookery ------- 

7. Use of Chafing Dish ------ 

8. Milk 

9. Meat --------- 

10. Bread --------- 

11. Invalid Cookery 

12. Soups 

13. Use of Chafing Dish ------ 

14. Meat --------- 

15. Baking --------- 

16. Desserts --------- 



Normal Domestic Science. 
Short Course in Home Nursing. 

(Additional lectures given in the course in Physiology.) 

Spring term. Senior year. 

1. Sick room. 

2. Sick bed, changing bed and body clothing. 

3. Baths, for cleanliness. 

4. Baths, hot water, hot air, vapour. 

5. Baths, cold ; poultices, fomentation. 

(). Sleej). Method of inducincj it, administration of mediciDc, feeding a 
patient. 



304 U.S. A. -Appendix F.—l . 

Normal and Technical Classes. 
Laundry Course. 

1. General notes. Removal of stains. 

2. Wash : table linen, tablecloths, napkins, doylies., 

3. AV ash : bed linen, sheets, pillow cases. Iron : Table linen. 

4. Wash : body linen, night dress, drawers. Iron : Bed linen. 

5. Wash : body linen, white skirt, corset cover. Iron :^ Body linen. 

6. Wash : shirt-waist ; collars. Iron : corset cover, skirts. 

7. Wash : stockings. Starch : blouse, collars. 

8. Iron : blouse, collars. 

9. Wash : flannels and coloured clothes. 

10. Iron : flannels and coloured clothes. 

11. Wash: handkerchiefs, embroideries. Iron: embroideries, handker- 
chiefs. 

12. Clean and wash black and coloured woollen goods. Wash, clear starch, 
and iron sash curtains. 

Theoretical instruction of the scientific principles involved in the various 
processes is followed by i)ractice. 

Soaps, washing fluids, bleaching powders, blueings, and starch, are 
discussed in their scientific and practical relations to laundry work. 

Normal and Technical Domestic Science Courses. 
Waitresses' Course. 

1. Appearance and dress of waitresses. 

2. Washing dishes, 

3. Care of pantry. 

4. Care of dining-roouL 

5. Kules for serving. 

6. Rules for making and serving chocolate, tea, black coffee, bread, butter 
balls, sandwiches, salads, French dressing, mayonnaise dressing, potato 
salad, soft cooked egg. 

7. The keeping of table linen. 

8. Karly morning Avork in bedroom. 

9. Later morning work in bedroom. 

10. Evening work in bedroom. 

11. General directions for bedroom. 

Domestic Science Course for Normal and other Students. 
Synopsis of Lectures on Planning and Building of a House. 

First Lecture.— The location and surroundings of the house, the plac- 
ing of the house, topography, drawings of site, opportunities of situation 
cost of houses and general method of figuring them. 

Second Lecture.— The house in detail, the rooms and their position in 
the house, the basement, first^ floor, second floor, attic. The materials used 
in their construction as they interest the housekeeper. 

Third Lecture.— The planning of suburban houses ; when a wooden 
house is preferable, when a masonry house, stone or brick, style of archi- 
tecture. 

Fourth Lecture.— The simple city house, fire limits, planning of the 
city house as to economy of space and conveniences, the architectural 
character of the front, architectural details of the interior. 

Fifth Lecture.— Sanitation of the house, heating and ventilation, 
water supply and drainage, plumbing, lighting, the kitchen, importance of 
sanitary arrangements of the house. 

This is succeeded by a course in House Decoration and Furnishing, 
illustrated by visits of observation to houses, shops, factories, etc, 



Normal Course of Domestic Science, Drexel Institute. 305 



Household Science and Economics. 

Classification of Food Principles. 

Food adjuncts. 

Fermentation. 

Preservation of food materials. 

National and State laws regarding food adulteration and inspection. 

Manufactured food materials. 

Scientific kitchens (public, school, home). 

Care of the house according to liygienic laws. 

Water supply— filtration of water. 

Heating and lighting. Care of lamps. 

Care of rooms — dining-room, bath-room, bed-room. 

The kitchen. 

Disposal of waste. 

Chemicals for household use. Care and cleaning of silver, nickel, iron, 

paints, copper, tin, marble, woodwork, brass, zinc, porcelain, glass. 
Laundry of table linen, removal of stains. 
Laundry of lace. 

Lectures to Domestic Science and Domestic Art Students. 
By President Mac Alister. 
History ()F Education. 

1. Education in ancient times. 

2. Education in the Middle iVges, with special reference to monastic 

institutions. 

3. The great reformers of education in modern times. 

4. The beginnings of scientific, technical, and industrial education. 

5. The fundamental principles of method in education. (2 lectures.) 

6. Domestic Science Training in schools. 

7. Domestic Arts Training in schools. 

8. Domestic Science and Arts in their relations to some social problems. 

9. The duties and responsibilities of the teacher. 

Chemistry. 
Junior Year. 

I — General Chemistry — 

Lectures illustrated by experiments, diagrams, specimens, etc. 
Laboratory work. 
The student is trained — 

(a) to deduce the more important facts of the science ; 

(b) to study comparative properties of substances ; 

(c) to acquire a scientific habit of thought 

IL Qualitative Analysis — ■ 

Common metals and their reactions. 
Analysis of solutions containing those metals. 
Acids and their reactions. 

Analysis of solutions containing bases and acids studied. 
General miscellaneous qualitative work, examination of powders, 
alloys, insoluble substances, as time permits. 

Senior Year. 

I — Organic Chemistry — 

Hydrocarbons and their derivatives. 
The students prepare and study a tyi)ical compound of each 
class. 

6490. U 



306 U.S.A.— Affendix F.—L 

II — Quantitative A dialysis — 

Analysis of food materials. 

The following list indicates the general scope of the quantitative 
work. 

Chemically pure salts, potable water, common salt, bi-carbonate 
of sodium. Hour or bread, baking powders, sugar or syrups, 
milk, butter, lard, cheese, tea, coffee, chocolate. 

During the senior year, second term, a course of lectures in the Chemistry 
of Food and Dietetics is given, the lectures being supplemented by laboratory 
work. 

Outline of Lecture Course on Food and Dietetics, 1901. 

By Ernest A. Congdon, Professor of Chemistry. 

I. — Introductory. Historical. Relation of chemistry to food and diet. 

II. — Definition of a food. Uses of food in the human economy (repair 
tissues ; produce heat ; produce force). 

III. — Chemical composition of the human body. (Elements present. 
Compounds present.) 

IV. — Chemical composition of food materials. Proximate food prin- 
ciples : Proteids, fats, carbohydrates, water, mineral matter. 

V. — Chemical analysis of food materials. (Analyses of American food 
materials — Atwater.) 

VI. — Value of foods. Use of the " Calorie " (heat unit). Value of the 
nutrients (proteids, fats, carbohydrates) expressed in calories. The nutrient 
ratio, the ratio expressed in calories, between the nitrogenous and non- 
nitrogenous nutrients. 

VII. — Metabolism, or the exchange of food materials in the animal 
economy. (Anabolism and Katabolism.) Metabolism divided into — 
introduction, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of food. 

VIII. — Study of diet. Standard for dietaries. Foreign and American. 
(Work of Voit, Atwater and others.) 

IX. — Computation of amounts of foods necessary to conform to standard 
dietaries. Calculation of the value of various diets and of prepared 
foods. 

X. — Chemical study of materials used as foods. Water (potable and 
mineral), common salt, starch foods, sugars, fats, oils, cereals ; dairy 
products — milk, butter, cheese, etc., eggs • Hesh foods — meat, fish, etc. ; 
fruits, vegetables, salads, beverages, food adjuncts. 

XL — Study of fermentation. Organized and unorganized ferments. 
Fermentative and putrefactive changes. Yeast. Work of Bacteria. 

XII. — Preparation of food materials for consumption. Chemical study 
of changes that foods undergo in cooking processes. Food adulterations 
and their detection. Bibliography. Literature on foods and dietetics. 

Outline of Course on Food Analysis, 1901. 
(Laboratory Work and Recitations.) 

By A. Hon wood. Instructor in Chemistry. 

I. Analysis of crystallized barium chloride. — 
(a) Determination of barium. 
(/>) „ chloride, 

(c) „ water. 

II. Analysis of potable water :— 
(a) Total solids. 
(l>) Chlorine, 
(c) Free ammonia. 
{d) Albuminoid ammonia 



Normal Course of Domestic Science, Drexel Institute. 307 



III. Analysis of milk. — 

{a) Specific gravity. 

{b) Water or total solids. 

(c) Fat (Feser lactoscope, lacto-butyrometer and Adam's 
method). 

(d) Casein (Kjeldahl method). 
\e) Ash. 

(f) Milk sugar (Soxhlet, gravimetric). 

IV. Analysis of butter.- 
(a) Water. 
{h) Fat. 
(c) Curd 
{(1) Salt. 
{e) Ash. 

(/) Volatile acids (distinction from oleomargarine.) 

V. Analysis of cereal foods, bread, flour. — 
{a) Water. 
(/>) l\at. 
((•) Proteid. 

{d) Carbohydrate (starch, sugar) 

{e) Fibre. 
(/) Ash. 
VI. Analysis of tea. — 

{(i) Moisture. 
{(>) Tannin. 

{(•) Extract. 
{d) Cattein 

{e) Ash. 

VII. Analysis of baking powders. — 

{a) Determination of class (phosphate, alum, etc.). 

{!)) Total carbon dioxide. 

(c; Available carbon dioxide. 

References. 

IT. S. Government Bulletin, No. 4G. Leffman and Beam, Water Analysis. 
Wanklyn, Water Analysis. Leffman and Beam, Milk and Butter. Gerber, 
Analysis of Milk. 



Normal Domestic Science and Domestic Art Students. 
Physiology Course. 

Junior Year. 

1. — Introduction. Definitions. Plan of organization of the animal body. 
Geneial dissection of an anin)al. 

2. — Cheniic composition of tlie human body. The carbo-hydrates and 
fats. 

3. — Chemic coniposition of the human body. Tlie proteids and inorganic 
compounds. 

4. — The piiysiology of the cell. Its growth, movements, reproduction and 
general nutrition. 

f). —Histology and ])liysiol()gy of the e])ithelial and connective tissues. 
G.— Mechanism of the skeleton. Structure and function of the joints. 
The animal body as a machine for doing work. 

7. — The geneial physiology of muscle tisHue. The structure and clu'ini*; 
composition of muscle. 

8. -The muscle contraction. Tlie conditions inlluencing- the contraction. 
The production of heat. The relation of food to heat :vnd work. 'J'he 
special physiology of muscles 

0490, u 2 



308 



V.S. A.— Appendix F.—l. 



9. — The general physiology of nerve tissue. The general arrangement ot 
the nervous system. The structure and function of the nerves. 

10. — Keflex and voluntary actions. 

11. — Foods. Dietetics. The necessity for foods. Phenomena of starva- 
tion. Classification of alimentary principles. The uses of foods in the 
body. 

12. — The heat values of foods. The chemic composition of the animal. 
The vegetable and cereal foods. 

13. — Digestion. The structure of the alimentary canal. Mastication. 

14. — Insalivation. The physical and chemic action of saliva on the food 
and starch. 

15. — Gastric digestion. The composition of gastric juice and its chemic 
action on the proteids. Iniluences affecting digestion. 

16. — Intestinal digestion. The physiologic action of the pancreatic juice. 
The bile and intestinal juice. Their actions on foods. 

17. — Absorption. The mechanism by which the digested products enter 
the blood. 

18. — The blood. Its physical properties. Its chemic composition. 

19. — The blood corpuscles, red and white. The relation of the blood to 
the tissues. 

20. — The circulation of the blood. The general anatomy of the circulating 
apparatus. The structure and functions of the heart. 

21. — The structure and functions of the arteries. 

22. — The capillaries and veins. 

23. — Respiration — the object of. The general structure of the respi- 
ratory apparatus. The movements of respiration. The amount of air 
breathed under different conditions. The composition of the air. 

24. — The changes it undergoes at the time of breathing. The amount of 
oxygen absorbed and the amount of CO2 discharged. 

25. — Ventilation. 

26. — Animal heat. Source and causes of heat production. The disposi- 
tion of heat in the body. The manner in which the normal temperature is 
regulated. 

27. — The skin. Its structure and functions. 

28. —The kidneys. Their structure and functions. The urine and its 
chemical composition. 



} 



Senior Ye 
The Physiological Chemistry of — 
Starches and sugars 
Fats 
Proteids 

The Physiological Chemistry of Digestion- 
Salivary digestion 
Gastric digestion 
Intestinal digestion 

Absorption of Foods — 
Demonstration. 

The Fermentation of Foods — 

Causes and conditions determining it. 

The Putrefactive Changes in Foods — 

The causes and the conditions determining 
it and the products 

BACTERIOLC)GY- 

Bactei ia. Their nature, structure | 
Mode of activity and classification / 

The Parasites of Animal Foods. 
The Bacterial Infection of Foods. 
Ptomaines. Leucomaines — 

Their influence in the production of disease. 
The Thymus and Thyroid Glands. 



Three lectures. 

Three lectures. 

One lecture. 
One lecture 

I One lecture. 

One lecture. 

One lecture. 
One lecture. 

One lecture. 



Normal Course of Domestic SoienGe, Drexd Institute. 309 

Biology— / 

General dissection of animal forms. 

The structure of the fish, turtle, frog, chicken, rabbit, lobster, 

oyster and clam. 
Reproduction Three lectures. 

The Diseases connected with Disordklied Nuteition— 
Gout. Diabetes. Rickets. Rheumatism. Scurvy, 

Hygiene. 

Physical development (details of). 

Physical training (supplemented by practice). 

Effects of diet. 

Care of the skin. 

Clothing suited for various ages. 

Ventilation — Natural and Artificial. 

Household sanitation. 

Emergencies — First aid and accidents, etc., etc. 

Lectures on Bacteriology. 

1. — Place in Nature. 

2. — Presence. 

3. — Morphology. 

(a) Bacillus — grouping. 

(b) Micrococcus — grouping. 

(c) Spirillum. 

4. — Size and numbers. 

5. — Motility. 

6. — Nutrition. 

7. — Relation to air. 

8. — Relation to temperature. 

9. — Reproduction. 

10. — Helpful and harmful. 

(a) Saprophytes. 

(b) Parasites. 

11. — Relation to water supply. 

12. — Relation to milk supply. 

13. — Relation to butter and cheese making. 

14. — Products of activity. 

15. — Sterilization. Antiseptics. Disinfectants. 

16. — Yeasts and Moulds.. 

17. — History. 

Laboratory Work in Bacteriology. 

1. — Use of microscope. — Cover class preparations. 

2. — Unicellular organisms. — Bacteria, infusoria, yeast. 

3. — Washing, plugging, and sterilizing glassware. 

4. — Preparation of media for pure cultures.— Bouillon, gelatin, agar-agar, 

potatoes, milk. 

5. — Sterilizing media. 

6. — Making air plate. 

7. — Staining bacteria. 

8. — Effect of light on bacteria. 

9. — Quantitative analysis of — Tap water, Pasteur filtered water, ice. 

10. — Testing Pasteur filter. 

11. — Quantitative analysis of : — Walker-Gordon milk, lunch room milk. 

12. — Examination and identification of bacteria. 

13. — M. butyri aromafaciens. 

14. — Tests of disinfectants and antiseptics. — Milk of lime, carbolic acid, 

boiling water, listerine. 



310. 



U.S.A. — Appendix F. — 7/. 



Business Customs and Accounts. 

Lectures on — 

Money and its circulation. 
Banks and banking methods. 
Trust companies. 

Women as stockholders and bondholders. 
Capital and credit, failures, assignments, etc. 
Legal status of women. 

Business i)apers, cliecjues, promissory notes, etc. 

Practical work in drawing cheques, writing business letters. 

Book-keeping by double entry (cash book, day book, ledger). 



II.-NORMAL COUESE OF DOMESTIC ART. 
Hand and Machine Sewing. 
Junior Year. 

First Grade. — History of implements used in hand sewing ; kinds and 
qualities of materials for undergarments ; ])roper position of the body in 
sewing ; methods of using thread and needles, thimble and tape-measure ; 
woven textiles ; different kinds of stitches ; combination of stitches ; 
seams, hems, tucks, button-holes ; making simple garments. 

Second Grade. — Sewing machines ; measurements ; drafting drawers, 
underskirts and nightgowns ; making of garments ; cutting and making 
corset-covers from patterns ; cutting and making blouses. 

Third (VVafie.— Drafting, cutting, making blouses, cotton dresses, and 
garments for infants. 

DllESSMAKING. 

First Grade. 

I. — Implements and appliances used in dressmaking. 

II. — Cotton staple, its various uses ; choice of materials ; textiles as to 
colour and application to dress. 

III. — Taking measurements ; drafting foundation skirt ; drafting 
draperies and i)rinciples of same ; finishing skirt for trimming or drajung ; 
making lined skirt. 

IV. — Form, proportion and line relating to ornament in dress. 

V. — Plans for completing skirts ; cutting blouses with seams from patterns 
drafted by students of the advanced grades, from measurements taken 
from difi'erent meml)ers of the class ; basting, fitting i»lanning trimming ; 
general finish. 

Senior Year. 
Second Grade. 

L— Colour and textiles ; their various uses and relations to personal 
adornment ; growth of wool and silk ; manufacture of fabrics. 

II. — Takinii' measurements; drafting plain bodice from different 
measurements ; drafting bodice with extra seams for large figure ; cutting 
and matching striped, plaid, or figured material for bodice-making and 
trinmiing the same ; drafting and making dresses on the gown-form. 

III. — Artistic dress in its relation to the body ; design in drapery. 
J V. — Making dress on gown-form from the students' own designs, 



Normal Course of Domestic Art, Drexel Institute. 311 
Third Grade. 

I. — Advanced drafting. Choice of materials for gowns of special 
character. 

II. — Making dinner dress, evening dress ; choice of materials for same. 
Handling of velvet. 

III. — Making models of inexpensive materials to test the design. 

IV. — The form and poise of the body in their relation to dress. 

V. — Child's dress-materials, drafting, cutting and making the same. 

Fourth Grade. 

I. — Materials used in making coats, as staple and manufactured. 

II. — Drafting jackets and coats of various styles ; cutting, basting, fitting, 
pressing • practice in making pockets, applying same to garments ; making 
button holes, sewing on buttons ; lining and finish of coat ; making 
collars. 

III. — Principles applied to tailor-made dresses. 



Millinery. 
Junior Year. 
First Grade. 

I. — Colour and materials as related to the head dress. 
II. — Wiring ; folds ; fitted facing ; shirred facing ; pulfed edge. 

III. — Bows and rosettes. 

IV. — Study of line and form as applied to frame-making ; buckram hat 
frames. 

V. — Fitted hat made, lined and trimmed. 
VI. — Manufactures of straw and felt hats, velvet, and ribbon explained. 

Second Grade. 

I.— Bonnet, with plain crown and with puffing, made, lined, and 
trimmed. 

II. — Bonnet of more complex design. 

III. — Toque made, lined, and trimmed. 

IV. — Practical work, regulated by the season in which the grade is 
studied, and leading to a knowledge of the designing of bonnets and hats. 
At least four pieces of millinery must be made by each student. 

Senior Year. 
Third Grade. 

I. — Crepe bonnet. 
II.— Silk bonnet or hat. 
Ill —Growth and manufacture of silk explained. 
IV. — Wire frame-making. 
V. — Large velvet hat. 
VI. — Evening bonnet from student's own design 
VII.— Shirred hat. 
Designing of head-dresses. 

Drawing. 

Junior Year. 

Outline and light and shade drawing. 
(;)olour studies. 

Proportions of the human figure. 

Draperies, bows, feathers and hat trimmings in black and white and in 
colour. 

Colour values. 



312 



U.S.A. — Appendix F. — 11. and III. 



Senior Year. 

Rendering of dresses and gowns in black and white and colour. 
Designing of hats, bonnets and toques, in black and white and in colour. 
Designing of costumes and head-dresses in colour. 



Lectures on the Chemistry of Textiles— Dyeing and Cleansing. 

Historical sketch {Yrt^f dyeing'' 
/^Cotton. 
Flax. 

Study of textiles. Ramie. 

Wool. 
ISilk. 

Microscopic and chemical methods of ascertaining organic structure. 
Materials used in dyeing. 
Operations ])reliminary to ijrocess. 
Chemistry of — 

Washing, 

Cleansing. 

])leaching. 

Dyeing. 

Colouring matters {^^.'j'^^tl. 
Chemistry of coal-tar colours 



III.-EVENING CLASSES IN HOUSEHOLD SCIENCE. 

First Course in Cookery. 

Lesson I Introductory talk and measurements. 
II. Build fire ; scalloped oysters. 

III. Food Principles ; Chocolate and whipped cream. 

IV. Water ; Boiled and filtered cotfee. Tea. 

V. Starch ; Baked potatoes, cornstarch pudding. 
VL Starch ; Toast with white sauce. 
VII. Vegetables ; Vegetables with white sauce. 
VIII. Soups ; Cream of tomato, potato soup, croutons and 
crisped crackers. 
IX. Cereals, avena, wheatena ; boiled rice, steamed apples, 

steamed rice, stewed apples. 
X. Sugar ; Peanut candy, fish balls. 
XI. Fats ; Fried oysters, cranberry jelly. 
XII. Eggs ; Dropped eggs, omelet, eggs cooked in water. 

XIII. Milk ; Cup custard, rennet, floating ishxnd. 

XIV. Cheese ; Welsh rarebit, cheese souffle. Pasteurized milk. 
XV. Meat ; broiled chops, Hamburg steaks, lemon jelly. 

XVI. Meat ; scalloped mutton, corn muffins. 
XVII. Meat ; casserole of rice, tomato sauce, baking powder 
biscuits. 

XVIII. Meat ; Browned hash, whole wheat muffins. 
XIX. Cake ; Gingerbread, lemon sauce. 

XX. Cake. 
XXL Bread. 

XXII. Invalid Cookery ; Beef broth, beef juice, milk porridge, 
flour gruel. 
XXIIL Practical examination. 
XXIV. Apple snowballs ; lemon sauco. 



Junior Course in Domestic Science^ Brtxel Institute, 

IV. -JUNIOR DOMESTIC SCIENCE COURSE. 

Specimen Household Science Course. 
Senior Year. 

1. Cellar : Plan and care. 

2. Kitchen : Range, etc. 

3. Care of pantry. 

4. Clean dining-room. 

?>. Review and have a talk on serving meals. 

6. Serving breakfast. 

7. Serving luncheon. 

8. Serving dinner. 

9. Lighting and heating : Care of lamps. 

10. Washing table linen. 

11. Ironing table linen. 

12. Washing and ironing embroideries. 

13. Care of bedroom. 

14. Spring cleaning : Daily care of a home. 



314 



U.S.A. — Appendix G. 



APPENDIX G. 

SCHOOL OF HOUSEKEEPING, BOSTON. 
SYNOPSIS OF COURSE. 

Term I. 

1.— Home Sociology. 

A study of the home in its sociological aspects. Evolution of the family, 
Its forms and functions. Tlie standard of living among different races. 
Industrial changes in their reaction on the home. Tendencies of j^resent 
industrial forces, and of city life. Economics of production in relation to 
the family. The home as the unit of consumption. Ethical relation of the 
home to society ; responsibility of the home as a factor in public health and 
education. (Eight lectures.) 

2. — Bacteriology in Relation to Daily Living. 

Bacteria, their nature and life-history. Conditions affecting growth. 
Helpful bacteria, with special emphasis on bacteria which are of use to the 
liousekeeper. Bacteria harmful in household processes. Disease germs, 
with a l)rief discussion of the most common contagious diseases, and the 
means by which the intelligent housekeeper can prevent their spread. 
(Lectures, laboratory work and recitations.) 

3.— House Sanitation. 

Location of house, with discussion of soil and drainage of land. Build- 
ing materials. Construction of cellar. Plumbing. Water supply. Heat- 
ing, lighting, ventilation, furnishing, cleaning and disinfection. (Lectures, 
laboratory work and recitations.) 

4.— Chemistry of Food-Stuffs. 

Relation of food to health. Classes of food-stuffs ; definition, description, 
physical and chemical properties, decomposition products, occurrence in 
natural food materials. Effects on food-stuffs of heat, of acids, of alkalies. 
Typical foods. Composition, food value, money value, and principles of 
cooking of : — milk and milk products, eggs and meat, fish, cereals, breads, 
legumes, roots and tubers, fresh vegetables and fruits. (Lectures, laboratoiy 
work and recitations.) 

5.— Dietaries. 

Aim — to find that combination of food-stuffs which will produce the most 
efficient individual, and to indicate how this may be done with the least 
expenditure of money. In i)lanning a dietary there are to be considered: 
nutritive value, digestibility, palatability, complementary qualities and cost. 
The common foods are studied in various combinations as suited for 
children up to the age of fifteen. (Lectures and recitations.) 

6.— Hygiene of Childhood. 

These exercises will include -lectures, readiiig and reports upon the 
development of the normal child. Special attention will be given to sleej). 
diet, clothing, exercise, and play. The course will be illustrated by diagrams, 
photographs and demonstrations of normal and abnormal conditions. (Six 
lectures.) 

7.— Home Nursing. 

Bed-making for bed patients. Change of sheet and night dress. Lifting 
and moving helpless patients Bandaging. Baths. (Five lectures, with 
demonstrations.) 



School of Housekeeping, Boston. Synopsis of Course. 315 



8.— Emergencies. 

Anatomy. Cause, symptoms and first treatment of hoemorrhagcs, burns 
and scalds, of sprains, dislocations and fractures, of unconscious conditions. 
(Five lectures, with demonstrations.) 

9.— Journal Club. 

A resume of the most recent publications in current literature relating to 
the Household. 

10. — Elementary Chemistry 

Chemical and physical change. Constitution of matter. Valence. Laws of 
chemical actions. Acids, bases and salts. Writing of reactions. Chemistry of 
combustion, of water, of the atmos]ihere. ]\Iethods of preparation and uses 
of the more common acids, bases and salts. Chemistry of the common 
elements and their compounds. (Sixteen lectures and recitations.) 

11. — Principles of Cooking. 

Practical individual work, including both large and small quantities of 
material. Food value, cost, preparation and cooking of souj), meats, eggs, 
fish, poultry, cereals, vegetables, batters and douglis, including breads, sauces, 
salad dressings, jellies, frozen mixtures, pastry, puddings, and beverages. 

12.— Practice Work in Cooking. 

Resident pupils will be required to do practice work in cooking and 
serving on Wednesday afternoons. 

Term II. 
1.— Home Economics. 

Purpose of the home. Its significance as a civilizing force. Its danger 
to-day. Ideals of living in relation to the home. Economics of living, of 
the house, of furniture and decoration, of purchase and of food, as con- 
trolled by standards of life. Women's res]>onsibility for these standards. 
The home mother. The house worker. (Lectures and recitations.) 

2.— Public Hygiene in Relation to the Housekeeper. 

Points of contact between the housekeeper and the public in sanitary 
matters. Responsibility of the housekeeper. Water supply, ice sujiply, 
milk supply. Gas and electricity. House drainage. The disposal of 
sewage in city and country. LaM^s regulating the ins})ection of meat, milk, 
other foods and drugs. Pavements, street cleaning and disposal of garbage. 
The relation of the housekeeper to public health in quarantine, isolation 
notification and disinfection. School hygiene. The sanitation of bake- 
shops. The abatement of noises and of smoke. Public playgrounds, baths, 
gymnasia, open spaces. The disposal of arbage, ashes and combustible 
waste. (Lectures and recitations.) 

3.— House Architecture. 

Designed to supplement a woman's practical knowledge of the ncedn of 
the housekeeper, with a few of the fundamental i)rinciples of domestic 
architecture, in order to secure more intelligent co-oi)eration between her- 
self and the architect. 1 reparation of site. Construction of foundation, 
cellar, walls, fioors, ceilings, roofs. House plans, with a discussion of what 
can he done for varying sums of money. Relation of plan to ideals of 
iiome life, and to work to be done in the house. (Eight lessons. Lectures, 
recitations, and field lessons.) ' 



310 U.S.A.—Appendii! G. 

4. — Art in the Home. 

Fundamental rules of Art. General principles of proportion, colour an 
construction. Treatment of walls, floors, ceiling. Selection and cost of 
furniture, floor coverings, hangings, pictures, chandeliers, lamps, and bric- 
a-brac. Present shop-standards ; house buyer's responsiljility for these 
standards. Artistic clothing. (Eight lessons. Lectures, recitations, and 
field lessons.) 

5.— (Jhemisty of Food Htuffs. 

Energy giving power of foods. Bodily energy. Methods of food 
analysis. Study of food values. Effect of storage, of drying, of preser- 
vatives. Results of wrong combinations. The science of nutrition. 
(Lectures and recitations.) 

G.— Dietaries. 

Review of principles governing dietary standards. The balanced ration. 
Combinations of food suited for workers, for old persons, for invalids. 
Economic dietaries. Practice in providing acceptable food for from fifteen 
to sixty cents per person per day. (Lectures, recitations, and practical 
•work.) 

v.— Estimates of Household Expenditure. 

To proportion incomes wisely; the real expense in heating, lighting, 
cleaning, laundry work; serving and preparing food, by various processes 
and with different materials must be known. No body of exact informa- 
tion on these lines exists. The aim of this course is to obtain such 
information and to give practice in the actual management of a family 
income and in the keeping of household accounts. (Recitations and 
practical work.) 

8.— Household Buying. 

Equi})ment required for a house. Qualities to be secured in buying 
equipment. Quality and money value of different grades in the market, 
with reference to the furnishing of —kitchen, laundry, dining-room, bed- 
room. Quality and cost of —cleaning sujqilies, furniture, carpets, rugs, 
curtains, etc. (Lectures, recitations, field and practice lessons.) 

9. — Marketing. 

Beef, anatomy and cuts, illustrated by charts and cutting up of fore and 
hind quarters of beef. IMutton, veal, pork, fish, poultry, game. Vegetables 
and their season. Buying of groceries, quantity and quality. Simple 
methods of detecting adulterations in foods. Canned goods. Practice in 
marketing and in cooking and comparing different cuts of meat, different 
grades of canned goods, etc. (Lectures, recitations, field and practice 
lessons.) 

10. — Journal Club. 
A continuation of course 9, first term. 

11.— Principles of Housework. 

Care of cellar, including vegetable cellar and storage room. Kitchen, 
involving care of refrigerator, pantries, sinks, and disposal of garbage. 
.Cleaning and care of china, glass, silver and brasses. Laundry work. 
Care of bedroom, j)lumbing, floors, etc. (Practice lessons.) 

12. — Principles of Cooking. 

Preparation of breakfasts, luncheons, dinners. Salads and sandwiches 
Chafing-dish recipes. (Practice lessons.) 

13. — Practice Work in Cooking. 

Resident pupils will be required to do practice work in cooking and 
servmg on Thursday afternoons. 



vs. A. —Appendix 11 

APPENDIX H. 

TEACHERS' COLLEGE, COLUiVrBTA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK. 
I.-OUTLINE OF COURSE IN HOUSEHOLD ART. 

Professor Woolman, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York 

Domestic Art Department. 

I. Art in General. 
(L) Place in civilization— 

1. Definition. 

2. As related to characteristics of a people. 

3. Value. 

Culture. 

Industry and economics. 
(EI.) Distinction between decorative art and pictorial art, (Suggested 
thoughts , purpose, relation of colour, material, etc.) 
(III.) Leading Principles. 

1. Fine Arts (painting, music, poetry, architecture, sculpture). 

2. Decorative Arts. 

3. Art in everyday relations. 

- (1) Gaining good taste and applying it 
(2) How^ to present the subject in schools. 
(TV.) Historic Ornament. 

1. Important national variations and their distinctive 
features. 

(U Egyptian, Grecian, Roman, Byzantine, Romanesque, 
Gothic, Renaissance and Modern, with comparative 
study of the architecture, ornament, dress, and furniture 
of each era. 

II. Woman's Influence. 

(I.) Health. 

1. Mental and physical. 

2. Keeping in health— Exercise, food, baths, disposition, fresh 

air, care of person, complexion, hair, etc., posture, standing, 
w^alking, sitting. 

3. Injurious habits. 

4. Effect on classes. 
(I r.) Voice and manner. 

(III.) Study of children. 

1. General condition, health, eyes, fatigue, posture, etc., 

2. Diseases, understanding indications, care needed after dis- 
ease. 

(IV.) Dress. 

1. Purpose. 

2. Hygienic. 

(1) Warmth — Next body, in doors, out of doors, evening 
different seasons. 

(2) Weight. 

(3) Pressure. 
3 Artistic. 

(1) Applying laws of art to dress— use, simplicity, truth 
individuality, harmony, relation of colour, etc. 
4. Cost and purchase. 

(1) Choice of materials — Manufacture, properties of people 
value and durability. Ethics of shopping, economic 
standpoint, relation of consumer to manufacturer, etc. 

(2) Dress for varied purposes. 

(3) Care. 

(V.) Home. 

1. Laws of art applied to architecture, furnishing and decora- 
tion ; economics ; ethics ; individuality, health, etc. 
YI.) Business Life. 



318 



U.S.A. — Appendix 



III. Colour. 

(I.) Physics, physiology, psychology. 
(II.) Terms in use. 

(III.) Investigation of colour— Coloured paper and materials, standards, 
seconchxry, broken, scales, etc., contrast of colour, harmony of 
colour. 

(IV.) Api)lication to decoration, furnishing and dress. 



II.-OUTLINE OF COUUSE IN HOUSEHOLD CHEMISTRY. 
Domestic Scienck Department. 
(To be i)roceded by a year's work in General Chemistry.) 
Pjiofessou Vulte. 

Carbon and Combustion. 

Water. — Physical properties of. 
Distillation of. 
Qualitative examination of. 
Tests for Ammonia in. 
Tests for Nitrites. 
Tests for Chlorine. 

Estimation of hardness (Temporary). 

(Permanent). 
The Atmosphere.— Presence of CO2 and H2S. 

Moisture. 

Dust and solid matter. 
Ferments. 

Starch and sugar. Examination of Dextrine. 

Glucose. 

Fehling's Solution Test. 
Action of Unorganised Ferments. 
Polariscope or Saccharimeter Test. 
Cellulose. Examination of various forms. 
Fats. l^utler ] 

Olive or cotton seed oil [Si)ecific Tests. 
Tallow J 
Proteids. Egg Albumen, examination of — 

Millon's Test. 
Precipitation Test. 
Heller's Test. 
Biuret Test. 

Meta phosphoric Acid Test, etc. 
Globulins, Nucleo Albumens. Alkali and acid albuminates. 

Tests for Albumose and Peptone. 
Gelatine. Examination of — 
Tests on milk. 

Bread and Hour, examination of 

Meat (nuiscle) examination of 

Glycogen, examination of 
Review work on the proteids. 
Digestive fluids and their action (in detail). 
Action of ferments and their prevention (in detail). 
Antiseptics (in detail). 

Action of alkalis and vegetable acids on metals or their oxides. 
Baking powders. Three general types. 
Tests on bread, tea, cotlee, etc. 



U.S.A. — Appendix J. 



319 



APrENDTX J. 
CHAUTAUQUA SCHOOL OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

General Purpose. 

Tlie School of Domestic Science is designed primarily for teachers who 
wish to compare their own methods with those of others, or who desire 
to supplement their training in this department ; but the work will also 
be of especial value to housekeepers, whetlier engaged in the administration 
of large institutions or in the direction of their own homes. 

The Department op Cookery. — This department offers the following 
lines of work : (a) Courses for teachers of Domestic Science ; (b) a series 
of thirty demonstration lectures on practical subjects, extending through 
six weeks ; (c) practice classes for young housekeepers ; {d) such i)ri\ate 
lessons as may be desired. The economic selection of materials, the wise 
choice of implements for each process, and the application of the right 
temperature to secure the best results, are points which receive careful 
attention in both lectures and practice lessons. 

Normal Course in Domestic Science. — This embraces two years of 
work, and a certificate is given to those satisfactorily completing it. Young 
women without experience as teachers must present, for admission to 
this course, the equivalent of a High School diploma. The curriculum 
is as follows : — 

First Year. 

1. General Chemistry (Five hours a week).— Lectures and laboratory. 
The course will include a study of air, water, and their constituents, of 
acids, bases and salts, and of the various groups or elements with their 
more important compounds. 

2. Physics (Five hours a week). — The subjects discussed will be energy 
in all its forms, the air, physical properties of water, wells, springs, foun- 
tains, etc., with a full explanation of the instruments used in in\estigating 
problems in these subjects. Heat will be thoroughly discussed, since it 
occupies so important a place in these sciences, and the ai)i)lication of 
electricity in the arts will be fully explained and illustrated. Syllabus 
text (Gage's recommended). 

3. Physiology (Three hours a week). — Chemical elements of human 
body. Cell life, ilhistrated by ama^ba}, etc. Study of tissues. The 
anatomy, physiology and hygiene of the internal organs. Circulation 
of the blood, respiration, animal heat, general study of digestion. 

4. Botany of Food Plants (Five hours a week). — Lectures and labor- 
atory work with the compound microscope ; the illustrati\e material, 
food ])lants ; as lettuce for leaves, potatoes for store rooms, and w heat 
for seeds. Emphasis will also be put on starch and vegetable i)r(»teids 
yeasts and moulds. 

5. Sanitation (Five hours a week).— Principles of sanitation applied 
to the house — location, surroundings, plan, construction, furnishing, and 
care. Application of chemistry, physics, physiology, bacteriology, and 
kindred sciences, to water supply, drainage, and plumbing, disposal of wastes; 
lighting, heating, and ventilation. Care of woodwork, metallic and mineral 
surfaces and coloured fabrics. Laundry i)rocesses. Household i)ests. 
Problems of public hygiene discussed in relation to house sanitation. 

6. Cookery (Five hours a week). — Practice work. Food princi])les 
and the fundamental laws of cookery. Animal foods, vegetables, cereals, 
methods of making doughs light, menus for daily meals, and cooking 
for invalids will be discussed. 



320 



U.S.A. — Appendix J. 



Second Year. 

7. ArPLTED CuEMiSTRY (Fivc hours a week).— Laboratory work and 
lectures. Qualitative tests of food materials. Study of proteids, carbohy- 
drates, fats, etc. Experiments with soda and baking powder. Detection 
of food adulterants and preservatives. Testing of various household 
supplies. 

S. Experimental Cookery (Five hours a week). — Existing methodj 
of preparing food judged by scientific standards. Arrangement of lessons, 
the details of recipes and the order of work are planned in a way to help 
teachers. 

9. Physiology (Two hours a week). — Animal functions, muscular 
physiology, digestion, with the study of the body fluids, and the nervous 
system. During the two years' course demonstrations with manikins 
and fresh specimens will be furnished. The course also deals especially 
and most practically with the digestion and nutritive value of food stuff's. 

10. Bacteriology (Five hours a week). — Lectures and laboratory 
work. Description and life history of bacteria and other micro-organisms. 
Methods of culture. Bacteria in dust, water, milk, etc. 

11. Pedagogy (Five hours a week). — Principles of pedagogy as applied 
to the teaching of Domestic Science. Schools of Cookery and Domestic 
Economy. Planning of courses. 

12. Administration of Households, Small and Large (Five hours 
a week).— Household expenditure. Food as an economic factor. Diet 
and dietaries. Especially planned for matrons of schools and public insti- 
tutions. Methods of keeping accounts. The Ixist implements for house- 
keeping and the general equipment. The Iielpers, their training and 
advancement and the adjustment of duties, hours and wages. Economic 
buying and storing of food. The planning of menus, with due regard 
to a balanced ration ; and the simplest way of serving meals. 

13. * —Classes in sewing will be organized during the second term. 

Fees. 

£ s. d. 

Full normal course (first year) . - - - 40.00 about 8 

Full normal course (second year) - - - - 45.00 „ 9 

Cookery (six weeks) - - - - - - 3 5.00 ,,3 

Cookery (three weeks) 9.00 „ 1 15 

Single courses (six weeks) 12.00 „ 2 10 

Half courses (three weeks) - _ - - 7.00 „ 1 10 

Cookery (Demonstration only) : — 

Six weeks 5.00 ,,100 

Per week 1.00 „ 4 

Single lectures 35 „ 10 



* Special fees will he charged for the classes in se'vhig. 



Appendix K. 



321 



APPENDIX K.. 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE. 
Bureau of Nature-Study and Farmers' Reading-Course. 

' How to Organize a Farmers' Wives' Reading-Club. 

At the present time there are three Correspondence courses 
conducted by the Farmers^ Reading-course and Nature-study 
Bureau. These are (a) the Farmers' Reading-course, (6) the 
Farmers' Wives' Reading-course, and (c) the Home Nature-study 
course. These are especially adapted for study in clubs, a ad this 
circular suggests how women's clubs may be organized and con- 
ducted. 

A club may consist of five or more members. An ideal number 
is twelve. Anyone interested in home work, directly or indirectly, 
is eligible to membership. 

How to organize : — Some one must take the lead. Let this 
person (you) write us for information regarding the Reading- 
courses, distribute the circulars, and talk it over personally with 
as many women as possible. When interest has ripened, call a 
meeting at your own home, or some other convenient place, to 
consider organization. Then select a president and a secretary. 
She may be asked by the club to forward the answered quizzes in 
one consignment to this office. She should supply this office 
promptly with a list of the members and their addresses. 

Select a suitable night for meeting. Each lesson will furnish 
subject matter for two meetings. One lesson is furnished each 
month, so that meetings may be held fortnightly. An excellent 
way is to meet at the house of the members of the club. Early in 
the season arrange a schedule giving places of meeting for some 
time ahead. Of course if a room in the grange, town hall, or school 
liouse is available and convenient, this may prove to be the most 
desirable arrangement. The club may apply for a charter from 
this Bureau, by adopting a name and reporting it to us with the 
first consignment of answered quizzes. 

The sessions should not last over an hour and a half ; the dis- 
cussion should be brisk, and it is better to adjourn early when 
interest is warm, than to wait till it cools and discussion lags. The 
meeting should begin promptly at 8 p.m., better still at 7.30. 

When the meaning is not clear, or when new ideas occur to you, 
write us by all means. Let us lalx)ur together for the success of 
your club. 

6490. X 



322 



U.S.A. — Appendix L. 



APPENDIX L. 



UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, ALBANY, N.Y. 

HOME EDUCATION DEPARTMENT. 

HOME ECONOMICS SYLLABUS. 

Syllabus prepared by the Lake Placid Conference Committee on Home 

Economics. 

This syllabus, giving a suggestive outline of the present state of the subject ^ 
is expanded from a course given in 1900 by Mrs. Ellen H. Richards, B.S., 
M.A., Instructor in Sanitary Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, and Mrs. Alice Pcloubet Norton, M.A., Home Economics Depart- 
ment, Chicago Institute. Only a few of the best books are referred to, and 
enough topics for papers given to provide for local conditions and needs. 

Lecture 1. 

Home and Family Life : Ideals and Standards. 

To keep the home a centre of moral and intellectual progress in the face 
of the economic tendencies encroaching on its position the problem of the 
clay. 

Family life is unselfish devotion inspired by self-sacrificing love. Co- 
operation for a common aim creates a spirit of n "tual helpfulness. 

The significance of the family to the indiviJaals composing it and to 
the nation. The pliysical, moral, and intellectual de^■elopment of its 
members. 

Its historical development : growth from reproductive and social in- 
stitution in which Avife and child were alike valued for their powers of 
production, to a spiritual relationship in which each gives according to 
his power and receives according to his need. Basis of choice in primitive 
marriage, economic utility and physiological attraction ; modern basis, 
personal relationship. 

The growing individualism of all the members of the family ; the union 
of all in the service of each. 

Woman's past progress conditioned on the overcoming of men's passions 
and her education ; her future progress dependent on the growth of her 
self-respect and her work ; the result of knowledge. 

Farther progress conditioned on evolution, not revolution ; the family 
life, the development of ages, is to be spiritualised, not materialised. 

The significance of a higher or more complicated adaptation is not re- 
duced to the level of a lower or simpler one by showing that it has been 
evolved from the latter. — Griggs. 

The future of the race is bound up in the development of home ideals. 
Standards of life come before standards of living, " There is little moral 
consequence in the association of parents and children unless there are 
ideas to communicate." — Boss, Journal of Sociology, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1900. 

Home life distinguished from commimity life ; the home educational 
rather than economic. Character building above price. 

References. 
American Journal of Sociology, v. 1-6. 
Bosanquet. — Standard of Life. 
Demolins. — Anglo-Saxon Superiority. 
Dewey. — School and Society. 
Earle. — Home Life in Colonial Days. 
Griggs. — The New Humanism. 
Patten. — The Development of English Thought," 
Richards. — Cost of Living, ch. 1-2. 



University of the State of New Yorh, Home Economics Sytlahus. 323 



Salmon. — Domestic Service. 

Small and Vincent. — Introduction to the Study of Society. 

Stetson. — Women and Economics. 

Wright. — Industrial Evolution of the United States. 

^ Topics for Papers. 

1. How can the ideals of family life be maintained under present economic 

and social conditions? 

2. Is it necessary to prepare and eat food and to make and launder clothing 

in the house in order to retain the essentials of the home ? 

3. The family as a unit of society. 

4. The "living" wage; definition; rises according to standards of living. 

Show that comforts increase and luxuries decrease efficiency. 

5. The woman in bondage to her neighbour's opinion ; how may she be 

set free 1 

6. The inveterate shopper ; how can her ideals be elevated ? 

Lecture 2. 

The House Beautiful : Situation and Architecture. 

Shelter the protection of home life. Maintains unity and privacy with 
sense of ownership. 

The house beautiful : Location, plan, grounds. Soil must be clean, 
dry, porous. Influence of ground water and ground air. Sunshine and 
pure air essential ; scientific reasons for need of sunlight. 

Plan of house according to needs of family ; both privacy and community 
of interests to be provided for ; individual rights respected. Labour 
saving in stairs, in proximity of certain rooms ; care in placing doors and 
windows for various reasons. Sun plan the most important requisite.- 
" Sweetness and light '- interpreted by the sanitarian means sunshine 
and pure air. 

The detached house needs its setting of grass or shrubs, or both, and 
flowers, if there is one to care for them ; sickly, straggling flower-beds are 
as distasteful as uncared-for children. Treatment of small grounds may 
relieve ugly architecture. 

References. 

Brown. — Healthy Foundations for Houses. 
Clark. — Building Superintendence. 

Gardner. — The House that Jill Built. - 
Grimshaw. — Hints on House Building. 
Osborne. — Notes on the Art of House Planning. 
Parsons. — How to Plan the Home Grounds. 
Richards and Talbot. — Home Sanitation. Ch. 2. 

Topics for Papers. 

1. House architecture ; how to secure beautiful, comfortable homes. 

2. The apartment house ; its advantages and disadvantages. 

3. The lawn ; its treatment and care. ' 

4. How to improve that eyesore, the small back yard. 

Lecture 3. 

The House Beautiful ; Sanitation. 

iEsthetic and sanitary requirements not opposed; often identical. The 
poorly-built, ill-equipped house, neither healthful nor beautiful. 

Ventilation and heating in close connection. Pure air not free in cold 
climates. Importance to health ; methoda of providing ; tests. 

Plumbing and drainage : General requirements are simplicity, accessi- 
bility ventilation of system, soundness of material, tightness of joints, 
thorough flushing. 



6490. 



324 



U.S.A. — Appendix L. 



References. 

Barre. — La Maison Salubre. 

Billings. — Ventilation and Heating. 

Corjield. — Dwelling Houses. 

Currier.— Outlines of Practical Hygiene. 

Egbert. — Manual of Hygiene and Sanitation. 

Gerhard. — House Drainage and Sanitary Plumbing. 

Plunkett. — Womew, Plumbers and Doctors. 

Putnam. — Lectures on Principles of House Drainage. 

Richard and Talbot. — Home Sanitation. Ch. 3-6, 9. 

Tracy. — Handbook of Sanitary Information. 

Waring. — How to Drain a House. 

Principles and Practice of House Drainage. 

Sanitary Condition of City and Country Dwelling Houses, 

Sanitary Drainage of Houses and Toivns. 

Topics for Papers. 

1. The hoiTse plan with special reference to sanitary requirements. 

2. An ideal system of ventilation for a modern house. 

3. How to adapt modern principles to an old house. 

4. Advantages and dangers of modern plumbing. 

Lecture 4. 

The House Beautiful: Furnishinq. 

Adaptation to purpose and environment. Fitness as to form, colour, 
cleanliness, and durability. Truth a fundamental element of beauty. 

Simplicity tends towards hcalthfulness and beauty. Overcrowding 
spoils effect of really good things. Furnishings should minister to comfort 
or pleasure ; should not make a slave of mistress or maid. 

Knowledge of true values necessary. 

References. 

Beauty in the Home. — ^.Oth Century Club Lea /lets. 
Church. — How to Furnish a Home. 
Cook. — The House Beautiful. 
Deiving. — Beauty in the Household. 
Gardner. — Homes and All About Them. 
Garrett. — Suggestions for House Decoration. 
Loftie. — A Plea for Art in the House. 
Lyon. — Colonial Furniture of New England. 
Ormsbee. — The House Comfortable. 
Salisbury.— Principles of Domestic Taste. \ ' 
Watson. — Art of tfie House. 
Wharton and Codman. ^Decoration of Houses. 
Wheeler. — Household Art. 

Topics for Papers. 

1. Hall and reception room : How to express hospitality without sacri- 

ficing family privacy and reserve. 

2. The living room : Its furniture, decoration, schemes of colour. 

3. The nursery : What it can do for the character of the child. 

4. The dmmg room : Influence of surroundings on digestion ; special 

reference to cleanliness. 

5. The sleeping room : Not a sitting room ; appropriate furnishmg. 



University of the State of New York, Home Economics Syllabus. 325 



Lecture 5. 

The House Beautiful : Cleanin<3 and Cark. 

Cleanliness is next to godliness. 

Dust, Indoors and Out : 

Composed of inorganic and dead matter,, and living organisms ; danger 
chiefly from the latter. Of these " dust plants '- the most im- 
portant are bacteria. 

Bacteria : 

1. Description and life history : 

Simple one-celled plants ; smallest of living things and perhaps 
most numerous. Classified according to shape as cocci, 
bacilli, spirilla. Reproduction by cell division. 

2. Methods of culture. " Dust plant -- gardens : 

Bacteria too small to be thoroughly studied even under the 
microscope till methods of cultivating them were devised. 
Beef tea, specially prepared and stiffened with gelatin or 
agar-agar, serves as food and also as a prison. Bacteria 
planted in this grow and form " colonies " large enough to 
be seen and studied. A small particle of dust introduced 
into this medium may produce thousands of these colonies. 

Dust and Disease : 

1. Disease germs : 

Most bacteria harmless or even useful, but some foes to human 
existence. Some of these disease germs, notably those of 
tuberculosis, often conveyed in dust. 

2. Protection of body against disease : 

Ciliated cells of air passages ; dust filters in lungs ; phagocytes 
or wandering cells of body. 

Household Applications : 

1. Cleanliness of food : 

Milk supply. Fruit and candy exposed on street for sale. 

2. Care of house : 

(a) House should be finished and furnished so as to provide 
as few dust traps as possible. Smooth finish, rounded 
corners, simple ornaments desirable. Carpets v. bare floors. 

{b) Removal of dust. Sweeping and dusting should remove 
and destroy dust, not merely stir it up. Results of experi- 
ments with different methods. 

Municipal Housekeeping : 

Clean streets and sidewalks ; proper disposal of refuse ; influence of 
clean houses and schoolhouses ; moral effect of good housekeeping. 

References. 

Abbott. — Vrinci'ples of Bacteriology. 
Conn. — Story of Germ Life. 
Frankland. — Our Secret Friends and Foes. 
Hiippe. — Principles of Bacteriology. 
Pnidden. — Dust and its Dangers. 

Story of the Bacteria. 

Tyndall.— Essays on Floating Matter of the Air. 

^ Topics for Papers. 

1. Dust as a means for carrying disease. 

2. Plan for furnishing a house with special reference to avoidance of dust. 

3. Housekeeping v. home making. Is the care necessary for exqifisite 

clean lines.-^ conducive to the happiest home ? 

4. Some devices in house building which would simplify housekeeping. 



326 



U.S.A. — Appendix L. 



Lectuee 6. 

' " Clothing. 

Purposes : (1) Protection of body from extremes of heat and cold ; 
saving of food by preventing loss of heat essential in sedentary pursuits 
where digestion fails to produce sufficient heat ; more clothing less food ; 
(2) adornment ; (3) satisfaction of modesty. 

Hygienic clothing : Even layer of air inclosed ; non-conductor ; per 
cent, of air space in wool, silk, linen ; kind of weave ; per cent, of moisture 
contained by each. Looseness of clothing permits evaporation and better 
circulation. 

Style of dress dependent on climate and occupation ; wide sleeves and 
loose trousers for warm countries, close-fitting for cold. Work calls for 
looser dress than leisure ; ideal housework dress for women ; business 
dress. 

jEsthetic qualities ; Becomingness ; artistic outlines ; softening of crude 
forms ; toning down of colour. Fashion cruel to all but a certain type. 
Dress may enhance beauty and render agreeable otherwise ugly forms 
and features. 

Nothing more individual than dress ; part of oneself ; indicative of 
character. Historical development ; ideals expressed in costume. 

Textiles : Study of as to fibre, weaving, colouring, dyeing, washing, 
cleansing, durability. 

The function of clothing from the hygienic standpoint is to regulate 
heat. In its lowest terms clothing is a net to catch air, which Is the best 
known non-conductor of heat. Even in a temperature greater than that 
of the body the air space prevents the penetration of heat. Clothing 
should be loose in summer and close-fitting in winter. The skin needs to 
breathe, as it were, hence air and moisture should have free but slow passage 
through all clothing. The products of excretion should not be retained. 
Rational clothing has the greatest useful effect with the least material ; it 
does not interfere with free movement of any part, acts as a dietetic measure, 
lessening the quantity of food required and promoting evaporation from 
the skin. 

Loosely woven wool is rich in air (87 per cent, air, 13 per cent, solid 
substance), is elastic and soft, has little contact with the skin so that in 
addition to the contained air there is an isolating layer between the garment 
and the skin. It is also characteristic of wool not to be wet by moisture 
but to allow it to pass through and evaporate. Cotton over wool becomes 
saturated, and soon gives the odour of decay. 

Fine, smooth linen is dense, poor in air (42 per cent, air, 58 per cent, 
solid substance ; when starclied, no air), has close contact with the skin 
and so feels cooler, conducts heat away more rapidly, has little or no air 
between it and the skin, becomes saturated with moisture and causes the 
concentration of the skin waste in the smallest space near the skin. It 
takes thirty times as long for a given quantity of air to pass through Unen 
as through wool tricot, hence little circulation. That cotton and linen 
bear washing by unskilled labour is the greatest argument for their use. 
Some modes of weaving may inclose as much air in a cotton or linen mesh 
as in wool, but the fibres lack elasticity, and tend to become matted and 
saturated with moisture. Silk lies between wool and linen. 

For protection in different temperatures it has been estimated that : 
l"7mm. suffices for liigh summer (if of loosely woven wool) : 
3' 3mm. for ordinary summer weather ; 
5"9mm. for spring and fall ; 
12' 6mm. for winter ; 
26mm. for very cold days. 

In a strong, cold wind an impervious layer-like skin of a fur garment 
prevents too rapid change of air. 

To foot gear the same principles apply : Skin breathing i3 very impor-. 



University of the State of New YorJc. Home Economics Syllabus. 327 



taut, as also circulation of air, free evaporation, and protection from too 
rapid loss of heat. Air from next the skin in stocking feet gave only one 
tenth the amount of carbon-dioxid found when a narrow close-fitting 
boot was worn. Stockings of cotton conduct heat one-third faster than 
those of wool, the thinner, less elastic layer preventing circulation of air 
and holding moisture. Leather, if loose and soft, approaches wool in the 
property of not conducting heat. As it is more dense and " filled " with 
water or enamel it becomes like linen, a good conductor. Loss of heat by 
contact with cold surface depends on intimacy and area of contact. 

Habit has much to do with clothing certain portions of the body, head, 
hands, etc. The skin becomes non-breathing to a certain extent, but 
knees and wrists, where the arteries approach the surface, should be pro- 
tected from sudden changes. 

Costume — outer dress — may be quite independent of clothing, but it 
should not interfere by tightness, weight, or impervious material with 
the true office of clothing. 

Beauty without health is incomplete. Health can never be perfect for 
you so long as your eye is troubled with ugliness. . . To dress well you 
must possess the gift of colour and be a master of form. But this is not 
enough ; with these accomplishments you might clothe a dunmiy or a 
corpse satisfactorily, but not a living human being ; for there comes into 
the problem, with this word living, the element of motion. I do not mean 
the mere action of moving the limbs, but the action of breathing, of growth 
and of decay, and it is here that the laws of hygiene must be faced. We 
may obey them or disobey, but the measure of our obedience or disobedience 
will be the measure of our health or no health. — Godwin. 

The pursuit of things fashionable, for the sole reason that they are 
fashionable, is, I think, not an exalted occupation, and is indeed, I think, 
a somewhat sheep-like attribute. — Treves. 

References. 

Archiv f iir Hygiene. 

Ballin.— Science of Dress in Theory and Practice. 
Blanc. — Art in Ornament and Dress. \ 
Bowman.— The Structure of the ^Yool Fibre. 
Brooks.— Cotton. 

Ecob.—The Well Dressed Woman. 

Godwin. — Dress and its Relation to Health and Climate. 
Haiveis. — Art of Dress. 

Robida.— ' Yester-year " .* Ten Centuries of Toilet. 

Steele and Adams.— Beauty of Form and Grace of Vestiirt. 

Treves.— The Dress of the Period in its Relation to Health. 

Wilkinson. — Story of the Cotton^ Plant. 

Williams.— Philosophy of Clothing. 

Wykoff.—The Silk Goods of America. 

U.S. Experiment Stations. Cotton Plant {Bulletin 33). 

f Topics for Papers. 

1. The ideal working dress. 

2. Street costume. 

3. Children's clothing. 

4. Summer clothing. 

5. Economic clothing. 

6. Economic costume. 

7. The choice of ^brics. 

8. A study of textiles. 

9. A history of " dress goods.'' 
10. The development of costume. 



328 



U.S.A. — Appendix L. 



Lecture 7. 

Food in Relation to Health. 

The balanced ration. Object of the farmer to secure the highest effi- 
ciency of muscle or product. He has found that knowledge of the principle 
of feeding pays ; that while his animals may live on what they can pick 
up or what is by chance given them, they attain their best development 
only when he understands and supplies their needs. 

Balanced ration for the human race. In man there is not only the 
animal or muscular efficiency to consider, but the intellectual output and 
the enjoyment of the higher nature ; hence additional need of knowledge 
and care. 

Food the source of human energy. Metabolism in the body. Classes, 
costs, quantities ; variation for different ages, seasons, kinds of work. 

Food material often spoiled in cooking. Food material often wasted in 
the body as well as in the kitchen. 

Food a source of pleasure, but this Is not its only or chief use. The art 
of cooking the right combination of aesthetic and nutritive qualities. 

References. 

Atwater.— Methods and Results of Investigations on the Chemistry and 
Econo7ny of Food. 

a7id Bryant. — Dietary Studies in Chicago. 

and Woods. — Chemical Composition of American Food 

Materials 

Bevier. — Nutrition Investigations in Pittsburg. 
Goss. — Nutrition Investigations in New Mexico, 
Hart. — Diet in Sickness and in Health. 
Hogan. — How to feed Children. 
Knight. — Food and its Functions. 
Richards, ed. — Rumford Kitchen Leaflets. 

and Woodman. — Air, Water, and Food. Ch. P. 9. 

Thompson. — Food and Feeding. 

Townsend. — Relation of Foods to Health. 

Wait. — Nutrition Investigations at University of Tennessee. 

Yeo. — Food in Health and Disease. 

Topics pgr Papers. 

1. How to feed the baby. 

'2. How to feed the school girl. 

3. How to feed the business man. 

4. How to feed the farmer. 

5. How to feed the grandmother. 

6. The summer dietary ; how it should differ from that of winter. 

7. Why should I know anything about food ? 

8. How to secure good food habits in children. 

9. How to preserve the right attitude of mind toward food. 
10. A dietary : What it is and how it is made. 

Lecture 8. 
Science and Art of Cookery. 

Introduction : 

1. Cooking defined : 

Socrates 's estimate of the art. Ruskin's interpretation. 
Scientific definition : Application of heat to food materials, 

2. Object of cooking : 

To make food safer, more digestible, palatable. The last for- 
merly most important. Modern methods emphasise th^ 
first two. 



University of the State of New York. Home Economics Syllabus. 329 



Classification of Foods : 
Goodfellow's chart : 

( 1. Nitrogenous, 
r 1. Water. (a) Proteids. 

Inorganic \ O ^ ' i Gelatinoids. 

I 2. Salts. ^rgamcl 2. Non-nitrogenous. 

(a) Fats and oils. 
{h) Carbohydrates. 

Effect of Cooking on Different Food Principles : 

1. Water : Cooked chiefly as a medium for conveying heat ; some 

times to render it safe. 

2. Salts or mineral matter : Unchanged by heat, but may be dissolved 

out of food by water and lost. Effect of hard and soft water on 
food. 

3. Proteids : As a rule changed from soluble to insoluble and less 

digestible forms. 

4. Fats : Decomposed by high temperature and made less digestible. 

5. Starch : Digestibility increased by cooking. Changed partially 

to soluble starch and often to dextrine and sugar. 

Two Typical Foods : 

1. Meat : 

Contains albumen and allied proteids, extractives, gelatin, fat. 
Effect of different degrees of heat on each must be con- 
sidered to find right cooking temperature for the whole. 
Different methods of applying heat : Boiling, baking, 
soup-making, etc. 

2. Bread : 

Two classes of changes : By fermentation, by heat. 

^a) Fermentation : Effect of yeast on gluten, the proteid of 

flour, not well understood. Starch changed into sugar ; 

sugar broken up into alcohol and carbon dioxide. 
[h) Heat : Gluten changed ; part of the starch changed into 

dextrine, and some sugar into caramel ; carbon dioxide 

and alcohol driven off and the ferments killed. 

Cooking for Safety or Preservation of Food : 

Dangers of uncooked food. Principle of canning and presennng. 
High temperature or long continued heat. 

References. 

Ahel. — Practical, Sanitary, and Economic Cooking. 
Child. — Delicate Feasting. 

Corson. — Practical American Cookery and Household Management, 

De Sails. — Art of Cookery. 

Dodds. — Health in the Household. 

Good fellow. — Dietetic Value of Bread. 

J ago. — Textbook of the Science and Art of Breadmaking. 

Richards and Elliott. — Chemistry of Cooking and Cleaning, 

Thudichum. — Spirit of Cookery. 

Williams. — Chemistry of Cooking. 

Topics for Papers. ] 

1. Yeast fermentation in relation to breadmaking. 

2. Effect on bread of different manipulations of the dough ; pulling, 

kneading, beating, etc. 

3. Cookery of vegetables. 

4. Canning industry and its methods. 

5. Cost of cooking : Relative economy of gas, coal, etc. 
- 6. Cookery of milk : Pasteurisation and sterilisation. 



330 



U.S.A. — Appendix L. 



Lectuee 9. 

Division of the Annual Income. 

Money is spent for existence, comfort, luxury, philanthropy. 

Aim should be that degree of comfort which enhances the capacity for 
work and enjoyment without weakening moral or physical characteristics. 

Present restraint for purpose of attaining a future good an attribute of 
the higher nature of man. 

References. 

Bosanquet. — Standard of Life. 
Damon. — Wealth of Households. 
Dawson. — Wealth of Households. 
Devinc. — Economic Function of Woman. 
Deivson. — The '20th Century Expense Book. 
Grant. — Art of Living. 

Herrick.— Liberal Living upon Narrow Means. 
J\'itsch. — Ten Dollars Eiiough. 
liichards.—Cost of Living. 
Smart. — Distribution of the Lncome. 

Stackjwle. — Handbook of LLousekeepirig for Small Incomes. 

Topics for Papers. 

1. What sections of your city offer houses or apartments for $25 a 

month suitable for the young family of a student or literary or 
scientific man 'I What improvements in housing up to $50 a 
month might be made 1 

2. How to clothe a family of five on $300, $400, $500 a year. 

3. A study of the markets of your city ; which are the best conducted ? 

Does it pay for the housewife to go to market herself ? 

4. Household accounts : How to make them interesting. How to buy 

for two. 

5. Make out a table of fruits, vegetables, and fish showing the season 

at which they are best in flavour and least expensive. Compare 
these prices with those that are highest. 

6. How may running expenses be regulated ? 

7. The little leaks in the household purse : How to stop them. 

8. What relation should wages bear to rent 1 

9. Does modern philanthropy take the place of the tithe for the church ? 
10. How far is it wise to sacrifice present comfort for the possible " rainy 

day " ? 

Lecture 10. 
Municipal Housekeeping. 

The City of Hygiea : How nearly it can be approached. ** Apphcd 
hygiene the condition sine qua non of the farther development of mankind." 

Clean soil : Requires removal, not burial, of all refuse ; cleanly collection 
and effectual disposal of garbage and street sweepings ; efficient subsoil 
drainage ; suitably paved streets, dustless and impervious, wide for circu- 
lation of air and admission of sunlight ; no dirty back alleys. 

Pure air : Depends largely on clean soil ; free from dust and noxious 
vapours ; parks and promenades well supplied with vegetation. A crowd 
in an enclosed space, palace or hovel, defiles the air. Churches, schools, 
railroad waiting rooms, lecture halls, parlours used for social functions, 
all demand special attention. 

Safe and abundant water supply : Intelligent use of appliances ; quick 
lemoval of used water ; complete sewerage system before the introduction 
of public supplies ; polluted soil means unsafe water. 

Safe buildings : Construction, plumbing, air space. City regulations ; . 
are they enforced 1 

Urban hygiene : Inspection of markets, factories, sweat shops ; density 
of population. Before all other social reforms stands that of healthy living, 



University of the State of New York. Home Ecoyiomics Syllabus, 33 



Befekences. 

American Public Health Association. — Annual Reports. 
Barre. — La Ville Salubre. i 
Burrage and Bailey. — School Sanitation and Decoration. 
Engineering Record (files). 
Municipal Affairs. — Vols. 1-3. 

Parkes. — Hygiene and Public Health. \ 
Poore. — Essays on Rural Hygiene. . i 

Richardson. — The City of Hygiea. ^ 

Health of Nations. 

Sykes. — Public Health Problems. 

Tracy. — Handbook of Sanitary Information. 

Waring. — Report 07i Final Disposition of the Wastes of Neiv York, 180G. 
■ Street Cleaning. 

Weber. — Groivth of^ Cities. Columbia University Studies in History, 
Economics, and Public Law. Vol. 11. 

Topics for Papers. 

1. Water supply of your city ; source, method of storage, distribution 

material of pipes, house pipes, certified quality of water. 

2. Sewerage system ; how far extended ; disposal of sewage ; location of 

cesspools still used. 

3. Ventilation of schoolhouses, churches, and public halls. 

4. Sanitary condition of schoolhouses. 

5. Afternoon teas and evening receptions ; how to make them endurable. 

6. City dust : how can it be prevented 1 

7. Cremation the sanitary ideal. 



List of Authorities Referred to. 

Volume and page numbers are separated by a colon; e.g., 10:141 means 

Vol. 10, p. 141. 

Abbott, A. C— Principles of Bacteriology. Ed. 5. 590 p. 0. Phil 
1899. Lea, $2.50. ' 

Abel, Mrs. M. H.— Practical, Sanitary, and Economic Cooking. 188 p. 
D. llochester, 1890. American Public Health Association, 40 
cents. 

American Journal of Sociology.— Vol. 1-date, 0. Chic, 1894-date. 
American Kitchen Magazine.— Vol. 1-date. il. O. Bost., 1895-daie. 
American Public Health Association.— Public Health, Reports aiui 

Papers, 1873-date. Vol. 1-date, il. O. Concord, 1875-date. $o. 

(Earlier volumes published in New York and Boston.) 
Archiv fur Hygiene.— Vol. 1-date, il. O. Miin. 187 1-date. 
Atkinson, Edward —Science of Nutrition. 254 p. sq. O Bost 1896 

Damrell, 1.25S. 

Atwater, W. O.— Foods : Nutritive Value aiia_Cost. 32 p. O. \Y;is}i., 
1894. (U.S.— Agriculture, Department of. Farmer's Bulletin ' 
No. 23.) 

Methods and Results of Investigations on the Chemistry 

and Economy of Food. 222 p. 0. Wash., 1895. (U.S.— Experinu iit 

Stations, Ofhce of. Bulletin. No. 21.) 
and Benedict, F. G. Report of Preliminary Investigations on the 

Metabolism of Kitrogen and Carbon in the Human Organisn) 

645 p. 0. Wash., 1897. (U.S.— Experiment Stations, Office of 

Bulletin. No. 44.) 
AND Bryant, A. P.— Dietary Studies in Chicago. 76 p O 

Wash., 1898. (U.S.— Experiment Stations, Office of Bulletin 

No. 55.) 

AND Woods, C. D.— Chemical Composition of American Food 

Material^. 45 p. O. Wash., 1896. (U.S.— Experiment Stations 
Office of Bulletin. No. 28.) 



332 



U.S.A. — Appendix L. 



Ballin, Mrs. A. S.— Science of Dress in Theory and Practice. 288 p., 

11. 0. Lond., 1886. Low, 6s. 
Barre, L. a. and Paul. — Manuel de Genie Sanitarie. 2 Vol., il. D. 

Par., 1897. Bailliere, 4 fr. each. (Vol. 1. La Ville Salubre. Vol.2. 

La Maiso'i Salubre.) 
Beauty in the Home.— Bost., 1898. (20th Century Club leaflets.) 
Bevier, Isabel. — Nutrition Investigations in Pittsburg, Pa. 48 p. 0. 

Wash., 1898. (U.S.— Experiment Stations, Office of. Bulletin. 

No. 52.) 

Billings, J. S. — Ventilation and Heating. 500 p. 0. N. Y., 1893. 

Engineering Record, $6. 
Blanc, Charles. — Art in Ornament and Dress. 267 p. 0. Lond., 1881. 

Warne. 

BosANQUET, Mrs. Bernard.— Standard of Life. 219 p. D. N. Y., 1898. 
Macmillan, $1.50. 

Bowman, F. H.— The Structure of the Wool Fibre. 366 p., il. 0. Phil., 
1885. Baird, $5. 

Brooks, C. P.— Cotton. 362 p., il. 0. N. Y., 1898. Spon, S3. 

Brown, Glenn.— Healthy Foundations for Houses. P. 5-143, il. T. 
N. Y., 1885. Van Nostrand, 50 cents. (Science Series. No. 80.) 
(Reprinted from the Sanitary Engineer.) 

BuRRAGE, Severance and Bailey, H. T. — School Sanitation and Decora- 
tion. 191 p., il. D. Bost., 1900. Heath, $1.50. 

Campbell, Mrs. Helen (Stuart). — Household Economics. 286 p. O. 
N. Y., 1897. Putnam, $1.50. 

Child, Theodore.— Delicate Feasting. 214 p. D. N. Y., 1890. Harper, 
$1.25. 

Church, Mrs. E. R. (McIlvane).— How to Furnish a Home. 128 p. 

0. N. Y., 1881. Appleton, 60 cents. (Appleton's Home Books.) 
Clark, T. M.— Building Superintendence. Ed. 14. 336 p. 0. N. Y., 

1896. Macmillan, $3. 
Conn, H. W.— Story of Germ Life. 199 p. S. N. Y., 1897. Appleton, 

40 cents. (Library of Useful Stories.) 
Cook, C. C— The House Beautiful. New cd. 336 p., il. 0. N. Y., 

1895. Scribner, $2.50. (Originally published 1878, $7.50 ; new 

ed. 1881, $4 ; new cheaper ed, 1895, $2.50.) 
CoRFiELD, W. IL— Dwelling Houses : Their Sanitary Construction and 

Arrangements. 156 p. S. N. Y., 1880. Van Nostrand, 50 cents. 

(Science Series.) 

Corson, Juliet.— Practical American Cookery and Household Manage- 
ment. 591 p., il. D. N. Y., 1887. Dodd, $1.50. 

Currier, C. G.— Outlines of Practical Hygiene. Ed. 3. 482 p. O. 
N. Y., 1898. Treat, $2. 

Damon, J. T.— Wealth of Households. N. Y., 1886. Macmillan, $1.25. 

Dawson, J. T. — Wealth of Households : Political Economy of Daily 
Life. 366 p. O. Lond., 1886. Frowde, 5s. 

Demolins, Edmund.— Anglo-Saxon Superiority. 427 p. 0. N. Y., 1896. 
Scribner, $1. 

De Salis, Mrs. H. A. — Art of Cookery, Past and Present ; with anec- 
dotes of noted cooks and gourmets. 198 p. 0. Lond., 1898. Hutchin- 
son, 2s. 

Devine, E. T. — Economic Function of Woman. Ed. 2, p. 45-60. O. 

Phil., 1894. American Academy of Political and Social Science, 

15 cents. (Publications. No. 133.) 
Dewing, Mrs. M. R. (Oakey).— Beauty in the Household. 183 p., 

il. S. N. Y., 1882. Harper, $1. 
Dewson, M. p.— Twentieth Century Expense Book. Bost., 1899. 

Women's Educational and Industrial Union. 
DoDDS, S. W. — Health in the Household, or Hygienic Cookery. Ed. 2. 
608 p, D. N. Y., 1899. Fowler, $2. ' 



University of the State of New York. Home Economics Syllabus. 333 



Earle, Mrs. Alice (Morse).— Customs and Fashions in old New England. 

387 p. D. N. Y., 1893. Scribner, $1.25. 
Home Life in Colonial Days. 470 p. D. N. Y., 1899. Mac- 

millan, $2.50. 

EcOB, Mrs. Helen (Gilbert).— The Well Dressed Woman. 253 p., il. 
D. N. Y., 1892. Fowler, $1. ^ 

Egbert, Seneca. — Manual of Hygiene and Sanitation. 368 p., il. 0. 
Phil., 1899. Lea, $2.25. 

Engineering Record, Building Record, and Sanitary Engineer. — 
Vol. 16-date, il. F. N. Y., 1887-date. Being Vol. 16-date of Sani- 
tary Engineer. 

Frankland, p. F.— Our Secret Friends and Foes. Ed. 3. 238 p. S. 

Lond., 1897. Young, 90 cents. (Romance of Science Series.) 
Gardner, E. C. — Homes and all About Them. 710 p., il, D. Bost., 

1885. Osgood, $2.50. 
The House that Jill Built. 268 p. D. Springfield, Mass., 1896. 

Adams, $1. 

Garrett, Rhoda and Agnes. — Suggestions for House Decoration, in 
Painting, Woodwork, and Furniture, il. D. Phil, 1877. Porter, 
$1. 

Gerhard, W. P. — House Drainage and Sanitary Plumbing. Ed. 7. 

231 p. S. N. Y., 1898. Van Nostrand, 50 cents. (Science Series.) 
Godwin, E. W. — Dress, and its Relation to Health and Climate. 80 p., 

il. 0. Lond., 1884. Clowes. (International Health Exhibition. 

Lond., 1884. Health Exhibition Literature. 1884. Vol. 10.) 
Goodfellow, John. — Dietetic Value of Bread. 328 p. D. Lond., 1892. 

Macmillan, $1.50. 

Goss, Arthur. — Nutrition Investigations in New Mexico. 20 p. O. 
Wash., 1898. (U.S.— Experiment Stations, Office of Bulletin. 
No. 54.) 

Grant, Robert.— Art of Living. 353 p., il. D. N. Y., 1895. Scribner, 
$2.50. 

Griggs, E. H. — The New Humanism. 

Grimshaw, Robert. — Hints on House Building. Ed. 2 enl. 77 p. T. 

N. Y., 1889. Practical Publishing Company, 50 cents. 
Hart, Mrs. A. M.— Diet in Sickness and in Health. 219 p. 0. Phil, 

1897. Putnam, $1.50. 
Haweis, Mrs. M. E.— Art of Dress. II. 0. Lond., 1879. Chatto, 6s. 
Herrick, Mrs. Christine (Terhune),— Liberal Living upon Narrow 

Means. 275 p. D. Bost., 1890. Houghton, $1. 
HoGAN, L. E.— How to Feed Children. Ed. 2. 236 p. D. Phil., 1898. 

Lippincott, $1. (Practical Lessons in Nursing.) 
HiippE, Ferdinand.— Principles of Bacteriology. 467 p. D. Chic, Open 

Court Publishing Company. 
Jago, William. — Textbook of the Science and Art of Breadmaking. 648 p. 

O. Lond., 1895. Simpkin, 15s. 
Knight, James. — Food and its Functions. 282 p. D. Lond., 1895. 

Blackie, 2s. 6d. 

Lassar-Cohn.— Chemistry in Daily Life. Translated by M. M. P. Muir. 

324 p. D. Phil., 1898. Lippincott, $1.75. 
LoFTiE, W. J. — A Plea for Art in the House. Phil, JL876. Coats, $1 

(Art at Home Series.) 
Lyon, I. W.— Colonial Furniture of New England ; A Study of the 

Domestic Furniture in use in the 17th and 18th Centuries. Ed. 2. 

285 p., pi. sq. Q. Bost., 1892. Houghton, $10. 
Mason, O. T. — Woman's Share in Primitive Culture. 295 p. D. N. Y.j 

1894. Appleton, $1.75. (Anthropological Series.) 
Mass. Labour Statistics, Bureau of.— Hours of Labour in Domestic 

Service. Bost., 1898. Women's Education and Industrial Union. 
Municipal Affairs.— Vol. 1-date, 0. N. Y., 1897-date. 



334 



U.S.A. — Appendix L. 



NiTSCH, Mrs. H. A. — Ten Dollars En©ugh ; Keeping House well on 
10 Dollars a Week, by C. 0. Ed. 11. 279 p. D. Bost., 1893. 
Houghton, $1. 

Ormsbee, Mrs. Agnes (Bailey).— The House Comfortable. 232 p. S. 

N. Y., 1892. Harper, $1. 
Osborne, C. Francis.— Notes on the Art of House Planning. N. Y., 

1889. Comstock, 5s. 
Parkes, L. C— Hygiene and Public Health. II. 0. Lond., 1889. 

Lewis, 9s. 

Parsons, Samuel, Jr.— How to Plan the Home Grounds. 249 p., il. D. 
N. Y., 1899. Doubleday, $1 net. 

Patten, S. N.— Development of English Thought. 415 p. 0. N. Y., 
1899. Macmillan, $3. 

Plunkett, Mrs. H. M. (Hodge).— Women, Plumbers and Doctors. 248 
p. D. N. Y., 1893. Appleton, Si. 25. 

PooRE, G. v.— Essays on Rural Hygiene. Ed. 2. 372 p., il. D. N. Y., 
1894. Longmans, $2. 

Prudden, T. M.— Dust and its Dangers. Ill p. D. N. Y., 1894. Put- 
nam, 75 cents. 

Story of the Bacteria. 143 p. D. N. Y., 1889. Putnam, 75 

cents. 

Putnam, J. P. — Lectures on the Principles of House Drainage. — 125 p. 

D. Bost., 1886. Ticknor, 75 cents. 
Richards, Mrs. E. H. (Swallow).— Cost of Living. Ed. 1. 121 p. D 

N. Y., 1899. Wiley, $1. 
ed. Plain Words about Food. 176 p. D. Bost., 1899. Home 

Science Publishing Company, $1. (Rumford Kitchen Leaflets.) 
AND Elliott, L. M. — Chemistry of Cooking and Cleaning. 

Ed. 2., 158 p. D. Bost., 1897. Home Science Publishing Company. 

50 cents. 

AND Talbot, Marion. — Home Sanitation. 85 p. S. Bost., 1898. 

Home Science Publishing Company 25 cents. 
AND Woodman,— x\ir, Water, and Food. 225 p. N. Y., Wiley, 

.,$2. 

Richardson, B. W.— Hygiea, a City of Health. 47 p. D. Lond., 1876. 

Macmillan, paper, 25 cents. 
The Health of Nations. Review of Works of Edwin Chadwick. 

2 Vol. O. Lond., 1887. Longmans, 28s. 
Robida, Albert. — " Yester-year " : Ten Centuries of Toilet ; from the 

French by Mrs. Cashel Hoey. 264 p., il. 0. N. Y., 1872. Scribner, 

$2.50. (Also published in London.) 
Salisbury . — Principles of Domestic Taste. 

Salmon, L. M.— Domestic Service. 307 p. 0. N. Y., 1897. Macmillan, 
$2. 

Small, A. B. and Vincent, G. E. — Litroduction to the Study of Society. 

384 p. D. N. Y., 1894. American Book Company, $1.80. 
Smart, William. — Distribution of Income. 341 p. O. N. Y., 1899. 

Macmillan, $1.60 net. 
Snyder, H., Frisby, A. J. and Bryant, A. P. Losses in Boiling 

Vegetables and the Composition of Potatoes and Eggs. 31 p. O. 

Wash., 1897. (U. S.— Experiment Stations, Office of. Bulletin. 

No. 43.) 

— AND Voorhees, L. a. — Studies on Bread and Bread-making. 

51 p. 0. Wash., 1899. (U. S.— Experiment Stations, Office of. 
Bulletin. No. 67.) 

Stackpole, Florence. — Handbook of Housekeeping for Small Incomes. 

439 p. 0. Lond., 1898. W. Scott, 2s. 6d. 
Steele, F. M., and Adams, Mrs. E. L. (Steele).— Beauty of Form and 

Grace of Vesture. 231 p., il. D. N. Y., 1894. Dodd, $1.75. 
Stetson, C. P.— Women and Economics. 340 p. D. Bost., 1898. 

Small, $1.50. ■ ■ 



University of the State of New York. Home Economics Syllabus. 335 

Sykes, J. F.— Public Health Problems. 370 p., il., maps, D. N. Y., 
1892. Scribner, $1.25. (Contemporary Science Series.) 

Thompson, Sir Henry.— Food and Feeding. Ed. 10. 312 p. D. N. Y., 
1899. Warne, $1.75. 

Thudichum, J. L. W.— Spirit of Cookery. 701 p. D. Lond., 1895. 
Warne, $2.25. 

TowNSEND, G. H. — Relation of Foods to Health. 427 p. D. St. Louis, 

1898. Witt Publishing Company. 

Tracy, R. S. — Handbook of Sanitary Information. 114 p. S. N. Y., 

1895. Appleton, 50 cents. 
Treves, Frederick. — The Dress of the Period in its Relation to Heilth. 

32 p. Lond. National Health Society. 
Tyndall, John. — Essays on Floating Matter in the Air. 338 p. D. N Y., 

1882. Appleton, $1.50. 
U.S. — Experiment Stations, Ozfice op.— Cotton Plant. 422 p. O. 

Wash., 1896. (Bulletin. No. 33.) Supplemental Bibliography of 

Cotton, p. 423-33. 
Voorhees, E. B. — Food and Nutrition Livestigation in New Jersey. 

40 p. 0. Wash., 1896. (U. S.— Experiment Stations, Office of. 

Bulletin. No. 35.) 
Wait, C. F. — Nutrition Investigations at University of Tennessee. 46 p. 

O. Wash., 1898. (U. S.— Experiment Stations, Office of. Bulletin. 

No. 53.) 

Waring, G. E.— Report on the Final Disposition of the Wastes of New 

York, 1896. 155 p., il. N. Y. Brown. 
How to Drain a House. Ed. 2. 223 p. S. N. Y., 1895. Va 

Nostrand, $1.25. 

Principles and Practice of House Drainage. 1884. Century 

Magazine, 7:45, 253. 
Sanitary Condition of City and Country Dwelling Houses. Ed. 2. 

130 p. S. N. Y., 1898. Van Nostrand, 50 cents. (Science Series.) 
Sanitary Drainage of Houses and Towns. Ed. 11. 366 p. D. 

Bost., 1876. Houghton, $2. 
Street Cleaning. 230 p., il. D. N. Y., 1898. Doubleday, 

$1.25 net. 

Watson, Mrs. R. M.— Art of the House. 185 p. il. 0. N. Y., 1897. 

Macmillan, $2 net. 
Weber, A. F.— Growth of Cities in the 19th Century. 495 p. 0. N. Y., 

1899. Macmillan, $4. (Columbia University Studies in History, 
Economics, and Public Law. Vol. 11.) 

Wharton, Edith and Codman, Ogden, Jr. — Decoration of Houses. 240 

p., il. 0. N. Y., 1897. Scribner, boards, $4. 
Wheeler, Mrs. Candace. — Household Art. 204 p., nar. S. N. Y., 

1893. Harper, $1. (Distaff Series.) 
Wilkinson, Frederick.— Story of the Cotton Plant. 191 p., il. 9. N Y., 

1899. Appleton, 40 cents. 
Williams, W. M.— Chemistry of Cooking. 328 p. 0. N.Y., 1897. 

Appleton, $1.50. 

Williams, W. M.— Philosophy of Clothing.— 0. Lond., iS90. Laurie, 
4s. 

Woods, C. D.—Mea ts : Composition and Cooking. 29 p. O. Wash. 
1896. (U. S.- Agriculture, Department of. Farmer's Bulletin. No. 
34.) 

Weight, C. D.— Industrial Evolution of the United States. 362 p. D. 

Meadville, Pa., 1897. Flood, $1. 
Wykoff, W. C— Th-3 Silk Goods of America. Ed. 2. 158 p. N. Y., 

1880. Van Nostrand, $1. 
Yeo. I. B.— Food in Health and Disease. 592 p. D. Phil., 1896. Lea. 

$2.50. 



INDEX. 



Admission to Colleges, Schools, and Universities : 
See under respective institutions. 

Ages of School Children : 

Attending Cooking Classes, Toledo Schools, 36, 
For compulsory attendance, 4-5, 23. 
In Kindergartens, 1. 

In Grade Schools, 1, 264. .; 
In Secondary (or High) Schools, 1. 

Pratt Institute High School, 154. 

Providence Manual Training High School, 81, 82. 

Ages of Students : 

In Institutions under State Control : 

Colleges, State Agricultural, Normal, etc., 1, 3, 102, 114, 133. 
Lewis Institute, Chicago, 184. 

Agricultural Colleges, State : 

see Colleges, State Agricultural. 

Agricultural Education : 
Legislation affecting : 

Morrill Acts (1862), The, 2. 

Albany, N.Y. : 

University of the State of New York at, 

see New York State. 
Algebra, Teaching of : 

In Institutions under State Control : 

Brookline High School, Mass., 76. 

Detroit, Michigan Central High School, 94. 

Providence Manual Training High School, App. B., pp. 289, 291. 

Salem State Normal School, 137. 
In Institutions under Private Control : 

Chicago University School of Education, Table XXII., facing p. 161. 

Allen, Miss Lou. C. : 

First College Course in Household Science Organised by, in the " Indus- 
trial " University at Champaign, 107. 

Anatomy, Teaching of : 

In Institutions under State Control : 

Michigan State Agricultural College, 120. 
In Institutions under Private Control : 

Boston Normal School of Gymnastics, 177. 

Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, 213 ; number of hours per week 
devoted to, see Table XXXVII., facing p. 277. 

Ann Arbor High School (State) : 
Domestic Science Course at, 93. 

Anthropology, Teaching of : 

In Institutions under Private Control : 

Lake Erie College for Women, 174. / 
University of Chicago, Department of Sociology and Anthropology 
of, 222, 223. 

Anthropometry, Lectures in : 

At Boston Normal School of Gymnastics, 177. 

6490. Y 



Index. 



Architecture, House, Teaching of : 

In Institutions under State Control : 
Brookline High School, Mass., 78. 
University of Illinois State Agricultural College, 112. 
University of Ohio College of Domestic Science and Agriculture, 116. 
University of the State of New York, Albany, New York, App. L., 
p. 323. 

In Institutions under Private Control : 

Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, Number of hours devoted to. Tables 

XXXI. p. 213, and XXXVII. facing p. 277 ; Synopsis of Course, 

App. F., p. 304. 
Boston Housekeeping School, App. G., p. 315. 
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 196, 200. 

Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York, App. H., p. 317. 

Architecture (Sanitary Aspect of). Teaching of : 
In Technical Institutes under Private Control : 
Bradley Institute, Peoria, Illinois, 180. 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, 187. 

Arithmetic, Teaching of : 

In Institutions under State Control : 
Grade Schools, 1, 6. 

Cleveland Public Grade Schools, 64. 
Lynn Grade Schools, 65. 
Manhattan and the Bronx High Schools, New York City, 101. 
Providence Manual Training High School, App. B., p, 292. 
Salem Normal School, 1 37. 
In Institutions under Private Control : 

Chicago University School of Education, Table XXII. facing p. 151. 
In Summer Schools : 

Chicago University School of Education, 248. 

Armour Institute, Chicago, 3. 

Art, Instruction in : 

Free Lectures in Art, 246. 

In Institutions under State Control : 

Brookline High School, Mass., 76, 78. 

University of Illinois State Agricultural College, 112. 
In Institutions under Private Control : 

Boston Housekeeping School, App. G., p. 316. 

Chicago University Elementary School, 148. 

Chicago University School of Education, Table XXII. facing p. 151. 

Lake Erie College for Women, 172. 

Oread Normal Institute of Domestic Science, 167. 

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 204. 

Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York, 228, 229 ; Out- 
line of Course, App. H., p. 317. 
In Summer Schools : 

Chicago University School of Education, 248. 

Association of CoUege Alumnae, 19, 121. 
Sanitary Science Club of, 238-39. 

Associations : 

Association of College Alumnae, 238-39. 
Illinois Association of Domestic Science, 237-38. 
National Educational Association, 7. 

National Household Economic Association. See National Household 

Economic Association. 
Ohio Federation of Women's Clubs, 18-19. 

Women's Educational and Industrial Union. See Women's Educational 

and Industrial Union. 
Young Women's Christian Association. See Young Women's Christian 

Association. 



Tndfx. 



Astronomy, Teaching of : 

At Chicago University School of Education, Table XXII., facing p. 151. 

In Cleveland Public Grade Schools, 64. 

In Manhattan and the Bronx High Schools, 101. 

Attendance, Compulsory : 

Ages of, 1, 4-5, 23. 

Aubumdale, Mass. : 

Lassell's Seminary, 9-10. 

Bachelor of Arts Degree : See Degrees. 

Bachelor of Science Degree : See Degrees. 

Bacteriology, Teaching of : ' 
In Institutions under State Control : 
Brookline, Mass., High School, 79. 
Detroit Central High School, 96. 

Pramingham State Normal School, number of hours per week 

devoted to, 127-28, Table XXXVII. facing p. 277. 
Hackley Manual High School, 86. 
Providence Manual Training High School, 83. 
State University of Michigan, 124. 
University of Illinois State Agricultural College, 112. 
University of Ohio, College of Domestic Science and Agriculture, 116. 
In Institutions under Private Control : 

Boston Housekeeping School, App. G., p. 314. 
Bradley Institute, Peoria, Illinois, 180. 

Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, App. F., pp. 308, 309 ; number 
of hours per week devoted to, 213 ; Table XXXVII. 

Lake Erie College for Women, 172. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, 187. 
- Oread Normal Institute of Domestic Science, number of hours 
per week devoted to, 167. 

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 196, 197, 200, 203; number of hours 
per week devoted to, Table XXXVII. 

Simmons Female College, Boston, 219. 

Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York, optional, 233. 
University of Chicago, 222, 223. 
In Summer Schools : 

Chautauqua Summer School of Domestic Science, 247, App. J., 
p. 320. 

See also Biology, Teaching of. 

Basketry, Teaching of: 

In Institutions under State Control : 

Providence Manual Training High School, 83, App. B., p. 289. 
In Institutions under Private Control : 

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 191, 195, 197, 200, 204. 
Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York, 227-28. 
Report of Lake Placid Conference of Teachers of Household Economics 
in regard to, 13, 16. 

Battersea Polytechnic : 

Table XXXVII. shewing number of hours devoted to each subject in the 
Normal Training Courses of the Training School of Domestic Economy 
of the, facing p. 277. 

Bentley, Miss Luetta : 

Courses in Hygiene and Physiology given by, at Lake Erie College for 
Women, 174-75. 

Bevier, Miss Isabel : 

Professor of Household Science, Univei-sity of llhnois, 110, 111, 113. 



6490. 



840 



Index. 



Bible, Study of : 

At Lake Erie College for Women, 172. 

Bibliography of Domestic Science : 
See App. L., pp. 331-35. 

Biology, Teaching of : 

In Institutions under State Control : 
Ann Arbor High School, 93. 

Brookline High School, Massachusetts, 76, 78, 79. 
Cleveland (Ohio) High Schools, 94. 
Detroit Central High School, 99. 

Framingham State Normal School, number of hours per week 

devoted to 128, Table XXXVII., iacing p. 277. 
Hackley Manual High School, 86. 
Hyannis State Normal School, 138. 

Manhattan and the Bronx High Schools, New York City, 101. 
Salem, Mass., Normal School, 136, 137. 
In Institutions under Private control : 

Bradley Institute, Peoria, Illinois, 180. 

Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, 213, App. F., p. 309 ; number of 
hours per week devoted to, see Table XXXVIL 

Horace Mann School, New York City, 166. 

Lake Erie College for Women, 172. 

Lewis Institute, Chicago, 184, 186. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, 187. 

Pratt Institute High School, Brooklyn, 159. 

Simmons Female College, Boston, 219. 

Teachers' College, Columbia University, 232. 

Vassar College, 216. 
In Summer Schools : 

Chicago University School of Education, 248. 
See also Bacteriology, Teaching of ; Botany, Teaching of ; Zoology, 
Teaching of. 

Blackboard, use of : 

At Cookery and Sewing Classes, 36, 46. 

Blind Children : 

Instruction of, in Domestic Science Subjects, 265. 

Bloomington, State University of Indiana at : 
Course of Hygiene at, 123, 125. 

Boards of Education : 

Election Powers, and Duties of, 5. 

Book-keeping, Teaching of : | 
In Institutions under State Control : .. 
Brookline, Mass., High School, 76. 

Providence Manual Training High School, 83, App. B., p. 289. 

Boston (Mass.) : 

Cooking School : 

Admission to, requirements for, 170. 

Fees for Courses at, 170. 

Normal Course at, scope of, 169-70. 
Grade Schools, 47-49 ; Hygiene Courses in, 56. 
High Schools : 

Household Science Courses in, 164., App. D. 
Home Economics Exhibition at, 238-39. 
Louisa M. Alcott Gub, 243. 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology : 

Course a!, 187-88. 

Study of Sanitary Aspects of various Professions in, 187. 



Index, 



341 



Boston (Mass.) : — continued. 

Normal School of Gymnastics : 
Aims of, 176. 
Founded 1889, 175. 

Nature and Scope of Course at, 17G, 178-79. 
Table of Course at, 177. 
School of Housekeeping, 220-21 ; Synopsis of Course at, App. G., pp. 

314-16. 
Simmons Female College : 

Course in Household Economics at, 217-20. 
Young Women's Christian Association : 

Lessons on the " Kitchen Garden " for Primary School Children 
given by, 243. 

Botany, Teaching of : 

In Institutions under State Control : 

Cleveland Public Grade Schools, 64. 
Detroit Central High School, 96. 
Hackley Manual High School, 86. 

Providence Manual Training High School, 82, 83, App. B., p. 291. 

Salem State Normal School, 137. 

University of Illinois State Agricultural College, 112. 

University of Ohio College of Domestic Science and Agriculture, 116. 
In Institutions under Private Control : 

Chicago University Elementary School, 148. 

Teachers' College, Columbia University, 233. 
In Summer Schools : 

Chautauqua School of Domestic Science, 245, App. J., pp. 319-20. 
See also Biology. 

Bowman, Miss Perla : 

Organisation of Course in Hygiene and Household Economics at the 
Ohio State University by, 114. 

Bradley Institute, Peoria, Illinois : 

Sanitary Science Course at, 180-81. 

Brookline (Mass.) : 
High School : 

General Course at, 76, 77. 

Domestic Science Course at 77, 78, 79-81. 

Brooklyn, N.Y. : 

Institute of Arts and Sciences, 185, 186, 187. 
Pratt Institute (established 1887) : 

Admission to, requirements for, 190, 197, 198, 200. 
Aims of, 189-90. 

Diplomas and Certificates granted on Courses at, 190. 

Domestic Science Courses (Normal Technical, and General) at, 

3, 109, 196-207. 
Dressmaking Course at, 193-94, App. E. 
Kindergarten Course of, 191. 

Number of hours devoted to each subject of Normal Courses in 

Domestic Science and Art at, Table XXXVII., facing p. 277. 
Plan of Domestic Science Department of, 199. 
Pratt Institute High School : 

Curriculum, General, of, 154-56. 
Domestic Science Course at, 156-61. 

Bruce, 0. : 

Superintendent of Lynn Schools, 67. 

Bryn Mawr College : 

Physical Cnlt\irc Teaching at, 217. 



342 



Index. 



Buffalo : 

Grade Schools : 

Domestic Hygiene Teaching at, 56. 
Manual Training in, 46 (note). 
Bureau of Education, Washington, 4. 

Butler, Dr. Murray : 

His views on Education as a Social Institution, 7. 
California : 

Leland Stanford Junior University 3. 

Campbell, Miss Matilda; 

Syllabus in Cookery, in New York Classes, drawn up by, 37 
Care of Infants, Instruction in : 

In Institutions under State Control, 71-72. 

See also Infants, Feeding of. 
Carman, Dr. George. 

Principal of Lewis Institute, Chicago, 185. 
Carpentry, Teaching of : 

In Institutions under State Control : 

New York City Schools, number of hours assigned to, 36. 
Providence Manual Training High School, 82, App. B., p. 289. 

" Centre " System of Cookery Classes, 25-26. 

Certificates : 

For Teachers of Cooking (New York City State Schools), 35-36. 
See also Diplomas. 
Chambers, Mrs. : 

Directress of Cookery Classes, Pratt Instit